Higher Education Differentiation:
Nelson Mandela Metro University
Nico Cloete
January2012
Complimentary but disconnected discourses
1. DHET
a) Should have combined with DST
b) Shocked by Charles finding of 3 million NEET’s and have
become besotted with FET and training
c) In Ministers budget speech referred to research on page 12
and never used knowledge economy and Africa, not to
mention the globe (a local communist)
2. DST
b) Opening line knowledge economy and global competitive
c) Presses all the knowledge production buttons
d) Never spoke to DHET advisor
2
Differentiation (NPC) (1) Functions of HE
Higher education is the major driver of the information-knowledge
system, linking it with economic development...Universities are
key to developing a nation. They play three main functions in
society. Firstly, they educate and train people with high-level
skills for the employment needs of the public and private
sectors.
3
Secondly, universities are the dominant producers of new
knowledge, and they critique information and find new local
and global applications for existing knowledge. Universities also
set norms and standards, determine the curriculum, languages
and knowledge, ethics and philosophy underpinning a nation's
knowledge-capital. South Africa needs knowledge that equips
people for a society in constant social change
Differentiation (NPC) (2) Functions
"Thirdly, given the country's apartheid history, higher education
provides opportunities for social mobility and simultaneously
strengthens equity, social justice and democracy. In today's
knowledge society, higher education underpinned by a strong
science and technology innovation system is increasingly
important in opening up people's opportunities." (p262)
For the first time knowledge production and equity are linked by
stating that "high quality knowledge production cannot be fully
realized with a low student participation rate" (p274).
4
Also universities are not mainly fro individual mobility or for
equity redress - equity is mentioned last and transformation
not once
Differentiation (NPC) Knowledge
The NPC is so enthusiastic about knowledge that it declares that
"knowledge production is the rationale of higher education"
(p271) - indeed a radical departure from the traditional
'rationale' of higher education in Africa, that is, disseminating
(teaching) knowledge from somewhere else.
Description of SA system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
Medium knowledge producing
Insufficient skills producing
Low participation and high attrition
Differentiated.
NPC Knowledge Policies
1. the notion of knowledge production consists of a combination of
PhD education and research output.
2. a target of tripling the number of doctoral gradates from 1,420 to
5,000 per annum, and increasing the proportion of academic staff
with PhDs from 34% to 75%
3. a number of world-class centres and programmes should be
developed within the national system of innovation and the higher
education sector.
4. a new future scholars programme needs to be developed, both to
increase the proportion of staff with PhDs and to meet the
increasing demand for professional PhDs in the non-university
research, financial and services sectors
5. role of science councils should be reviewed in light of the worldwide tendency to align, or merge, research councils with universities
6
NPC Differentiation (1)
"South Africa needs to strengthen research excellence through
performance-based grants. More weight should be given to building
departments, and centers or networks of excellence. Given that
performance-based grants can entrench historical privilege and
disadvantage, capacity-building grants should be provided with clear
targets for improvement in five-year intervals.
7
"...progressive differentiation requires that all higher education
institutions provide high quality education and skills training,
underpinned by common standards for student facilities, libraries,
laboratories, computer access and staff qualifications. Adequate
resourcing will be needed to enable historically disadvantaged
institutions to achieve these standards and overcome historical
backlogs." (p291)
NPC Differentiation (2)
1. deals with the worldwide policy debate about the
concentration of resources by proposing world-class centers
and programmes across institutions
2. advises the Ministerial Committee for the Review of the
Funding of Universities that such revisions should be based on
the needs of a differentiated system with adequate provision
for both teaching and research
3. requires flexible pathways for student mobility between
institutions
4. the Higher Education Quality Committee should finally start
developing a core set of quality indicators for the whole
system;
8
NPC Differentiation (3)
5. Should be guided by evidence-based planning and performance
monitoring which will require maintaining and strengthening
the current Higher Education Management Information System
and the additional capacity to analyze national trends and
changes between and among institutions and institutional
groups.
9
DHET Green Paper (1)
History/diagnosis
1. Diverse system steeped in inequality
2. Leading universities internationally respected, HBU’s mired in
constraints
3. Univ of Technology, and Comprehensives mission drift losing
focus of their mission to produce technologists mid level
undergraduate skills
4. low success, low throughput at under-graduate
5. too few post graduate, particularly Phd
6. Aging academic staff and shortages in scarce skills areas
7. Lack of coherence and articulation
10
DHET Green Paper (2)
Research and innovation
1. Economic depends on innovation and technology absorption
2. While investment in research has tripled, there has not been a
commensurate increase in personnel
3. Total knowledge output has increased 64% (2000-2009) but the
system must become more productive
4. Poverty is a significant constraint on masters and Phd studies –
students under pressure to obtain jobs??
