Chapter 23
Politics, Power, and Violence
Kinds Of Political Systems
Uncentralized systems
– Bands
– Tribes
• Centralized systems
– Chiefdoms
– States
•
Types Of Political
Organization: Membership
Membership
Number of people
Settlement pattern
Band
Dozens and up
Mobile
Tribe
Hundreds and up
Chiefdom
Thousands and up
State
Tens of thousands
and up
Mobile or fixed: 1 or
more villages
Fixed: 1 or more
villages
Fixed: Many villages
and cities
Types Of Political Organization:
Membership
Membership
Basis of relationships
Ethnicities and
languages
Band
Kin
1
Tribe
Kin, descent groups
1
Chiefdom
Kin, rank and
residence
1
State
Class and residence
1 or more
Types Of Political
Organization: Government
Membership
Decision making,
leadership
Bureaucracy
Band
“Egalitarian”
None
Tribe
Chiefdom
State
Egalitarian” or BigMan
Centralized,
hereditary
None, or 1 or 2
levels
Centralized
Many levels
None
Types Of Political
Organization: Government
Membership
Conflict resolution
Hierarchy of
settlement
Band
Informal
No
Tribe
Informal
No
Chiefdom
Centralized
No Paramount
village or head town
State
Laws, judges
Capital
Types Of Political
Organization: Economy
Membership
Division of labor
Exchanges
Exchanges
Band
No
Reciprocal
Tribe
No
Reciprocal
No -> Yes
Redistributive
(“tribute”)
Yes
Redistributive
(“taxes”)
Chiefdom
State
Types Of Political
Organization: Society
Membership
Stratified
Slavery
Band
No
No
Tribe
No
No
Chiefdom
State
Yes, ranked by
kin
Yes, by class or
caste
Some small-scale
Some large-scale
Types Of Political
Organization: Society
Membership
Luxury goods
for elite
Indigenous literacy
Band
No
No
Tribe
No
No
Chiefdom
Yes
No ->Some
State
Yes
Often
Bands
Small group of politically independent, though
related, households.
• The least complicated form of political
organization.
• Found among nomadic societies.
• Small, numbering at most a few hundred
people.
•
Bands
No need for formal political systems.
• Decisions are made with the participation of
adult members, with an emphasis on
achieving consensus.
• Those unable to get along with others of their
group move to another group where kinship
ties give them rights of entry.
•
Tribes
Tribes consist of small, autonomous local
communities, which form alliances for various
purposes.
• Economy based on crop cultivation or
herding.
• Population densities generally exceed 1
person per square mile.
• Leadership among tribes is informal.
•
Tribes
•
Shown here is a
meeting of the Navajo
Tribal Council, a
nontraditional governing
body created in
response to
requirements set by the
U.S. government in
order for the Navajo to
exercise national
sovereignty.
The Big Man
•
This Big Man from New
Guinea is wearing his
official regalia.
Question
•
Bands and tribes are both
A. centralized.
B. associated with industrialism.
C. dependent on age groups for political
organization.
D. uncentralized and egalitarian.
E. hierarchical in social organization.
Answer: D
•
Bands and tribes are both uncentralized and
egalitarian.
Question
•
In the band, disputes are settled informally
through ___________
A. gossip.
B. ridicule.
C. direct negotiation.
D. mediation.
E. all of these choices
Answer: E
•
In the band, disputes are settled informally
through gossip, ridicule, direct negotiation
and mediation.
Question
•
The form of social organization typical of huntergatherers is the _________, whereas horticulture
and pastoralism are usually associated with the form
of social organization called the _________.
A. tribe/chiefdom
B. tribe/state
C. tribe/band
D. band/chiefdom
E. band/tribe
Answer: E
•
The form of social organization typical of
hunter-gatherers is the band, whereas
horticulture and pastoralism are usually
associated with the form of social
organization called the tribe.
Chiefdoms
The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy
of people.
