Fourth Edition
ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD P.APPELBAUM ● DEBORAH CARR
Chapter 10: Ethnicity and Race
“What are you?”
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The big issues
• Understanding what we mean by ethnicity and
race
• The importance of historical context
• Trends in global migration
• Being “ethnic” (nonwhite) in the U.S.
• How ethnicity and race affect everyone
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Race and ethnicity are complicated
• Is the child of a biracial couple (black and
white) black or white? Mixed?
• Is Judaism a religion or an ethnicity? Both?
• Race and ethnicity are terms used every day
but rarely explored.
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Defining ethnicity
•
•
Ethnicity refers to the distinct cultural norms
and values of a social group.
Characteristics of ethnic groups include (to
varying degrees):
–
–
–
–
–
Shared history
Religion and culture
Kin or ancestry
Sense of shared destiny
Language
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Ethnic options
• Recent research: because of intergroup
marriage, for many whites living in the United
States, ethnicity has become a choice.
– For many, ethnicity is largely opted out of
altogether.
– For nonwhites, opting out of ethnicity is not
a choice.
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Defining race
• Race refers to an externally imposed system of
social categorization and stratification.
• No true biological races exist; rather, human
groups must be placed on a continuum.
• Typically, race refers to some set of physical
characteristics granted importance by a society.
• Race is socially constructed.
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Racialization
• The actual imposition of some racial schema
on society is called racialization.
• The process involves both formal and informal
inequities, including segregated schools and
businesses, along with differentiated rights.
• These inequalities shape the lives of all those
in the racialized society.
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Racism
•
•
Racism is a form of prejudice and/or
discrimination based on physical
differences.
There are many layers of racism
– Individual consciousness and behavior
– Ideologies of supremacy
– Institutional racism
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Concepts related to racism
Prejudice
Discrimination
Stereotypes
Scapegoats
Minority groups
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Colonialism and racism
• We must consider history when working to
understand racism today.
• Modern racism goes back to the history of the
European colonization of much of the world.
• The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric
attitudes of racial supremacy.
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Colonialism and racism
• Those ideologies of racial superiority led to a
sometimes paternalistic form of racism,
linked to developing scientific racism.
• Long-standing cultural narratives of white and
black—good or purity and evil or impurity—
combined with scientific racism helped to
deepen and then perpetuate racialization.
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Models of ethnic coexistence in the
United States
•
•
•
•
Assimilation
Melting pot
Multiculturalism
Segregation
• Problems: both segregation and aggressive
assimilation have led to ethnic conflict
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Studying migration
• Trends in global migration today:
–
–
–
–
–
Acceleration
Diversification
Globalization
Feminization
Transnationalism
• Global diasporas
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Global migration since 1973
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Racial Ethnic Populations in the U.S.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 2011f.
Note: This map is not geographically representative of population distribution.
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Racial Ethnic Populations in the U.S.
63.7%
WHITE
(NON-HISPANIC)
196,817,552 people
16.3%
HISPANIC
OR LATINO
50,477,594 people
12.6%
AFRICAN
AMERICAN
38,929,319 people
4.8%
ASIAN
14,674,252 people
2.9%
0.9%
0.2%
0.2%
TWO OR
MORE RACES
AMERICAN INDIAN
AND ALASKA NATIVE
NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND
OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER
SOME OTHER RACE
9,009,073 people
2,932,248 people
540,013 people
Note: This map is not geographically representative of population distribution.
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676,733 people
SOURCE: U.S Bureau of the Census 2011.
Race in U.S. history—Slavery
• From early colonization on, racialization has
been part of the story of the United States.
• Africans were brought as slaves in huge
numbers: nearly 4 million by 1780.
• Their responses to slavery varied from
rebellion to passivity to cultural development
to hostility.
• With abolition, life for former slaves did not
change quickly or evenly.
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Race in U.S. history—Immigration
• 1820–1920: over 30 million immigrants came
to the United States voluntarily, mostly from
Europe
• Not all European groups were equally
welcomed, nor were Asian immigrants.
• In 1924 the National Origins Act was passed,
restricting immigration.
• In 1965 that law was rescinded and today’s
immigration patterns began.
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Race in U.S. history—Civil rights
• Until the 1960s, African Americans had few
legal rights or protections.
• 1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
Kansas
• 1950s: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr.
• 1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the
Civil Rights Act into law
• There remains some question about the
success of the civil rights movement.
