DECS Corporate Executive
Team/District Directors
Adelaide, South Australia
CANADA – Early Child Development
and Parenting Centres
By J. Fraser Mustard
Founding President, CIAR
Adelaide Thinker in Residence
November 14, 2006
03-080
Experience-Based Brain Development in
the early years of life sets neurological
and biological pathways that affect
throughout life:
Health
Learning
Behaviour
03-131
NEUROSCIENCE
04-039
Two Neurons
Axon
RECIPIENT
NEURON
Synapse
SIGNALSENDING
NEURON
Dendrite
04-212
Sound
Vision
Smell
Touch
Proprioception
Taste
Neal Halfon
04-042
SENSING
PATHWAYS
03-012
Synaptic Density
At Birth
6 Years Old
14 Years Old
Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.
01-003
Human Brain Development –
Synapse Formation
Language
Sensing
Pathways
(vision, hearing)
-6
-3
3
0
Months
6
9
Higher
Cognitive Function
1
4
8
12
Years
16
AGE
C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
03-002
Emotional
Stimulus
Amygdala
+
+
Hippocampus
Hypothalamus
-
-
PVN
Cortisol
Cortisol
CRF
PIT
ACTH
Adrenal
Cortex
LeDoux, Synaptic Self
05-212
Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress
Cortisol – Over Production
Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition,
cardiovascular disease, memory, immune
system, drug and alcohol addiction
Cortisol – Under Production
Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune
system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid
arthritis, allergies, asthma
The Myth of the Bell
Curve
Genetics
Nature versus nurture
Genotype
Phenotype - Epigenetics
04-144
Epigenetics and Brain Plasticity
Experience and methylation of DNA
Imprints environmental experiences
on the fixed genome
Maternal behaviour affects DNA
methylation
Can be transmitted to offspring
06-105
Epigenetics
According to Dr. Szyf,
epigenetic modifications in
response to maternal care
occur early after birth – critical
period. The effects are stable
and persist into adulthood.
The Economist, p. 89, Sept 23, 2006
Serotonin Transporter Gene
Experience
in
Early
Life
Depression
03-089
Age 26
Depression
Risk
.70
S = Short Allele
L = Long Allele
SS
.50
SL
.30
LL
No Abuse
Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse
Early Childhood
A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.
06-127
Summary of Brain Development
Environment gene interaction
Critical and sensitive periods in
utero, infancy, and young children
Health Myths
01-010
"Follow up through life of successive
samples of birth has pointed to the
crucial influence of early life on
subsequent mental and physical health
and development."
Acheson, Donald - Independent Inquiry into
Inequalities in Health,1998
Myths
Behaviour
06-085
Early Development and Behaviour
Antisocial
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD)
Autism
Depression
01-012
Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour
Significant correlation with registered
criminality (teenage) appeared for language
development at 6, 18, and 24 months
Stattin, H. et al -Journal of Abnormal
Psychology 102; 369, 1993
02-011
Behaviour
“The aftermath … [of poor early child
development] can appear as depression,
anxiety, suicidal thoughts or posttraumatic stress – or as aggression,
impulsiveness, delinquency, hyperactivity or substance abuse.”
Martin Teicher
Scientific American, 2002
Language & Literacy
Myths
04-200
Early Child Development and Language
Starts early – first 12 months
Sets capability for mastering
multiple languages
Sets literacy and language trajectory
06-106
Level 3
Considered minimum for coping
with the demands of every day life
and work in a complex advanced
society.
OECD, 2000
02-061
Document Literacy
1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 65
Level 1 and 2
Sweden
Canada
Australia
United States
Chile
Mexico
23%
42%
43%
48%
85%
84%
Level 4 and 5
34.0%
23.0%
17.0%
18.0%
3.0%
1.7%
OECD
06-114
Socioeconomic Gradients for
Document Literacy Scores
Mean Scores
350
310
Intern’l Mean
U.S.
