ARACY Access Grid
Community Business Partnerships for
Early Child Development (ECD)
Closing the Gap Between What We Know
and What We Do
By J. Fraser Mustard
Founding Chairman
The Council for Early Child Development
February 20, 2008
07-183
Why the Gap
Lack of understanding.
Beliefs and culture.
Social and economic factors.
Cost of quality ECD programs.
The role of the state (the child does
not choose its parents).
Professional silos (prevention vs.
treatment).
“The rates and types of problems
that we are currently seeing in
our children and youth are
unprecedented, complex
problems that require innovative
solutions.”
Fiona Stanley
06-130
Presentation
Part 1: The Evolutionary History of Human Beings
Part 2: Developmental Neurobiology
Part 3: The Evidence about ECD
Part 4: Early Child Development and Parenting
Centres – Community Business Partnerships
Part 5: Outcome Measures
Part 6: Socioeconomic Considerations – Business
Community Partnerships
03-049
The Evolutionary History of
Human Beings
200, 000 Years
10, 000 Years – Agricultural Revolution
-- Civilization Experiments
3.000 to 4.000 Years – Written Language &
Alphabet
600 Years – Books
50 Years – Electronic Media
05-143
Agricultural Revolution –
10,000 years ago
Transition from hunter-gatherer
societies to our experiments in
civilization.
Short History of Progress
Wright 2004
01-002
Population (x 109)
6
The Growth of the World Population and
Some Major Events in the History of Technology
Exponential
Knowledge
and
Technology
Growth
4
2
Printing
Press
1st Agricultural
Revolution
9BC
5BC
Beginning of
Industrial
Revolution
3BC
Year (x
103)
1BC
0
1AD
2AD
Robert W. Fogel. “Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology”, April 1994
05-144
st
21
Century / Changes
Exponential growth in knowledge and
technology
Population growth, demographics (aging
populations), migration and refugees
Changes in local and international economies
Climate change and resource constraints
Developmental neuroscience
06-107
The Economist
The Search for Talent
Why It’s Getting Harder to Find –
Business and Community
The Economist, October 7, 2006
07-003
Economist Magazine
The Importance of Neuroscience
September 21, 2006 – Learning Without
Learning (Epigenetics)
October 7, 2006 – A Survey of Talent
December 23, 2006 – A Survey of the Brain
June 14, 2007 – RNA - Really New
Advances (microRNA)
PART 2
DEVELOPMENTAL
NEUROBIOLOGY
03-080
Experience-Based Brain development in
the early years of life sets neurological
and biological pathways that affect
throughout life:
Health
Learning
Behaviour
03-013
The Hostage Brain , Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994.
04-039
Two Neurons
Axon
RECIPIENT
NEURON
Synapse
SIGNALSENDING
NEURON
Dendrite
04-042
SENSING
PATHWAYS
04-212
Sound
Vision
Smell
Touch
Proprioception
Taste
Neal Halfon
03-079
Vision and Hearing
Critical Periods
Eye cataracts at birth prevent normal
development of vision neurons in the
occipital cortex (Hubel and Wiesel)
Cochlear defects at birth and middle ear
infections in infants impair hearing and
language development
(Rauschecker and O’Donoghue, Fiona Stanley)
07-123
Brain Pathways
“Higher levels of brain circuits depend on
precise, reliable information from lower
levels in order to accomplish their function.
Sensitive periods for development of lower
level circuits ends early in life.
High level circuits remain plastic for a
longer period.”
Knudsen 2004
03-012
Synaptic Density
At Birth
6 Years Old
14 Years Old
Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.
01-003
Human Brain Development –
Language and Cognition
Language
Sensing
Pathways
(vision, hearing)
-6
-3
3
0
Months
6
9
Higher
Cognitive Function
1
4
8
12
Years
16
AGE
C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
04-200
Early Child Development and Language
Starts early – first 7 months
Sets capability for mastering
multiple languages
Sets literacy and language trajectories
08-022
Levels of Literacy:
A Reflection of ECD
Level 1: indicates persons with very poor skills.
Level 2: people can deal with material that
is simple.
Level 3: is considered a suitable minimum for
coping with the demands of everyday life.
Level 4: people who demonstrate command of
higher-order processing skills.
Level 5: competence in sophisticated reading
tasks, managing information and
critical thinking skills.
Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult
Document Literacy Scores
06-114
Mean Scores
350
310
Intern’l Mean
U.S.
