Part 4 Societal Issues in the Networked Economy Living in Internet Time • 24 hour day – Work never ends • Personal Outsourcing – Help with day-to-day chores – Do online banking, shopping • Reach Creep – No separation of work and home Living in Internet Time Cornerstones of Networked Economy Computing and Communications Always available Freedom of Ideas and Trade Education Living in Internet Time Side Effects of the Networked Economy • Death of Distance –Telecommuting • Homogenization of Time • Disintegration of Borders Global Business Drivers • Global Markets • Global Production and Operation • Global Coordination – Virtual office and telecommuting • Global Work Force – Electronic immigrants • Global Economies of Scale A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE • Tony Tang is the marketing manager of a small but thriving software company which does business in three continents. – There are only four employees in the office -- Tony Tang, president, and two senior programmers. – The other 23 employees, all experienced programmers, live and work in other countries such as India, Germany, England, and Japan. – The employees collaborate on the project using various information and telecommunications technologies. – Tony can check inventory with eight software retailers -four in the U.S., two in England, and two in Japan -- and issue an electronic shipping order and an electronic invoice. 1999 6 Challenge of Global Information Systems • Language Differences – National laws often forbid businesses to run accounting and other systems in foreign languages • Cultural Differences – Many in which people work and importance of ethical issues – Some European countries severely restrict businesses from collecting and maintaining personal data Challenge of Global Information Systems • Economic – Scientific information is a national resource and source of income for corporations with conflicting interests – Governments do not allow the exchange of information on Military Weapons – Some computer hardware and software may be prohibited from trading – Different countries treat trade secrets, patents, copyrights differently Economic Issues in the Networked Economy • Taxation of Electronic Commerce – Sales Taxes – Internet Tax Freedom Act 1998 – Only if same state • Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce • Loss of Local Revenue Challenge of Global Information Systems • Legal Barriers to International Data Transfer – While many of the problems involved in crossborder data transfer have been resolved, privacy is not even mentioned in the constitutions of many countries including the U.S. – Different nations have different approaches to the privacy issue. Economic Issues in the Networked Economy Government Control of Internet Content Challenge of Global Information Systems • Standards – Because of different standards, records may not be compatible • Zip codes, phone #… – Metric vs. “English” system of measure – Ways dates stored may vary Living in Internet Time Book Publishing in Industrial Economy S tep N um ber A ctivity C om m unications M ode W rite m anuscript by hand, typist transcribes it, and m ake corrections Inter-office M anuscript review ed by faculty expe rts P ostal service or package d elivery 3 A uthors rew rite m anuscript and h ave it transcribed Inter-office P ostal service or package d elivery 4 E ditor edits m an uscript for sp elling, style, and gram m ar and result is review ed by a utho rs 5 C om positor c reates g alleys w hich are review ed by a utho rs P ostal service or package d elivery P ostal service or package d elivery 6 P aste-up a rtist creates page p roofs from galleys and artw ork w hich a re review ed by authors 7 P age proofs sent to printe r fo r printing P ostal service or package d elivery 1 2 Living in Internet Time Book Publishing in Networked Economy S tep N um ber 1 2 3 A ctivity A uthor w rites bo ok in desktop publishing softw are and sen ds to review ers A uthor m akes revisions and sends to m anuscript e ditor fo r editing for style and gram m ar A uthor transm its P ostscript files to printer for p rinting C om m unications M ode Interne t Interne t Interne t Living in Internet Time Comparisons in Book Publishing Economic Issues in the Networked Economy • Productivity and Workplace Issues – Technology is being used to increase and improve productivity – Office Automation – Artificial Intelligence Office Automation Use of computers, communications, and office technology to support the many activities of the business environment. Increase Productivity Share resources DISTRIBUTE KNOWLEDGE OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS: • • • • • • • • • Word Processing Desktop Publishing Web Publishing Imaging Electronic Calendars Desktop Databases Voice Mail Video Conferencing Intranets AI ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS: • Computer-based Systems With Abilities to Learn Language, Accomplish Tasks, use Perceptual Apparatus, Emulate Human Expertise & Decision Making * BUSINESS INTERESTS IN AI • Preserve Expertise • Create Knowledge Base • Mechanism Not Subject To Feelings, Fatigue, Worry, Crisis • Eliminate Routine / Unsatisfying Jobs • Enhance Knowledge Base * AI FAMILY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE NATURAL LANGUAGE ROBOTICS PERCEPTIVE SYSTEMS EXPERT SYSTEMS NEURAL NETWORKS Natural Language • Computer speech recognition and generation • Text recognition • Uses: – Placing Orders by Phone – Collect Calls – Database Queries Robotics • Perform tasks • Use – Manufacturing • Advantages – – – – Unsafe conditions Long hours Repetitive tasks Decreasing costs Perceptive Systems • Camera with computer • Uses: – Routine Inspections – Weather – Defense Expert Systems • • • • Knowledge-based Solve Problems via Rules of Expert Interactive Uses: – – – – Medicine Automobile Diagnostics Game Playing Credit Approval AI EXPERT SYSTEMS • RULE - BASED EXPERT SYSTEM : AI System Based on IF - THEN Statements Rule Base: Collection of IF /THEN Knowledge – FORWARD CHAINING: Uses Input; Searches Rules for Answer – BACKWARD CHAINING: Begins with Hypothesis, Seeks Information Until Hypothesis Accepted or Rejected * Neural Networks • Mimics Structure of the Brain • Learn, Patterns • Use: – Buying Securities – Pap smear test Fuzzy Logic • Make decision according to scale vs. just “Yes” or “No”. • More Like Human Thought • Use – Focus on Video Camera – Antilock Brakes Telecommuting • Telework • Supportive Federal Laws –Amendments to the Clean Air Act 1990 –Family and Medical Leave Act 1992 Telecommuting • Telecommuting Locations – Virtual/Mobile Office – Satellite Office – Telework Center • Advantages and Problems – – – – – More productive Less stress Hard to manage Self-initiative Always working…. Health Issues • Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI) – Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CDT)/Typing Injury (TI) – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Workstation Design • Tendonitis Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Health Issues • Causes of RSI – Motion Required – Workstation Design – Education on Proper Use – Management Attitude Toward Worker – Worker’s Own Physical Characteristics Health Issues • Mouse Problems – Trackball Alternative • Ergonomics – Human Factors Engineering • Psychological Problems • Web Addiction Web Content Issues • Adult-Oriented Web Sites – Restrictive Legislation – Using Filtering Software – Installing Filters on Material Coming into a Country • Free Speech Protections Web Content Issues • Terrorist-Oriented Sites – Protection versus Free Speech Debate • Web-Based Gambling Sites – Australian States Internet Gambling Licenses – Subject to U.S. Laws Future of the Networked Economy • Consumer Appliances • Cellular Internet Connections • Home Computer Networks • Client Computers in Hotel/Motel Rooms Future of the Networked Economy • Time Will Be Scarcest Resource – Videoconferencing • Continued Personal Outsourcing • “A day in the life of Mary 2005” NEXT SLIDE PAST SLIDE 12 - 39 Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. 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