5. Drastically increase number and quality of masters and PhD’s
6. Need for increased coordination between DHET and DST
7. Caliber and workload of academic staff must be addressed
8. Long term plan for renewing the academic profession doctorates for academics and professions
11
DHET Green Paper (3) : Differentiation
12
1. Differentiation must take cognizance of historical inequalities,
existing institutional types, and a few relatively research
intensive universities responsible for most of the post
graduates and cutting edge research. Their needs must not
divert resources from all the universities, particularly poorer
ones - all must have sufficient resources to be effective
institutions
2. Because of the high unit value per research output , funding
framework is biased towards rewarding research at the
expense of teaching–
3. High increase in research output by advantaged universities
who have the means to “chase” research. The rigidity of the
funding system discourage implementation of flexible curricula
like 4 year undergraduates (p46)
DHET Green Paper (4) : Differentiation
1. No further categorization of institutions
2. All institutions must have a clearly defined mandate
3. Undergraduate/post graduate and
academic/professional/vocational equally important
4. Mix and level of programmes not fixed
5. All must offer high quality undergraduate programmes
6. University system must interface with PSE (Fet, colleges)
7. Funding regime must do justice to current institutional
realities, and accept need for redress (development)
8. Funding for agreed upon outputs
13
Differentiation Principles
1. The most important principle is that the country needs the entire spectrum
of institutions for socio-economic development
2. Mix and level of programmes of any institution should not be cast in stone institutions must identify and enhance their strengths
3. All universities in South Africa must offer a quality undergraduate education
4. Reward equally the different roles of higher education in South African
society, namely teaching and learning, community involvement, as well as
research
5. A national plan should be developed in tandem with differentiation –
coordination and a human development plan
6. Manuel Castells argued at Chet book launch that each country needs at least
one or two institutions that sets the national benchmark, not only for
research but also for student and academic aspirations, and in the popular
imagination; otherwise the entire system ‘wallows in similar mediocrity’
14
Commonalities between NPC and DHET
1. No new types of institutions, no world class (Norwegian janus
faced protestant hypocrisy) – DHET “all over the world there are
universities with a predominant teaching mission”
2. Knowledge production (PhD and research output must increase
– different counts of research outputs)
3. Big focus on doctorate – for academics (target more than 60%),
professions research councils and other sectors (finance)
4. Good quality undergraduate education – including
infrastructure funds for labs, libraries, housing
5. Improvement of through put – efficiency
6. Dramatic increase in participation rate – mainly in FET
7. Mission and profile differentiation
15
D: ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES
17 The slides which follow summarise the academic programme framework within
which the SA higher education system is expected to operate. The summary is
based on the current categories of (a) universities, (b) comprehensive universities,
and (c) universities of technology.
18 Two preliminary points to note are:
•
key components of academic programmes are, for these purposes, students
registered for qualifications within major fields of study
•
qualifications can be grouped either (a) by type: general formative or professional
or career-focused, or (b) by level : undergraduate or postgraduate.
19 The analyses which follow will use both the qualification type and qualification
level categories.
17
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
20 General formative qualifications: all degrees, diplomas and certificates
awarded at all levels in these major fields of study:
•
CESM 03: visual & performing arts
•
CESM 12: languages & literature
•
CESM 15: life & physical sciences
•
CESM 16: mathematical sciences
•
CESM 18: philosophy & religion
•
CESM 20: psychology
•
CESM 22: social sciences
18
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
21
Professional qualifications: all 4-year or more bachelors degrees,
postgraduate diplomas in case of education only, all honours, masters and
doctoral degrees in these CESM categories:
•
CESM 01: agriculture
•
CESM 02: architecture, building science and planning
•
CESM 04: business and management
•
CESM 05: communications
•
CESM 06 computer science
•
CESM 07 education
•
CESM 08 engineering
•
•
•
19
;,
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
•
CESM 09: health sciences & services
•
CESM 10: home economics
•
CESM 11: industrial arts
•
CESM 13: law
•
CESM 14: librarianship;
•
CESM 19: physical education
•
CESM 21: public administration & social services
22 Career-focused qualifications: all undergraduate certificates and diplomas, 3year bachelors degrees, and postgraduate diplomas( other than education) in the
CESM categories listed in paragraph 5 above.