270
Canada
Australia
230
Sweden
Finland
190
Chile
0
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Parents’ Education (years)
17
19
OECD, 2000
05-178
Literacy Levels for the Total
Population Ages 16 to 65 – USA
35
Prose
30
Document
25
Quantitative
20
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
Level
4
5
NALS, p. 17, 2002
05-173
Literacy Levels by Physical, Mental or Other
Health Conditions – USA (Quantitative)
60
Health Problems
50
Mental or Emotional
Problems
40
Long-term Illness
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
Level
4
5
NALS, p. 44, 2002
00-042
Sociocultural
Gradients for
Language
Scores in
Latin America
360
Cuba
320
Chile
280
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
240
Mexico
200
1
4
8
12
Parents' Education (Years)
16
07-105
Allostasis & Allostatic Load
(Stress)
Limbic HPA Pathway
05-212
Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress
Cortisol – Over Production
Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition,
cardiovascular disease, memory, immune
system, drug and alcohol addiction
Cortisol – Under Production
Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune
system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid
arthritis, allergies, asthma
03-002
Sensory
Stimulus
Thalamus
Cortex
Amygdala
+
+
Hippocampus
Hypothalamus
-
-
PVN
Cortisol
Cortisol
CRF
PIT
ACTH
Adrenal
Cortex
LeDoux, Synaptic Self
05-213
Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli
Touch in the Early Period is Critical
Rats – Mothers licking pups (High
versus Low Grooming)
Monkeys – Peer vs mother rearing
Humans - Attachment
08-014
Epigenetics
The process by which normal gene
expression is altered by experience.
Genotype vs Phenotype
05-059
Hippocampal GR(17) Region 16
(5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline
Mean C-Methylation
1.2
0.8
Licking
Low
0.4
Licking
High
0
Embryo
Birth
Pup
Weaning
Adult
Day 20
Day 1
Day 6
Day 21
Day 90
Age
M. Szyf
Serotonin Transporter Gene
Experience
in
Early
Life
Depression
03-089
Age 26
Depression
Risk
.70
S = Short Allele
L = Long Allele
SS
.50
SL
.30
LL
No Abuse
Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse
Early Childhood
A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.
07-001 Experience and Brain Architecture and Function
Early
Affects gene expression and neural pathways
Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and
social development
Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability
Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour
in adult life
Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming,
etc.)
Shapes language and literacy capability
THE EVIDENCE
ABOUT
ECD and HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
08-015
Pregnancy and Infancy
Nutrition (long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids)
Toxic substances – tobacco, alcohol
and drugs
Sensing pathways and
breastfeeding
Infections (pre- and post-natal)
05-115
Romanian Adoption Project
Scores at 10.5 Years
CB
EA
RO
IQ
108
99
85
Language
Score
106
99
88
Behaviour
13%
9%
43%
CB - Canadian Born – middle class families
EA - Early Adopted – middle class families
RO - Romanian Orphanage – middle class families
L. Le Mare
08-010
Romania – BEIP Project
The cognitive outcome of
children who remained in the
orphanages was markedly
below that of non orphanage
children and children taken
out of the orphanage and
placed in foster care.
Nelson et al. 2007. Science, v. 318
06-003
1958 British Birth Cohort
Age 45
Cortisol pathway response in
adult correlates with ECD.
Children with poor ECD have
dysfunctional cortisol secretion
patterns at age 45.
Power and Hertzman
04-006
ECD Swedish Longitudinal Study and Adult Health
Adverse Early Child Development*
0
1
2
3
(Several)
(None)
Adult Health
4
Odds - Ratios
General Physical
1
1.39
1.54
2.08
2.66
Circulatory
1
1.56
1.53
2.91
7.76
Mental
1
1.78
2.05
3.76 10.27
* Economic, family size, broken family and family dissention
Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993
04-153
Abecedarian Study – Reading
Effect Size
1.2
Special
Primary
Grades
Preschool
(4 mths to
School)
Preschool &
Special
Primary Grades
0.8
0.4
0
Age 8
Age 12
Age 15
Age at Testing
Age 21
EARLY CHILD
DEVELOPMENT AND
PARENTING CENTRES
06-001
Success by Ten
Early Child Development
Intervene early
Intervene often
Intervene effectively
Ludwig and Sawhill,
Brookings Institution
07-055
What Provides the Best Results?
Centre Based Programs that:
Start Early
Involve Parents
Home Visiting
Qualified Staff in Neuroscience and
Development
99-004
Source of Brain Stimulation
parent-oriented
child-oriented
age 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Components of Early Childhood Development and
Parenting Centres:
ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements
Play-based learning
Resources
Prenatal & postnatal supports
Nutrition programs
05-029
Early Child Development
and Parenting Centres
Offer from conception to school entry
Provide support for parents
Learn parenting by doing
Provide non-parental care
Link to and integrate with primary schools
Detect development problems early
05-027
Recommendations to Involve
The Private Sector
Encourage private sector to give
priority to community-based early child
development and parenting centres
Parental leave policies
Establish incentives to build publicprivate sector partnerships
07-129
07-080
07-080
Parental Leave
Provide 18 months parental leave
with income support, followed by one
day weekly leave for both parents
until age three to be involved in the
Early Child Development & Parenting
Centre.