• The office of the chief is usually for life and
often hereditary.
• The chief’s authority serves to unite his
people in all affairs and at all times.
• Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take
power from higher ranking chiefs.
•
Chiefdoms
•
•
A Kpelle town chief in
Liberia, West Africa,
listens to a dispute in
his district.
Settling disputes is one
of several ongoing
traditional tasks that fall
to paramount chiefs
among Kpelle people.
State
The most formal of political organizations.
• Political power is centralized in a government,
which may use force to regulate the affairs of
its citizens and its relations with other states.
• Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago,
states have shown a tendency toward
instability and transience.
•
A Nation without a State
•
The Kurds, most of
whom live in Iran, Iraq,
and Turkey, are an
example of a nation
without a state.
Political Leadership and
Gender
Women have enjoyed political equality with men
in a number of societies:
• Iroquoian tribes of New York State - men held
office at the pleasure of women, who
appointed them and could remove them.
• Igbo of Nigeria - women held positions that
paralleled and balanced that of the men.
Visual Counterpoint
•
Iran and Great Britain permit a closer relationship between
political and religious affairs. Shiite Muslim religious leader
Ayatollah Khamenei is Iran’s supreme spiritual leader and his
country’s highest political authority. In England, Queen Elizabeth
is her country’s nominal head of state and head of the Anglican
Church.
Gender and Politics
•
•
Liberian President Ellen
Johnson Sirleaf inspects
members of the Liberian
police after taking the
presidential oath in January
2006.
The first female president on
the African continent, Sirleaf
is a Harvard-educated
economist who took the
world by surprise when she
won the head office in her
war-torn and povertystricken country.
Internalized Controls
Self-imposed by individuals.
• Rely on such deterrents as shame, fear of
divine punishment, and magical retaliation.
• Although bands and tribes rely heavily upon
them, they are generally insufficient by
themselves.
•
Externalized Controls
Mix cultural and social control.
• Positive sanctions reward appropriate
behavior.
• Negative sanctions punish behavior.
•
Formal Sanctions
•
Formal sanctions may involve some form of regulated
combat, seen here as armed dancers near Mount
Hagen in New Guinea demand redress for murder.
Functions of Law
Defines relationships among a society’s
members and behavior under different
circumstances.
• Allocates authority to employ coercion to
enforce sanctions.
• Redefines social relations and aids its own
efficient operation by ensuring it allows
change.
•
Settling Disputes
•
A dispute may be settled in two ways:
1. Negotiation - the parties to the dispute
reach an agreement with or without the
help of a third party.
2. Adjudication - An authorized third party
issues a binding decision.
Song Duels
•
Having a song duel is the traditional approach to
dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern
Canada.
Question
•
A method of resolving disputes in which the
disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a
mutually satisfactory agreement is called
A. negotiation.
B. mediation.
C. adjudication.
D. use of sanctions.
E. law.
Answer: A
•
A method of resolving disputes in which the
disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a
mutually satisfactory agreement is called
negotiation.
Question
•
In _____________, two parties present their
grievances, but do not take part in the
resolution of the dispute.
A. deception.
B. the development of a court system.
C. negotiation.
D. mediation.
E. adjudication.
Answer: E
•
In adjudication, two parties present their
grievances, but do not take part in the
resolution of the dispute.
Visual Counterpoint
•
A display of human skulls commemorate victory over enemies
on this stone wall in the ancient Maya city of Chichen Itza in
southeastern Mexico. A display may also serve as a monument
of violence as in this Cambodian map made of skulls belonging
to victims of the Khmer Rouge regime that claimed the lives of
1.7 million innocent Cambodians in the 1970s.
Child Soldiers
•
Today, there are more than 250,000 child soldiers,
many as young as 12 years old. Among them are
these boys training to be guerrillas in Sahel, Eritrea.
Warfare in Multinational States
Descargar

Part 7 The Search For Order: Solving The Problem Of …