Part 4
Societal Issues in the
Networked Economy
Living in Internet Time
• 24 hour day
– Work never ends
• Personal Outsourcing
– Help with day-to-day chores
– Do online banking, shopping
• Reach Creep
– No separation of work and home
Living in Internet Time
Cornerstones of Networked Economy
Computing and
Communications
Always available
Freedom of
Ideas and
Trade
Education
Living in Internet Time
Side Effects of the Networked Economy
• Death of Distance
–Telecommuting
• Homogenization of Time
• Disintegration of Borders
Global Business Drivers
• Global Markets
• Global Production and Operation
• Global Coordination
– Virtual office and telecommuting
• Global Work Force
– Electronic immigrants
• Global Economies of Scale
A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE
• Tony Tang is the marketing manager of a small
but thriving software company which does
business in three continents.
– There are only four employees in the office -- Tony Tang,
president, and two senior programmers.
– The other 23 employees, all experienced programmers, live
and work in other countries such as India, Germany,
England, and Japan.
– The employees collaborate on the project using various
information and telecommunications technologies.
– Tony can check inventory with eight software retailers -four in the U.S., two in England, and two in Japan -- and
issue an electronic shipping order and an electronic invoice.
1999
6
Challenge of Global Information
Systems
• Language Differences
– National laws often forbid businesses to run accounting
and other systems in foreign languages
• Cultural Differences
– Many in which people work and importance of ethical
issues
– Some European countries severely restrict businesses
from collecting and maintaining personal data
Challenge of Global Information
Systems
• Economic
– Scientific information is a national resource and source
of income for corporations with conflicting interests
– Governments do not allow the exchange of information
on Military Weapons
– Some computer hardware and software may be
prohibited from trading
– Different countries treat trade secrets, patents,
copyrights differently
Economic Issues in the Networked
Economy
• Taxation of Electronic Commerce
– Sales Taxes
– Internet Tax Freedom Act 1998
– Only if same state
• Advisory Commission on Electronic
Commerce
• Loss of Local Revenue
Challenge of Global Information
Systems
• Legal Barriers to International Data
Transfer
– While many of the problems involved in crossborder data transfer have been resolved, privacy is
not even mentioned in the constitutions of many
countries including the U.S.
– Different nations have different approaches to the
privacy issue.
Economic Issues in the Networked Economy
Government Control of Internet Content
Challenge of Global Information
Systems
• Standards
– Because of different standards, records may not
be compatible
• Zip codes, phone #…
– Metric vs. “English” system of measure
– Ways dates stored may vary
Living in Internet Time
Book Publishing in Industrial Economy
S tep
N um ber
A ctivity
C om m unications M ode
W rite m anuscript by hand, typist
transcribes it, and m ake corrections
Inter-office
M anuscript review ed by faculty expe rts
P ostal service or package d elivery
3
A uthors rew rite m anuscript and h ave it
transcribed
Inter-office
P ostal service or package d elivery
4
E ditor edits m an uscript for sp elling,
style, and gram m ar and result is
review ed by a utho rs
5
C om positor c reates g alleys w hich are
review ed by a utho rs
P ostal service or package d elivery
P ostal service or package d elivery
6
P aste-up a rtist creates page p roofs from
galleys and artw ork w hich a re review ed
by authors
7
P age proofs sent to printe r fo r printing
P ostal service or package d elivery
1
2
Living in Internet Time
Book Publishing in Networked Economy
S tep
N um ber
1
2
3
A ctivity
A uthor w rites bo ok in desktop
publishing softw are and sen ds to
review ers
A uthor m akes revisions and sends
to m anuscript e ditor fo r editing for
style and gram m ar
A uthor transm its P ostscript files to
printer for p rinting
C om m unications M ode
Interne t
Interne t
Interne t
Living in Internet Time
Comparisons in Book Publishing
Economic Issues in the Networked
Economy
• Productivity and Workplace Issues
– Technology is being used to increase and
improve productivity
– Office Automation
– Artificial Intelligence
Office Automation
 Use of computers,
communications, and office
technology to support the many
activities of the business
environment.