270
Canada
Australia
230
Sweden
Finland
190
0
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Parents’ Education (years)
17
19
OECD, 2000
00-042
Sociocultural
Gradients for
Language
Scores
By Country
360
Cuba
320
Chile
280
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
240
Mexico
200
1
4
8
12
Parents' Education (Years)
16
04-153
Abecedarian Study – Reading
Effect Size
1.2
Primary
Grades
Preschool
Preschool &
Primary Grades
0.8
0.4
0
Age 8
Age 12
Age 15
Age at Testing
Age 21
05-165
Trends in Percentages of Reading
Performance Levels at Age 17 (1971-2004)
90
Level 250 +
Level 300 +
Level 350
80
70
60
%
50
40
30
20
10
0
1971
1990
2004
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
06-001
Success by Ten
Early Child Development
Intervene early
Intervene often
Intervene effectively
Ludwig and Sawhill,
Brookings Institution
99-103
ONTARIO
What we envision will be a first "tier" program for
early child development, as important as the
elementary and secondary school system and the
post-secondary education system. The system
should consist of community-based centres
operating at the local level within a provincial
framework.
Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study
Government of Ontario
99-004
ECD and Experience-Based
Brain Development
parent-oriented
child-oriented
1
2
3
4
5
6
age - 0
Components of Early Childhood Development and
Parenting Centres:
Universal – available, accessible, affordable and optional
Parental and non-parental care
Parent- and child-oriented
Quality early child development environments
Responsive relationships and parent involvement
00-098
CANADA
ECD Programs Should be
[First Ministers, September 11, 2000]
Intersectoral
Integrated
Supportive of the child within family and
community
Include children of different abilities
Children in different SES, cultural, and
linguistic circumstances
00-134
CANADA - 2000
Recommendations
a. Matching government grants for resource
mobilization from all sectors of community
- private, public, foundations (including
parental fees)
b. Tax credit for private sector initiatives to create
ECD and parenting centres for employees and
community
c. Tax credit for pensioners to work in ECD centres
00-135
CANADA – 2000
Recommendations
d. Extend parental leave & benefits to 1 year
for all new parents
e. Child tax credit
f. Affordable to ALL families
00-136
CANADA - 2000
Recommendations
To mobilize communities and build capacity,
government funding must be incremental,
predictable and sustained over the long term.
CANADA
$5 Billion additional for Early Child
Development – Year 2000
Another $2 Billion in 2002
06-128
QUAD versus Day Care
Quality
Universal
Accessible
Developmental
Government of Canada, 2002
Canada – New Government
Harper cancelled funding - 2006.
Mothers better than day care
03-116
OUTCOME
MEASURES
03-085
Early Development Instrument (EDI)
Physical health and well-being
Social knowledge and competence
Emotional health/maturity
Language and cognitive development
Communication skills and general
knowledge
02-065
Percentage of Children in Kindergarten Scoring
in Bottom 10% by District - Vancouver
34.5%
15%
8.5%
27.5%
21.5%
EDI, February 2000
06-030
EDI Results – Vancouver Districts
District
Income
$
EDI Results
% scoring in bottom 10%
1
12,000-24,000
34.5
2
24,000-37,000
27.5
3
37,000-49,000
21.5
4
49,000-62,000
15.0
5
62,000-74,000
8.5
05-113
Vancouver
Grade 4 and Grade 7 Tests
Proportion of children failing
to meet Grade 4 and Grade 7
test standards correlates
strongly with proportion of
children vulnerable on the EDI
index at time of school entry.
Measuring Readiness for School Learning
04-053
Percentage of students who
scored in the lowest 10th
percentile in 2 or more domains
Over 25%
Representation of data from “Toronto Report
Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003
Measuring Readiness for School Learning
04-055
Percentage of students who
scored in the lowest 10th
percentile in 2 or more domains
Fewer than 10%
Representation of data from “Toronto Report
Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003
Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02)
04-069
Proportion of students who
achieved level 3 or 4
Over 70%
Representation of data from “Toronto Report
Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003
Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02)
04-067
Proportion of students who
achieved level 3 or 4
Fewer than 40%
Representation of data from “Toronto Report
Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003
06-122
AEDI - SA
District
Cooper Pedy
Leigh Creek
Port Augusta
Roxby Downs
Whyalla
% Vulnerable on One
or More Domains
29.4
42.1
43.1
15.6
27.4
AEDI S.Australia
Toronto First Duty
Establishing ECD-P Centres in five
primary schools.
Participants
Toronto School Board
Municipal Government
Toronto Public Health
Atkinson Foundation
United Auto Workers
Founders’ Network
Toronto First Duty Objective
In 2002, five school-community
partnerships became Toronto First
Duty sites. They undertook to bring
together the three early childhood
streams of kindergarten, child care and
family supports into a seamless
service.