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Latinos in the United States
• Latinos, or Hispanics, are not a single, unified
group aside from their shared language.
• The three main groups in the United States all
have very different histories:
– Mexican Americans
– Puerto Ricans
– Cuban Americans
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Latinos in the United States
• Today there are increasing numbers of Central
American immigrants.
• Latinos now make up a larger percentage of
the population than African Americans, with
approximately 15 percent versus 12 percent (as
of 2008).
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Asians in the United States
• Like Latinos, Asians do not comprise a single
group of people.
• The largest groups in the United States include
Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, though there
are sizeable populations of other groups.
• According to recent data, Asians now make up
the largest share of recent immigrants to the
U.S. (Pew 2012)
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Asians in the United States
• Asians have a history of extreme
discrimination in U.S. history.
• Even so, as a group they have done very well
and are now often referred to as a “model
minority.”
• Asians currently make up about 4 percent of
the U.S. population.
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Seeing racial and ethnic inequality
• To say that a society is racialized is to say that
it has a racial system of stratification.
• The United States is a racially stratified
society, and we can see this in many places:
–
–
–
–
Educational attainment
Income
Residence
Wealth
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Figure 10.2A High School Graduation Rates
by Race and Ethnicity, 2008.
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Figure 10.2B High School Graduation Rates
by Race and Ethnicity, 2008.
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Figure 10.3 Median Household Income by Race, 1980– 2008.
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2008 recession and beyond
• The impact of the recent recession has not hit
all racial groups equally.
• This is most obvious in unemployment rates,
which are far higher for blacks and Latinos
than for whites.
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Seeing inequality
• We can also see racial inequality in:
– Political representation
– Residential segregation
– Criminal justice system
– Health and wellness
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Getting ahead
• Over time, white ethnics have integrated well.
• Asian Americans have also done quite well
when looked at as a whole.
• Cubans have done very well overall.
• African Americans, Native Americans, and
Puerto Ricans have not fared as well.
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Why are there such significant gaps?
• There are a variety of factors that help explain
why some groups find more success than
others.
– Voluntary immigration versus forced minority
status
– Type and degree of discrimination faced
– Ability to blend into the “mainstream”
– Affinity of group culture to U.S. culture and values
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This concludes the Lecture
PowerPoint Presentation for
Chapter 10: Ethnicity and Race
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Clicker Questions
1. What is ethnicity?
a. the physical manifestation of racial difference
b. any biologically grounded features of a group of people
c. any group outside the white, English-speaking majority
d. the cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that
have emerged historically and tend to set people apart
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Clicker Questions
2. Racism that is embedded in the very structure and operation of
society is called
a. structural racism.
b. institutional racism.
c. formal racism.
d. modern racism.
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Clicker Questions
3. Which of the following is a characteristic of minority groups?
a. The members speak English as a second language.
b. The members have no sense of group solidarity.
c. The members find themselves in a position of inequality within
a society.
d. The members tend to live and work in mostly white
neighborhoods.
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Clicker Questions
4. What is the difference between the assimilation and melting pot models of
integrating new ethnic groups into the dominant society?
a. The assimilation model refers to the new group adopting the norms and
values of the dominant society; the melting pot model refers to the merging
and blending of dominant and ethnic cultures.
b. The assimilation model refers to members of the new group becoming
citizens of the host nation; the melting pot model refers to members of the
new group remaining guest workers and having only the legal rights
afforded to those on work visas.
c. The assimilation model refers to members of the new group learning the
language of the host nation and dispersing to the suburbs; the melting pot
model refers to members of the new group sticking to their own language
and becoming concentrated in particular urban neighborhoods.
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Clicker Questions
5. The planned destruction of a particular group, on the grounds
of group members’ ethnicity, religion, culture, or political
views is called
a. genocide.
b. a hate crime.
c. assimilation.
d. segregation.
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Clicker Questions
6. The process by which a society’s understandings of race are
used to classify individuals or groups of people is called
a. racialism.
b. racism.
c. racialization.
d. racial identification.
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Clicker Questions
7. How does the experience of blacks in American cities compare
with that of other minority groups?
a. Blacks have more political representation but less economic
wealth.
b. Segregation and poverty have not been reduced in the way they
have been for other groups.
c. Blacks have more wealth and more likely to live in the suburbs
than other immigrant groups.
d. Blacks have been much less involved in the public sector than
immigrant groups, but they have more wealth than other
immigrant groups.
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