20
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
23 The institutions in the three categories are:
Universities of technology:
CPUT, CUT, DUT, TUT, VUT, MUT
Comprehensive universities:
UJ, NMMU, Unisa, Unizul, Univen, WSU
Universities:
UCT, Fort Hare, Free State, UKZN, Limpopo, NWU, Pretoria, Rhodes,
Stellenbosch, UWC, Wits
24 The 8 case study institutions are:
UCT, Fort Hare, UKZN, NWU, UWC, Wits, NMMU, TUT
21
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
25 Graph 15 summarises the HE system’s 2009 student enrolment within the three
categories of institution and the qualification types defined earlier
Graph 15
Student enrolments by qualification type: 2009
120%
100%
32%
80%
60%
72%
59%
40%
40%
25%
20%
0%
20%
8%
Universities of technology
General formative
28%
16%
Comprehensives
Professional
Universities
Career focused
22
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
26 Graph 16 summarises the 2009 student enrolments of the 6 universities of
technology within the qualification types defined earlier.
Graph 16
University of technology enrolments by qualification
type: 2009
120%
100%
80%
60%
61%
63%
71%
74%
79%
96%
40%
20%
0%
23%
16%
CUT
30%
7%
20%
9%
20%
6%
11%
10%
2%
CPUT
TUT
DUT
VUT
MUT
Ge ne ral form ative
Profe s s ional
Care e r focus e d
23
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
27 Graph 17 summarises the 2009 student enrolments of the 6 comprehensive
universities within the qualification types defined earlier.
Graph 17 Comprehensive university enrolments by qualification
type: 2009
120%
100%
80%
60%
32%
36%
40%
20%
33%
45%
35%
60%
61%
61%
23%
23%
24%
47%
32%
23%
18%
17%
16%
15%
Univen
Unizul
NMMU
UJ
WSU
UNISA
0%
General formative
Professional
Career focused
24
Programme Distribution: General Formative- Professional- Career
2008 - Traditional Universities
2008 - Comprehensive Universities
100%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
54%
46%
47%
34%
44%
47%
47%
46%
46%
69%
24%
49%
24%
47%
48%
44%
RU
US
39.3%
42.1%
29.1%
22.1%
38.6%
30%
8%
8%
13%
17%
5%
7%
UCT
WITS
UFH
UWC
UL
UKZN
Career-Focused
Professional
19%
24%
UP
35.7%
21.5%
15.3%
43.7%
66.2%
52.0%
20%
35.2%
46.1%
51.7%
UJ
NMMU
10%
0%
UFS
12.3%
26.1%
60%
40%
35%
48%
10%
0%
39%
37%
46%
7%
80%
50%
43%
40%
30%
90%
70%
50%
20%
28%
NWU
6.0%
UNIVEN
UZ
Career-Focused
General Formative
UNISA
Professional
WSU
General Formative
2008 - Comprehensive Universities
100%
1.7%
9.9%
90%
18.4%
17.5%
81.6%
82.5%
25.5%
18.9%
74.5%
77.0%
80%
70%
60%
50%
98.3%
40%
30%
20%
Trendline 1
10%
Trendline 1
0%
MUT
VUT
Career-Focused
DUT
Professional
TUT
CPUT
General Formative
CUT
Source: Martin Oosthuizen, NWU
24
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES (continued)
28 Graph 18 summarises the 2009 student enrolments of the 11 universities within
the qualification types defined earlier.
Graph 18
University enrolments by qualification type: 2009
120%
100%
20%
25%
22%
22%
25%
26%
27%
80%
60%
47%
32%
46%
48%
32%
29%
39%
33%
32%
43%
30%
48%
34%
51%
43%
39%
22%
40%
20%
35%
33%
33%
51%
37%
35%
28%
14%
19%
0%
UCT
SU
UL
Wits
UWC
Ge ne ral form ative
UFH
RU
Profe s s ional
UKZN
UP
UFS
NWU
Care e r focus e d
25
EXAMPLES OF CASE STUDY UNIVERSITIES: NMMU
34 Graph 25 shows that that NMMU’s academic offerings in terms of qualification
types has remained stable over this period 2003-2009.
Graph 25 NMMU student enrolments by qualification type
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
57%
53%
28%
28%
20%
15%
2003
2005
General form ative
59%
56%
24%
17%
26%
18%
2007
Professional
2009
Career focused
32
NMMU EXAMPLE (continued)
35 The graph below also presents a picture of stable programme offerings, with
NMMU remaining a predominantly undergraduate university.