Toronto First Duty Goal
The goal of Toronto First Duty is to
develop a universally accessible
service that promotes the healthy
development of children from
conception through kindergarten, while
at the same time supporting parents to
work or study and in their parenting
role.
Toronto First Duty
Lessons Learned
Pioneered the integration of kindergarten,
child care, family support and parenting
Integration – fair
Bruce School – prototype to further
integration progress
Application to Ontario Best Start Program
First Duty - Issues
Different interpretation continues to
dilute program.
Separate funding, legislation and
governance hampers building an
integrated quality program.
Staff training and equitable recognition
and compensation.
Child care regulation and fees.
Quality of principals.
Role of School Principals
Must understand factors influencing brain
development and the integration of brain
pathways.
Play and problem-based learning integration of
this understanding.
Ensuring all staff from ages 0 to 12, understand
brain development and human development in
the early years.
Is Toronto First Duty a Success?
Overall the researchers concluded that
integrated professional supports
improve the quality of early childhood
programs and improve outcomes for all
parents and children by engaging
parents in the school and their child’s
early learning and by supporting
children’s social, emotional and
academic readiness for school.
04-046
Council for Early Child
Development
Objective:
To establish ECD and Parenting Centres
linked to the school system, supported
by all sectors of society, including
government, that is universally available
to all families with young children.
Early Child Development & Parenting Centres
Putting Science Into Action In Communities
Problembased
play
Parental
participation
Early child
Resources
development
Pre- and
for
and
parenting
post-natal
families
supports
centre
Full-day,
full-year
options
Nutrition
04-045
Council for Early Child
Development
Chair – Charles Coffey
Vice Chair – Robin Williams
Vice Chair – Jim Grieve
President – Stuart Shanker
401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277
Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8
Telephone: 416-849-1332
Breaking Myths
University Disciplines and
Neuroscience - Human Development
Psychology
Education
Health
Sciences
Economics
& Business
Social
Work
History &
Evolution
Humanities
01-039
www.founders.net
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Slides - Slide Shows
References
References
1. From Early Child Development to Human Development.
Editor: Mary Eming Young, World Bank, Washington, 2000.
2. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are.
Joseph LeDoux, Viking Penguin, New York, 2003.
3. The End of Stress As We Know It. Bruce McEwen, Joseph
Henry Press, Washington, 2002.
4. Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations. Editors:
Daniel P. Keating, Clyde Hertzman, The Guilford Press,
New York, 1999.
5. From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early
Child Development. Editors: Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah
A. Phillips, National Academy Press, Washington, 2000.
6. Early Years Study, Final Report Reversing the Real Brain
Drain. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard,
Publications Ontario, Toronto,1999.
7. Vulnerable Children. Editor: J. Douglas Willms, University of
Alberta Press, Edmonton, 2002.
8. Readiness to Learn at School. Magdalena Janus and Dan
Offord, In: Isuma (Canadian Journal of Policy Research) Vol. 1,
No. 2, 2000.
9. Why are some people healthy and others not? Editors: Robert
G. Evans et al, Aldine De Gruyter, New York, 1994.
10. The Early Years Study Three Years Later. Hon. Margaret Norrie
McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, The Founders’ Network, 2002.
11. Choice for parents, the best start for children: a ten year
strategy for childcare. Dept. for Education and Skills, HM
Treasury. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk. 2004.
12. Behaviour (Affect), Literacy, and Early Child Development. J.
Fraser Mustard. Paper prepared for the 5th International
Encounter of Early Childhood. Monterrey, Mexico. 2005.
13. Early Child Development and Experience-based Brain
Development: Implications for the Continuing Experiments in
Civilization. J. Fraser Mustard. World Bank. Washington. (in press)
14. What the EDI Is (Not). Hillel Goelman and Clyde Hertzman.
2004. www.earlylearning.ubc.ca
15. The Balance Within. Esther Sternberg. W.H. Freeman. New
York. 2000.
16. Healthier Societies: From Analysis to Action. Jody Heymann,
Clyde Hertzman, Morris Barer and Robert Evans, Eds. New York:
Oxford University Press. 2005.
17. ECD and Experience-based Brain Development: The Scientific
Underpinnings of the Importance of Early Child Development in a
Globalized World. J. Fraser Mustard. Washington: Brookings
Institution. 2006.
http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200602mustard.htm
18. Success by Ten. Jens Ludwig and Isabel Sawhill.
Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006.
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