www.
.org
Scientific
Electronic
Library
Online
as a model for scientific communication
in developing countries
origins, evolution, current status, management
and perspectives of the SciELO network of
open access collections of Ibero-America journals
BIREME – Latin American and Caribbean
Abel L Packer
SciELO Operational Coordinator Center on Health Sciences /
Pan American Health Organization /
BIREME/PAHO/WHO, Director
World Health Organization
CODATA 2007 - Strategies for Open and Permanent Access to
Scientific Information in Latin America: Focus on Health and
Environment Information for Sustainable Development, Atibaia, São
Paulo, 8-10 May 2007
2007 - SciELO Geographic and Language Coverage
geographic
Latin America,
Caribbean
Portugal & Spain
languages
English
Portuguese
Spanish
L&C articles in SCI-Exp, % world articles
LA&C articles
Latin American and Caribbean% Scientific
Production
ISI – Web of Sciences
2003
% Country
2003
f% F%
Country
1 070 005 100,00 Total
35 299 100,00 348 225LA32,54
& CUnited States
67 756
6,33 Ibero America
16 324 46,24 46,24
43 272Brazil
4,04 Canada
35 299Mexico
3,30 LA & C
6 602 18,70 64,95
29 634
2,77 Spain
5 640 15,98 80,93
16 324Argentina
1,53 Brazil
6 602Chile
0,62 Mexico
2 972
8,42 89,35
5 640
0,53 Argentina
1
235
3,50
92,84
5 000Venezuela
0,47 Portugal
~12% are published in LA&C
journals
2 972
0,28 Chile
840
2,38 95,22
Colombia
1 235
0,12 Venezuela
840Cuba
0,08 Colombia
726
2,06
97,28
Source: Ricyt, 2006
Growth of publications, from 1994 (base 100) to 2003
Source: RiCYT, 2006, http://ricyt.centroredes.mine.nu/ricyt/elc2004/1.pdf
LA&C publications indexed in international databases – 1994 and 2003
Source: RiCYT, 2006, http://ricyt.centroredes.mine.nu/ricyt/elc2004/1.pdf
Country
Holland
England
USA
Germany
France
Australia
Chile
India
China
Brazil
Argentina
México
Journals - JCR
Articles WoS
total (a)
% (b)
total (c)
% (d)
571
9,58
21.346
2,02
1235
20,69
65.880
6,22
2288
38,33 313.625
29,61
427
7,16
69.808
6,59
143
2,4
47.955
4,53
> 6,3
60
1,01
23.746
2,24
30 8
0,13
2.419
0,23
47
0,79
20.299
1,92
71
1,19
51.219
4,84
16
0,27
14.502
1,37
5
0,08
4.516
0,43
7
0,12
7.659
0,72
Country journals presence in JCR related to articles in the WoS
ISI Thomsom Scientific, 2004 Edition,
Rogerio Meneghini, Abel L. Packer, 2006
(b)/(d)
4,74
3,33
1,29
1,90
1,09
0,53
0,45
0,5
0,57
0,41
0,25
0,30
0,20
0,19
0,17
ISI-JCR
28
MEDLINE
65
SciELO
141
LILACS
690
total
1000-1500
Structure of the indization of LAC journals
2004, BIREME/OPS/OMS
Impact Factor
Distribution
……….
…1 2 3 4
……
Vicious circle
1998
1999
2000
Quartil freq.
%
freq.
%
freq.
%
Q1
0%
0%
0%
Q2
Q3
Q4
Total
3
7%
10 22%
33 72%
46 100%
2
4%
6 13%
40 83%
48 100%
0%
13 26%
37 74%
50 100%
Ano
2001
freq.
%
2
4%
1
2%
9 17%
40 77%
52 100%
2002
freq.
%
1
2%
5
9%
10 19%
38 70%
54 100%
2003
freq.
