Satellite
View
Satellite
View
at night
The Nile
World’s Longest River
The Congo River Basin
Covers 12% of the
continent.
Extends over 9
countries.
2,720 miles long.
99% of the country
of Democratic
Republic of the
Congo is in the
Congo River basin.
The Niger River Basin
Covers 7.5% of the continent.
Extends over 10 countries.
2,600 miles long.
Great Rift Valley
3,000 miles long
Home of “Lucy”
Mt. Kilimanjaro:
Snow at the Equator?
The
Tropical
Continent
Tropic of Cancer
20° N
Equator 0°
Tropic of Capricorn
20° S
Rain Forest
Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft.
Rapid decomposition (very humid).
Covers 37 countries.
15% of the land surface of Africa.
African Trade Winds
West Africa:
Home of our Hurricanes
The Horn
of Africa
Somali Peninsula
The Sahara Desert
The Sahel
The Serengeti:
Natural Wonder of the World
Natural Resources
Review from Ch. 2 Beginnings of Civilization
Most anthropologists believe…
Homo sapiens ( “wise man”) originated in the
African savanna between 100,000 and 250,000
years ago
Oldest remains found in the Horn of Africa, near
modern-day Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
descended from Homo erectus (“upright man”)
colonized Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years ago
colonized the Americas by 10,000 years ago
Beginnings of Civilization
Domestication of livestock
+/- 10,000 years ago
Cows were highly valued
(more than gold)
Domestication of agriculture (crops)
+/- 8,000 years ago
Iron working technologies
+/- 4,500 years ago
1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes
Family Structure”
1. Nuclear Family
2. Extended Family
3. Age-Set
4. Clan
5. Lineage (Ancestry)
TRIBE (communal living)
Traditional Family Structures
Nuclear Family:
C
C
H
W
C
Extended Family:
U
GP
C
C
W
Cs
H
C
GP
Cs
A
Age Sets:
People born two to three years
apart; formed bonds together
Africa : Tribe :: America : Ethnic Group?
Benefits of Tribal Life
1. The good of the group comes ahead of the
good of the individual.
2. All land is owned by the group.
3. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group.
4. Protection from enemies.
5. Your tribe is a huge family.
6. Everything is shared.
Problems of Tribalism Today
1. The tribe is more important than the nation.
2. Communication problems.
3. Inter-tribal warfare --> civil wars.
4. Members favored for gov’t jobs  Nepotism
5.
Urbanization:
Breaks down tribal
traditions.
Tribal intermingling on
the job.
Traditional African Religion
ANIMISM
1. one Supreme Being.
2. world of spirits (good & bad) in all things.
3. ancestor worship.
4. magic, charms, fetishes, and nature spirits (god
of the mountain, etc).
5. Diviner / Shaman  fortune teller; mediator
between tribe and God.
Which civilization(s) we studied earlier
have similar religious beliefs ???
African Diviner (Shaman)
•African
Spirituals had a
strong influence
on the
development of
Southern Baptists
and other
Evangelical
Christians of ‘The
Old South’.
Tribal Shaman
Spiritual Baptist
World of the Spirits
Dogon “Spirit House”
Mask With Headcloth
Zaire (19th century)
Kisokolo Initiation Costume
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Woman & Child
Congo
Family Group
Tanzania
Ancestors
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Ancient Africa