Chaos
Health
Public
health
Preschools
Social
services
Parks &
recreation
Parenting
centres
Early
intervention
Family
support
Municipalities
Community
services
Education
Local school
authorities
Kindergartens
Children’s
mental health
Child care centres
03
4
Barriers to Implementing
ECDP Programs
1. Economics
2. Lack of understanding
(government, public and
professional)
3. The state as a nanny
4. No commitment to equality
07-158
Cost to Individuals and
Canadian Society of
Poor Early Child Development (estimates)
Crime
$120 Billion/year
Mental Health
Behaviour and
Drug Use
$100 Billion/year
Australia
Substance Abuse
$ 35/Billion/year
08-033
The Brookings Institution in the
US projects said that a high
quality universal preschool policy
would boost the size of the US
economy by US$270 Billion by
2050 and by over US$2 Trillion
by 2080.
K. Rudd, New Leadership, 2007
07-157
Cost of ECD-P Centres
(Pregnancy to Grade 1)
Age 0 to 6 Population
Universal (2,500,000 children)
Cost $18.5 Billion (1.5% of GDP)
Present Expenditure 0.25% of GDP
Australian cost for
ECD-P Centres about
$12 Billion (Cdn $)
03-116
OUTCOME
MEASURES
03-085
Early Development Instrument (EDI)
Physical health and well-being
Social knowledge and competence
Emotional health/maturity
Language and cognitive development
Communication skills and general
knowledge
Australia – AEDI
Children 5-6 yrs.
07-027
% Vulnerable
40
30
20
10
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
SES - Income
Q5
Q6
06-148
Vancouver EDI
Numeracy
# of
Vulnerabilities
% Failing
Grade 4
% Not Passing
Grade 4
0
1
2-3
4-5
7.5
11.8
18.7
27.5
12.3
22.2
33.8
55.6
Hertzman, HELP, 2006
07-204
Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a
result of improved ECD in Western Australia
Year
2003
2006
Floreat
47.22%
14.3%
Wembley
47.11%
11.8%
AEDI
SOCIOECONOMIC
CONSIDERATIONS
06-078
Heckman - Education
Schools contribute little to test score
gaps among children.
Later schooling has little effect in
reducing the gaps that appear early.
Criminal rehabilitation and adult
literacy programs have limited effect.
02-056
Policies to Foster Human Capital
"We cannot afford to postpone investing in
children until they become adults nor can we
wait until they reach school - a time when it
may be too late to intervene."
Heckman, J., 2001
(Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)
Rates of Return to Human Development
03-074
Investment Across all Ages
8
6
Pre-school Programs
Return
Per
$
Invested 4
School
R
Job Training
2
PreSchool
0
School
6
Post School
18
Age
Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003
06-063
Public
expenditures for children 0-17 years of
age, Sweden 1995, by age of child
200000
SEK/year
160000
120000
80000
40000
0
0
2
4
Transfers
6
8
10
12
14
16
Year
Preschool School Healthcare
18
01-050
The principle of free education for
school-age children is already entrenched
throughout the rich world; there would be
nothing incongruous about extending it
further down the age range.
The Economist, pg 16, July 18, 1998
08-021
Canadian Council for ECD
Private sector and community
Educate all sectors of society
Facilitate application of EDI and its
interpretation
Prepare and support fellows to work
with all sectors of society (private
and public)
04-046
Council for Early Child
Development
Objective:
To establish ECD and Parenting Centres
linked to the school system with
outcome research, supported by all
sectors of society, including business
and government, that is universally
available to all families with young
children.
07-098
07-101
Council for Early
Child Development
“From Early Child Development
to Human Development:
Capacity of our Future
population depends on what we
do now to support Early Child
Development.”
.
04-045
Council for Early Child
Development
Chair – Dr. Robin Williams
Vice Chair – Dr. Frieda Granot
Vice Chair – Jim Grieve
President – Dr. Clyde Hertzman
C.O.O. – John Doherty
401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277
Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8
[email protected]
For more information:
http://www.councilecd.ca
A goal of ARACY and The
Canadian Council for Early
Child Development and
Parenting is to close the gap
between what we know and
what we do in our societies –
we know what to do.
01-039
www.founders.net
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