%
6
9
40
55
2004, Distribution of impact factor of LA&C journals indexed in ISI JCR,
0%
11%
16%
73%
100%
f
publishers
journals
International
system of
scientific
publication
Authors/Evaluation
systema adhere to
Prestige pyramid
impact factor
ISI
Thomson Scientific
Vicious circle
Four
instances
Impact
factor
authors
Production of
journals in
developing
countries is
perceived as
secondary
scientific
endeavour
publishers
Career/
evaluation
systems
LA&C/2006 - projected number of articles according
indexing
Articles
indexed in
SciELO
Indexed
in
Both
Articles
indexed in
ISI SCIexp
Public Funding is provided for
~11,500 articles
~5,500 articles
~37,500 articles
page charge for most of the
articles and for most of the locally
~43,000 articles
~17,000 articles
published journals
~55,000 articles with LA&C affiliation - projected for 2006
SciELO – Scientific Electronic Library Online
2005 – NIH Public Acces Policy
Launched in Brazil in 1997 by 2003
a FAPESP-BIREME
jointJournal
project
– Directory of Open Acces
FAPESP
2002 – HINARI
The State of São Paulo Research
Foundation
2001
– PLOS – Letter, Journal site in 2002
BIREME/PAHO/WHO
2000 – PubMED Central
Latin American and Caribbean CenterBioMed
on Health
Sciences
Central
1999 – OAI
CNPq (since 2002)
National Research Council
1998 – Virtual Health Library
1997 - SciELO Brazil, Chile
Adopted by Chile in 1998 under
the leadership
of CONICyT
PubMED - MEDLINE
CONICyT
with open access
National Commission for Scientific
Technological
Research
1993and
– Bioline
International
1991 – arXiv
Evolved networking national
and thematic collections
since 2000
OA - time line
SciELO: Specific Objective
To improve quality of national and regional scholarly journals
Strategy:
visibilility
accesibilility
quality
credibility
use
impact
Publish collections of selected journals
in open access mode with integrated
measure of use and impact
Select/Index quality journals
complementing ISIS SCI and other
international indexes
Links from articles with national and
international information sources
Move journals from the status of local
and regional towards the international
flow of scientific information
Meta-publisher to promote
improvement of journals quality
SciELO: Specific
Objective
To improve quality of national and regional scholarly journals
Strategy:
Network of
National and
thematic collections
Strategy:
visibilility
accesibilility
quality
credibility
use
impact
Publish collections of selected
journals in open access mode
with integrated measure of use
and impact
Select/Index quality journals
complementing ISIS SCI and
other international indexes
Inter-operate with other networks
Links from articles with
national and international
information sources
Move journals from the status
of local and regional towards
the international flow of
scientific information
Meta-publisher to promote
improvement of journals
quality
WHO is adopting the VHL
Model for Global Health Library
and ePORTUGUESe networks
Virtual
Health
Library
Information
and Knowledge
for the
management
of science,
technology
and innovation
Institutions involved directly or
indirectly in the networks
National Academy of Sciences
National and State Science Councils
Universities, Faculties and Research Institutes
Ministries of Education, S & T and Health
Scientific Societies
International Organizations
www.bireme.org
www.scielo.org
SciELO is promoted, developed, managed and
operated as a network of
national and thematic collections of journals
Coleções
Argentina
Brasil
Chile
Colombia
Cuba
Venezuela
Espanha
Social Sciences
Saúde Pub
Total
Início
2004
1997
1998
2004
2001
2000
2001
2006
2000
SciELO, March 2007
Títulos
24
176
63
22
20
28
31
28
8
400
Coleções
Costa Rica
Mexico
Peru
Portugal
Uruguay
West Indian
Total
Início
2000
2003
2004
2004
2005
2006
Títulos
9
15
21
13
6
1
65
Open access – interoperable
--- OAI protocol
--- Web Services protocol
LA&C/2006 - projected number of articles according
indexing
Articles
indexed in
SciELO
Indexed
in
Both
Articles
indexed in
ISI SCIexp
~5,500 articles
~17,000 articles
~43,000 articles
~55,000 articles with LA&C affiliation - projected for 2006
maximize links – article as a portal
Top ten clicked, May 2006
LILACS
WoS
Google
Scholar
etc.