Graph 26
NMMU student enrolments by qualification level
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
2003
2005
2007
2009
86%
88%
89%
86%
P/grad<Masters
7%
5%
4%
6%
Masters + doctors
7%
7%
7%
8%
U/grad
33
Staff Differentiation – General formative programmes
The purpose of general formative programmes is to give students a
firm foundation in basic disciplinary knowledge. Relevance should
therefore be assessed in the following ways:
• The programme is responsive to the demands of the knowledge field
• The curriculum provides students with a sound induction into the
conceptual foundations of the disciplines studied
• Teaching staff are aware of advances in knowledge, as reflected in the
latest research and trends in the development of their disciplines, and
incorporate these into the curriculum where appropriate
• Students engage with core notions of citizenship, democracy and ethics,
especially in relation to their disciplinary studies
• Students are given an introduction to research methodology
• A significant proportion of the staff is research active with national and
international links to peers in their disciplines
28
STAFF – Professional programmes
The purpose of professional programmes is to give students a sound knowledge
base and set of skills and competencies to enter into a field of professional practice.
Relevance should therefore be assessed in the following ways:
29
•
The programme is responsive to the demands of the field of professional practice
•
The curriculum has an appropriate balance of the disciplinary knowledge on which the field is
grounded, and field (profession) specific knowledge
•
Students acquire the skills and competencies to enable them to perform optimally in their field
of practice
•
Where appropriate, students are given the opportunity to acquire workplace experience (e.g.
clinical practice, teaching practice, practice in law clinics, etc.)
•
Students engage with core notions of citizenship, democracy and ethics, especially as they
relate to professional practice
•
Teaching staff are aware of the latest developments (including research, new legislation, and
professional regulations) relating to their field of practice and incorporate these into the
curriculum where appropriate
•
Teaching staff maintain strong links with regulatory bodies such as professional boards and
councils
•
A significant proportion of the teaching staff has professional accreditation
STAFF: Career and occupation-specific programmes
The purpose of career and occupation-specific programmes is to prepare students
for specified occupational and career niches in the labour market. For this, students
need to be sufficiently practically and procedurally competent to be considered
work ready. Relevance should therefore be assessed in the following ways:
30
•
The programme is highly responsive to the demands of the workplace
•
The curriculum is context-driven
•
There is an appropriate balance of principled and procedural knowledge, and of
generic and specific skills
•
There is sufficient conceptual knowledge to allow students to continue learning after
graduation in the context of changes in the workplace
•
Students engage with core notions of citizenship, democracy and ethics, especially as
they relate to the workplace
•
Teaching staff are aware of changes and developments in the industrial / business
environment and keep the curriculum up to date in relation to these developments
•
Teaching staff maintain strong links with industry
•
A significant proportion of the teaching staff has industry experience
Challenges
1. Scale up Knowledge production - PhD’s and research outputs –
Chet study
2. Efficiency improvements – the submerged discourse – shift to
output funding
3. Participation rate - pressure for admission due ‘easier matric’,
but mainly what is your role in FET sector
4. World class networks/institutes – Korea (Brain 21) – individual
vs groups
5. evidence-based planning and performance monitoring which
will require maintaining and strengthening HEMIS and the
additional capacity to analyze national trends and changes
between and within institutions and institutional groups.
31
Doctoral degree cohorts (2001,2002, 2003): Average dropout & graduation
Knowledge Production - High
New
entrants
in Year 1
1087
Academic year
Dropped out
at end of year
Graduated at
end of year
Total dropouts &
graduates
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
*Year 7
122
71
28
44
15
3
111
394
36%
12
52
98
203
185
91
52
693
64%
Knowledge Production - Medium
New
entrants
in Year 1
Academic year
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
*Year 7
4558
Dropped out
at end of year
1052
383
277
192
118
99
467
2588
57%
Graduated at
end of year
77
300
405
412
341
247
188
1970
43%
Total dropouts &
graduates
Knowledge Production - Low
New
entrants
in Year 1
Academic year
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
*Year 7
341
Dropped out
at end of year
131
30
18
9
9
4
36
237
70%
Graduated at
end of year
3
14
20
22
17
15
13
104
30%
Total dropouts &
graduates
* The End of year 7 dropping out numbers also include students that may have registered in future years to complete their studies
All pre-merger institutions were mapped to their post-merger destination universities
Source:: DHET. 2011. CHET PhD analysis
32
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