COLLECTIVE RIGHTS
CHAPTER 4
COLLECTIVE RIGHTS
CHAPTER 4
QUIZ – TAKE HOME ; DUE FRIDAY
THOUGHT
EXPERIMENT
What if all other provinces spoke French
All business transactions, bosses…
Education….
And yet the language of the majority was
different?
PROLOGUE
• 1960s QUIET REVOLUTION
• Economic nationalism
• Pride in French Language
• 1961 – Tommy Douglas, Saskatewan Premier,
passes Medical Care Act
• Becomes leader of NDP in 1961
• 1966 Canada passed Medical Care Act
• TRUDEAU’S EARLY YEARS
• JUSTICE MINISTER 1967 for Lester B. Pearson
• Liberalized homosexual, abortion and lottery laws
• Against Quebec Nationalism, for Canadian Federalism >
TRUDEAUMANIA
1968 Election
• First televised National
Debate (English only)
• Pierre Elliot Trudeau
wins, win a “mandate
for national unity”
TRUDEAU & the 1969 White Paper
• Federalism
• 1969 White Paper on Indian
Policy
• Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and
• Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean
Chrétien
• unveiled a policy paper that
proposed ending the special legal
relationship between Aboriginal
peoples and the Canadian state and
dismantling the Indian Act.
TRUDEAU: 1968-79, 1980-84
• Federalism
• 1969 Official Language Act
• Official Languages Act (1969), federal statute that
declares French and English to be the official
languages of Canada, and under which all federal
institutions must provide their services in English
or French at the customer's choice.
TRUDEAU: 1968-79, 1980-84
• 1969 Official Language Act
• Reaction:
• English Canada, especially out
West, is not exactly
bilingual….the federalist vision is
questioned
RESULT OF 1970 OCTOBER CRISIS
• Separatist movement seeks
change via political means
• Violence is condemned
• Disassociation with radicals
• Association with labour
• Social-democrat & separatists
• Quebec nationalism rising
• Other parts of Canada cautious about
gov’t
1972 Election - CANADA
• 1972 Trudeau wins,
but loses the majority
• Tommy Douglas steps
down from NDP party
leadership, but stays in
gov’t until 1979
• Trudeau Forms a minority
gov’t with support of the
NDP
1972 Election - USA
• 1972 Nixon wins over Mc
Govern
• Found to abuse & intimidate
opponents by using CIA, FBI,
IRS, concealed tapes –
“watergate scandal”
• Corruption is widespread, 69
people are charged
• Resigns in 1974
1974 – BOURASSA & BILL 22
• BILL 22
• made French the
language of civic
administration and
services, and of the
workplace.
1976 Québec election
• Anglophone and ethnic groups
thought the language tests
imposed by the law were unjust
• Bourassa Calls an election
• René Lévesque & the Parti
Québécois sweep Quebec
• ..much to the consternation of
Trudeau’s aims for a bilingual,
united country
1979 Election: Tories take it
• Liberals are under fire:
Canadian labour economy
is stalled
• Unemployment
• Inflation
• Liberals lose the election
and Trudeau resigns
• Joe Clark is youngest PM
in Canadian history, just 39
…but not for long
• Minority government,
unsupported by NDP
• Privatization of Petro-Canada,
mortage tax credit, and
austerity financing platform
• Vote of non-confidence in
the budget topples the
government in March 1980
• Government in power only 7
months….
TRUDEAU:1980-84
•1980 Trudeau
wins a majority
government
• Reminds people of
Canadian federalism
just in time for…
1980 Québec Referendum
• Lévesque promises a
vote for Québec to
secede from Canada
• 3.7 million ppl vote, 85%
turnout
• NO/ NON – 59%
• YES/OUI – 40%
TRUDEAU & The Charter 1982
• Trudeau talks about a new
constitution for Canada, completely
free of Britain
• Talks dominate politics 1981-1982
• 1982 Charter of Rights and
Freedoms
• Official Languages
• Minority Language Rights
• Language Education Rights
Jean Chrétien, Justice Minister,
helps to craft the Charter
**LEVESQUE DOES NOT SIGN**
Dancing Around the Table
• The Trudeau government
pledged to hold constitutional
conferences on the issue of
Aboriginal rights
• following the repatriation of the
Constitution.
• The conferences that took place
between 1983 and 1985
• “loud, noisy, and vulgar”
1984 – Resignation & Election
• Trudeau steps down after a
decade of economic turmoil
• “this is the first day of the rest
of my life”
• FIRST FRENCH TV
DEBATE
• Tories take power
• Brian Mulroney is PM
• GST, FTA, NAFTA
• $olution is the global market
1987 Meech Lake Accord
• Mulroney tries to get Québec to sign Constitution with
these revisions:
• Distinct Society
• The Accord recognized the province of Québec
as a distinct society within Canada. At the same
time, it recognized as fundamental characteristics
of Canada both the anglophone minority in
Québec, and the francophone minority
elsewhere.
1987 Meech Lake Accord
• Mulroney tries to get Québec to sign Constitution with
these revisions:
• Increased Provincial Powers
• Can opt out of federal programs if there is a
provincial equivalent
• Nominate people to Senate & Supreme Court
• joint or parallel jurisdiction over immigration
• Pierre Trudeau comes out of retirement to lead
the attack on the Accord, accusing Mulroney of
having "sold out" to the provinces.
1987 Meech Lake Accord
• Had to be signed by all 10 premiers
within 3 years
• Manitoba and Newfoundland & Labrador
do not sign
• Meech Lake Accord Fails
• Québec is re-offended
• Nationalism starts up again
• Le Bloc Québécois is formed to
advocate for Québéc in federal politics
1993 Election
Bloc Québécois sweeps federal polls,
winning 54 out of 75 seats
• Gilles Duceppe is leader
• Le
Mulroney is accused of selling out
Canada to America
Kim Campbell is PM for a few months
• Jean Chrétien is Prime Minister
1995 Québec Referendum
• Vote for Québec to secede from Canada
• VERY CLOSE:
• No/Non – 50.58%
• 1998 Supreme Court ruled against
unilateral province secession –
negotiations instead
• Chrétien embroiled in Sponsorship scandal
– gov’t $pending on the NO vote, $ going to
liberal party, all sorts of $ problems in
Quebec
1997 – Calgary Declaration
• Chrétien makes a motion to recognize distinct
society - anywhere
• “The Calgary Declaration, which was presented for
discussion in 1997 by all the provincial premiers
except Québec’s, recognized the unique character
of Québec society
• but added the condition that all the provinces
would be equal and would receive whatever was
given to Québec by virtue of the interpretation of
the “distinct society” clause.
• All the provincial legislatures adopted the Calgary
Declaration except Québec’s National Assembly.”
Epilogue
• Chrétien cuts the deficit and federal spending to the
provinces
• Says NO TO IRAQ
• Re-elected three terms
• Brought down by the inside – people supported Paul
Martin, the Finance Minister, instead
Epilogue
• 2003 Chrétien steps down, Paul Martin is elected PM
• Liberal brand tainted by scandal, lack-lustre
• 2008 – Harper with majority is elected, Bloc has 49
seats – $olution is global
• 2011 – Harper with minority, Bloc is destroyed with 4
seats, Liberals only 33
• Jack Layton’s NDP sweeps Québéc
• NDP is the Official Opposition
• Jack Layton RIP 2011
Justin Trudeau is Liberal leader
ELECTION: 2015
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