article
SciELO
DOAJ
OAI
CV
ScienTI
World
Cat
PUBMED
MEDLINE
SciELO
14%, February 2006
Brazil
1,000
10,000
50,000
100,000
200,000
500,000
1,000,000
3,000,000
6,000,000
10,000,000
1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
2002
2003
400000
200000
0
2004
SciELO Chile – articles downloaded 2002-2005
N
ov
D
ec
ct
O
Se
p
Fe
b
M
ar
Ap
r
M
ay
Ju
n
Ju
l
Au
g
Ja
n
2005
Online
inter-library loan
Typical week operation of SciELO Brasil 6 – 11 abril
Países que mais visitam – 6-11 abril
social sciences
english edition
public health
English
Spanish
Portugues
Brazil
English
Portuguese
social sciences
english edition
public health
English
Spanish
Portugues
Brazil
English
Portuguese
SciELO Brasil, 2006, Impact Factor Revista de Saúde Pública
SciELO Brazil – 2004: Top Journal Impact factor 3-year based
REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA
CADERNOS DE SAUDE PUBLICA
ACTA BOTANICA BRASILICA
CIENCIA & SAUDE COLETIVA
REVISTA DO INSTITUTO DE MEDICINA TROPICAL DE SAO PAULO
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIA AVICOLA
FITOPATOLOGIA BRASILEIRA
REVISTA DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE MEDICINA TROPICAL
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE ZOOTECNIA
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE BOTANICA
MEMORIAS DO INSTITUTO OSWALDO CRUZ
NEOTROPICAL ENTOMOLOGY
PESQUISA VETERINARIA BRASILEIRA
DADOS
PESQUISA AGROPECUARIA BRASILEIRA
QUIMICA NOVA
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE EPIDEMIOLOGIA
REVISTA ESTUDOS FEMINISTAS
REVISTA LATINO-AMERICANA DE ENFERMAGEM
0.5387
0.4583
0.4574
0.3468
0.3450
0.3333
0.3322
0.3311
0.3119
0.3064
0.2951
0.2801
0.2692
0.2647
0.2500
0.2358
0.2346
0.2143
0.2135
1,4
Arq Neuro-Psiquiat
Braz J Med Biol Res
Dados
Impact Factor
1,2
J Braz Chem Soc
Mem Inst O Cruz
1
Pesq Agropec Bras
Quim Nova
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Year
Fator de Impacto na Base ISI de Revistas SciELO que Estiveram
Indexadas nas Bases SciELO e JCR desde 1998 até 2004
Citations received in JCR
Brazilian SciELO-JCR Journals
Arquivo Bras de Medicina Veterinária e Zoot
Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Brazilian J of Medical and Biological Res
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
Química Nova
Revista de Saúde Pública
1998
59
207
1008
99
187
937
367
31
241
169
2003 Increase
123
575
1830
214
523
1805
505
98
636
355
108%
178%
82%
116%
180%
93%
38%
216%
164%
110%
ISI JCR, SciELO Brazil journals, citatations received in ISI JCR in 1998 and 2003
increase
2003 Increase
median
0,068
-26%
43%
0,316
124%
34%
0,74
69%
5%
0,31
6%
21%
0,895
90%
29%
0,688
45%
22%
0,119
55%
11%
0,176
44%
43%
0,6
86%
29%
64%
0,223
66%
Impact factor in JCR
Brazilian SciELO-JCR Journals
Arquivo Bra de Medicina Veterinária e Z
Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Brazilian J of Medical and Biological Res
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
Química Nova
Revista de Saúde Pública
1998
0,092
0,141
0,439
0,25
0,472
0,474
0,077
0,122
0,322
0,134
ISI JCR, SciELO Brazil journals, impact factor in 1998 y 2003 and icrease in
SciELO Brazil – collection development, 2006
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Journal
Citaions
received
LANCET
7127
REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA
MEMORIAS DO INSTITUTO OSWALDO CRUZ
NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE
6856
JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
6013
CIRCULATION
5764
SCIENCE
5570
NATURE
5515
6526
6497
5100
PESQUISA AGROPECUARIA BRASILEIRA
4480
CADERNOS DE SAUDE PUBLICA
4253
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE 4104
AND HYGIENE
3914
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE ZOOTECNIA
3910
REVISTA DO INSTITUTO DE MEDICINA TROPICAL
DE SAO PAULO
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
3889
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIA DO SOLO 3770
3752
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