 Increase Productivity
 Share resources
DISTRIBUTE KNOWLEDGE
OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Word Processing
Desktop Publishing
Web Publishing
Imaging
Electronic Calendars
Desktop Databases
Voice Mail
Video Conferencing
Intranets
AI
ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS:
• Computer-based Systems With
Abilities to Learn Language,
Accomplish Tasks, use Perceptual
Apparatus, Emulate Human Expertise
& Decision Making
*
BUSINESS INTERESTS IN
AI
• Preserve Expertise
• Create Knowledge Base
• Mechanism Not Subject To Feelings,
Fatigue, Worry, Crisis
• Eliminate Routine / Unsatisfying Jobs
• Enhance Knowledge Base
*
AI
FAMILY
ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE
NATURAL
LANGUAGE
ROBOTICS
PERCEPTIVE
SYSTEMS
EXPERT
SYSTEMS
NEURAL
NETWORKS
Natural Language
• Computer speech recognition and
generation
• Text recognition
• Uses:
– Placing Orders by Phone
– Collect Calls
– Database Queries
Robotics
• Perform tasks
• Use
– Manufacturing
• Advantages
–
–
–
–
Unsafe conditions
Long hours
Repetitive tasks
Decreasing costs
Perceptive Systems
• Camera with computer
• Uses:
– Routine Inspections
– Weather
– Defense
Expert Systems
•
•
•
•
Knowledge-based
Solve Problems via Rules of Expert
Interactive
Uses:
–
–
–
–
Medicine
Automobile Diagnostics
Game Playing
Credit Approval
AI
EXPERT SYSTEMS
• RULE - BASED EXPERT SYSTEM : AI System
Based on IF - THEN Statements Rule Base:
Collection of IF /THEN Knowledge
– FORWARD CHAINING: Uses Input; Searches Rules
for Answer
– BACKWARD CHAINING: Begins with Hypothesis,
Seeks Information Until Hypothesis Accepted or
Rejected
*
Neural Networks
• Mimics Structure of
the Brain
• Learn, Patterns
• Use:
– Buying Securities
– Pap smear test
Fuzzy Logic
• Make decision according to scale vs. just
“Yes” or “No”.
• More Like Human Thought
• Use
– Focus on Video Camera
– Antilock Brakes
Telecommuting
• Telework
• Supportive Federal Laws
–Amendments to the Clean Air
Act 1990
–Family and Medical Leave Act
1992
Telecommuting
• Telecommuting Locations
– Virtual/Mobile Office
– Satellite Office
– Telework Center
• Advantages and Problems
–
–
–
–
–
More productive
Less stress
Hard to manage
Self-initiative
Always working….
Health Issues
• Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)
– Cumulative Trauma Disorder
(CDT)/Typing Injury (TI)
– Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
• Workstation Design
• Tendonitis
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Health Issues
• Causes of RSI
– Motion Required
– Workstation Design
– Education on Proper Use
– Management Attitude Toward Worker
– Worker’s Own Physical Characteristics
Health Issues
• Mouse Problems
– Trackball Alternative
• Ergonomics
– Human Factors Engineering
• Psychological Problems
• Web Addiction
Web Content Issues
• Adult-Oriented Web Sites
– Restrictive Legislation
– Using Filtering Software
– Installing Filters on Material Coming
into a Country
• Free Speech Protections
Web Content Issues
• Terrorist-Oriented Sites
– Protection versus Free Speech
Debate
• Web-Based Gambling Sites
– Australian States Internet
Gambling Licenses
– Subject to U.S. Laws
Future of the Networked Economy
• Consumer Appliances
• Cellular Internet Connections
• Home Computer Networks
• Client Computers in
Hotel/Motel Rooms
Future of the Networked Economy
• Time Will Be Scarcest
Resource
– Videoconferencing
• Continued Personal
Outsourcing
• “A day in the life of Mary
2005”
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Societal Issues in the Networked Economy