PHYSICAL REVIEW
3319
3312 TROPICAL
REVISTA DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE MEDICINA
3189
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
OF THE UNITED STATES OF A
……
total
943297
SciELO Brazil – 20 titles most cited, julho 2006
SciELO
JCR
cited
citing
Rev. Saúde Pública
rsp
*Cad. Saúde Pública csp
Bull World Health Organbwho
Salud pública Méx
spm
Gac Sanit
gs
*Rev Panam Salud Publica
rpsp
*Rev. Esp. Salud Publicaresp
*Rev. salud pública
rsap
Total
rsp csp bwho spm gs rpsp resp rsap
514 830
17
12
4 132
5
3
259 1240
7
8
9 109
24
10
60 129 678
61 16 140
14
15
32
44
8 396
7
57
29
10
4
8
0
5 296
18 125
0
51 174
5
27
8 181
10
9
4
6
1
9 44
10 131
0
0
13
0
1
5
3
3
21
924 2444 716 519 389 650 341
68
total
1517
1666
1113
583
456
465
205
46
6051
SciELO Public Health – distribution of citations among journals 2001-2005, june2006
Impact Factor SciELO + ISI
fonte
FI SciELO
FI SciELO + ISI
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
2000
2001
2002
0,2803
0,3046
0,3121
2003
0,3564
2004
0,2871
0,4459 0,5172 0,5665 0,5745 0,5215
Articles cited (2001)
ISI journals
ISI journals
SciELO IF
same category with lower IF
2001
(2001)
(2001)
ISI IF
2001
ISI +
SciELO
IF 2001
SciELO
ISI
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
178
1.727
65
4 (6%)
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular
Surgery / Revista Brasileira de
Cirurgia Cardiovascular
49
497
65
0
741
326
54
6 (11%)
0.232 0.020 0.253
20
55
78
8
(10,2%)
0.206 0.172 0.379
Revista do Instituto de Medicina
Tropical de São Paulo
711
144
12
2 (17%)
0.112 0.216 0.328
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de
Medicina Tropical
334
312
12
4 (33%)
0.298 0.183 0.482
São Paulo Medical Journal / Revista
Paulista de Medicina
14
417
107
6 (5,6%) 0.063 0.126 0.189
7
410
173
17
(10%)
0.119 0.089 0.209
35
432
100
20
(20%)
0.154 0.113 0.268
Cadernos de Saude Publica
Journal of Venomous Animals and
Toxins including Tropical Diseases
Materials Research
Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica
0.123 0.155 0.279
0.136
0
0.136
maximize links – article as a portal
Advancing …
1
publishers
journals
Prestige pyramid
impact factor
Scopus
ISI
Thomson ScientificGoogle Scholar
SciELO
2
common search
Articles
indexed in
SciELO
Indexed
in
Both
Articles
SciELO
indexed
in
Auto-Archive
ISIRepository
SCIexp
Same methodology
--- markup
--- links
--- on the fly statistics of
usage and impact
SciELO Brazil Open Access
Is public funding of 1 million dollars per year
worthwhile?
2005 indicators
2006 indicators
150 journals online, about $6,500 per journal per year
170 journals online, about $5,800 per journal per year
9,811 new articles, about $100 per new article per year
8,799 new articles, about $114 per new article per year
60,000 articles total, about $16 per article online per year
68,700 articles total, about $14,55 per article online per year
27 million articles downloaded, about 3.7 cents per download
50 million articles downloaded, about 2 cents per download
Is it possible to become
Is it possible
to become
auto-sustainable
auto-sustainable
?
?
SciELO Open Access Mode
3
Towards a sustainable framework
SciELO as a meta-publisher
Government science, technology and innovation agencies and programs
1 SciELO National Programs
Academic and scientific socities publishers
Public available services for electronic
2
Sponsors
Authors
publishing to lessen radically costs.
Phasing out public funding for paper
publishing
3 SciELO Autoarchive Repositories for
Private publishers
peer-review articles published in nonSciELO journals
Brokers
Thank you !
Open access in developing countries
young moviment – even unknown
ethical approach – results from research as
public goods
different models
OA journasl , ex. SciELO
strong local and regional reception
prejudice persists internationally
preferences of communities
towards the globalization of scientific communication
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