DECS Corporate Executive Team/District Directors Adelaide, South Australia CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR Adelaide Thinker in Residence November 14, 2006 03-080 Experience-Based Brain Development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life: Health Learning Behaviour 03-131 NEUROSCIENCE 04-039 Two Neurons Axon RECIPIENT NEURON Synapse SIGNALSENDING NEURON Dendrite 04-212 Sound Vision Smell Touch Proprioception Taste Neal Halfon 04-042 SENSING PATHWAYS 03-012 Synaptic Density At Birth 6 Years Old 14 Years Old Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997. 01-003 Human Brain Development – Synapse Formation Language Sensing Pathways (vision, hearing) -6 -3 3 0 Months 6 9 Higher Cognitive Function 1 4 8 12 Years 16 AGE C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000. 03-002 Emotional Stimulus Amygdala + + Hippocampus Hypothalamus - - PVN Cortisol Cortisol CRF PIT ACTH Adrenal Cortex LeDoux, Synaptic Self 05-212 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma The Myth of the Bell Curve Genetics Nature versus nurture Genotype Phenotype - Epigenetics 04-144 Epigenetics and Brain Plasticity Experience and methylation of DNA Imprints environmental experiences on the fixed genome Maternal behaviour affects DNA methylation Can be transmitted to offspring 06-105 Epigenetics According to Dr. Szyf, epigenetic modifications in response to maternal care occur early after birth – critical period. The effects are stable and persist into adulthood. The Economist, p. 89, Sept 23, 2006 Serotonin Transporter Gene Experience in Early Life Depression 03-089 Age 26 Depression Risk .70 S = Short Allele L = Long Allele SS .50 SL .30 LL No Abuse Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse Early Childhood A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301. 06-127 Summary of Brain Development Environment gene interaction Critical and sensitive periods in utero, infancy, and young children Health Myths 01-010 "Follow up through life of successive samples of birth has pointed to the crucial influence of early life on subsequent mental and physical health and development." Acheson, Donald - Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health,1998 Myths Behaviour 06-085 Early Development and Behaviour Antisocial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Autism Depression 01-012 Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour Significant correlation with registered criminality (teenage) appeared for language development at 6, 18, and 24 months Stattin, H. et al -Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102; 369, 1993 02-011 Behaviour “The aftermath … [of poor early child development] can appear as depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts or posttraumatic stress – or as aggression, impulsiveness, delinquency, hyperactivity or substance abuse.” Martin Teicher Scientific American, 2002 Language & Literacy Myths 04-200 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 12 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language trajectory 06-106 Level 3 Considered minimum for coping with the demands of every day life and work in a complex advanced society. OECD, 2000 02-061 Document Literacy 1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 65 Level 1 and 2 Sweden Canada Australia United States Chile Mexico 23% 42% 43% 48% 85% 84% Level 4 and 5 34.0% 23.0% 17.0% 18.0% 3.0% 1.7% OECD 06-114 Socioeconomic Gradients for Document Literacy Scores Mean Scores 350 310 Intern’l Mean U.S. 270 Canada Australia 230 Sweden Finland 190 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Parents’ Education (years) 17 19 OECD, 2000 00-042 Sociocultural Gradients for Language Scores By Country 360 Cuba 320 Chile 280 Argentina Brazil Colombia 240 Mexico 200 1 4 8 12 Parents' Education (Years) 16 04-153 Abecedarian Study – Reading Effect Size 1.2 Primary Grades Preschool Preschool & Primary Grades 0.8 0.4 0 Age 8 Age 12 Age 15 Age at Testing Age 21 05-165 Trends in Percentages of Reading Performance Levels at Age 17 (1971-2004) 90 Level 250 + Level 300 + Level 350 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 1971 1990 2004 NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress 06-001 Success by Ten Early Child Development Intervene early Intervene often Intervene effectively Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution 99-103 ONTARIO What we envision will be a first "tier" program for early child development, as important as the elementary and secondary school system and the post-secondary education system. The system should consist of community-based centres operating at the local level within a provincial framework. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study Government of Ontario 99-004 ECD and Experience-Based Brain Development parent-oriented child-oriented 1 2 3 4 5 6 age - 0 Components of Early Childhood Development and Parenting Centres: Universal – available, accessible, affordable and optional Parental and non-parental care Parent- and child-oriented Quality early child development environments Responsive relationships and parent involvement 00-098 CANADA ECD Programs Should be [First Ministers, September 11, 2000] Intersectoral Integrated Supportive of the child within family and community Include children of different abilities Children in different SES, cultural, and linguistic circumstances 00-134 CANADA - 2000 Recommendations a. Matching government grants for resource mobilization from all sectors of community - private, public, foundations (including parental fees) b. Tax credit for private sector initiatives to create ECD and parenting centres for employees and community c. Tax credit for pensioners to work in ECD centres 00-135 CANADA – 2000 Recommendations d. Extend parental leave & benefits to 1 year for all new parents e. Child tax credit f. Affordable to ALL families 00-136 CANADA - 2000 Recommendations To mobilize communities and build capacity, government funding must be incremental, predictable and sustained over the long term. CANADA $5 Billion additional for Early Child Development – Year 2000 Another $2 Billion in 2002 06-128 QUAD versus Day Care Quality Universal Accessible Developmental Government of Canada, 2002 Canada – New Government Harper cancelled funding - 2006. Mothers better than day care 03-116 OUTCOME MEASURES 03-085 Early Development Instrument (EDI) Physical health and well-being Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development Communication skills and general knowledge 02-065 Percentage of Children in Kindergarten Scoring in Bottom 10% by District - Vancouver 34.5% 15% 8.5% 27.5% 21.5% EDI, February 2000 06-030 EDI Results – Vancouver Districts District Income $ EDI Results % scoring in bottom 10% 1 12,000-24,000 34.5 2 24,000-37,000 27.5 3 37,000-49,000 21.5 4 49,000-62,000 15.0 5 62,000-74,000 8.5 05-113 Vancouver Grade 4 and Grade 7 Tests Proportion of children failing to meet Grade 4 and Grade 7 test standards correlates strongly with proportion of children vulnerable on the EDI index at time of school entry. Measuring Readiness for School Learning 04-053 Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10th percentile in 2 or more domains Over 25% Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003 Measuring Readiness for School Learning 04-055 Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10th percentile in 2 or more domains Fewer than 10% Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003 Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02) 04-069 Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4 Over 70% Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003 Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02) 04-067 Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4 Fewer than 40% Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003 06-122 AEDI - SA District Cooper Pedy Leigh Creek Port Augusta Roxby Downs Whyalla % Vulnerable on One or More Domains 29.4 42.1 43.1 15.6 27.4 AEDI S.Australia Toronto First Duty Establishing ECD-P Centres in five primary schools. Participants Toronto School Board Municipal Government Toronto Public Health Atkinson Foundation United Auto Workers Founders’ Network Toronto First Duty Objective In 2002, five school-community partnerships became Toronto First Duty sites. They undertook to bring together the three early childhood streams of kindergarten, child care and family supports into a seamless service. Toronto First Duty Goal The goal of Toronto First Duty is to develop a universally accessible service that promotes the healthy development of children from conception through kindergarten, while at the same time supporting parents to work or study and in their parenting role. Toronto First Duty Lessons Learned Pioneered the integration of kindergarten, child care, family support and parenting Integration – fair Bruce School – prototype to further integration progress Application to Ontario Best Start Program First Duty - Issues Different interpretation continues to dilute program. Separate funding, legislation and governance hampers building an integrated quality program. Staff training and equitable recognition and compensation. Child care regulation and fees. Quality of principals. Role of School Principals Must understand factors influencing brain development and the integration of brain pathways. Play and problem-based learning integration of this understanding. Ensuring all staff from ages 0 to 12, understand brain development and human development in the early years. Is Toronto First Duty a Success? Overall the researchers concluded that integrated professional supports improve the quality of early childhood programs and improve outcomes for all parents and children by engaging parents in the school and their child’s early learning and by supporting children’s social, emotional and academic readiness for school. 04-046 Council for Early Child Development Objective: To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system, supported by all sectors of society, including government, that is universally available to all families with young children. Early Child Development & Parenting Centres Putting Science Into Action In Communities Problembased play Parental participation Early child Resources development Pre- and for and parenting post-natal families supports centre Full-day, full-year options Nutrition 04-045 Council for Early Child Development Chair – Charles Coffey Vice Chair – Robin Williams Vice Chair – Jim Grieve President – Stuart Shanker 401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277 Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8 Telephone: 416-849-1332 Breaking Myths University Disciplines and Neuroscience - Human Development Psychology Education Health Sciences Economics & Business Social Work History & Evolution Humanities 01-039 www.founders.net To download this presentation, go to: Slides - Slide Shows References References 1. From Early Child Development to Human Development. Editor: Mary Eming Young, World Bank, Washington, 2000. 2. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Joseph LeDoux, Viking Penguin, New York, 2003. 3. The End of Stress As We Know It. Bruce McEwen, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2002. 4. Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations. Editors: Daniel P. Keating, Clyde Hertzman, The Guilford Press, New York, 1999. 5. From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early Child Development. Editors: Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, National Academy Press, Washington, 2000. 6. Early Years Study, Final Report Reversing the Real Brain Drain. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, Publications Ontario, Toronto,1999. 7. Vulnerable Children. Editor: J. Douglas Willms, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, 2002. 8. Readiness to Learn at School. Magdalena Janus and Dan Offord, In: Isuma (Canadian Journal of Policy Research) Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000. 9. Why are some people healthy and others not? Editors: Robert G. Evans et al, Aldine De Gruyter, New York, 1994. 10. The Early Years Study Three Years Later. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, The Founders’ Network, 2002. 11. Choice for parents, the best start for children: a ten year strategy for childcare. Dept. for Education and Skills, HM Treasury. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk. 2004. 12. Behaviour (Affect), Literacy, and Early Child Development. J. Fraser Mustard. Paper prepared for the 5th International Encounter of Early Childhood. Monterrey, Mexico. 2005. 13. Early Child Development and Experience-based Brain Development: Implications for the Continuing Experiments in Civilization. J. Fraser Mustard. World Bank. Washington. (in press) 14. What the EDI Is (Not). Hillel Goelman and Clyde Hertzman. 2004. www.earlylearning.ubc.ca 15. The Balance Within. Esther Sternberg. W.H. Freeman. New York. 2000. 16. Healthier Societies: From Analysis to Action. Jody Heymann, Clyde Hertzman, Morris Barer and Robert Evans, Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. 17. ECD and Experience-based Brain Development: The Scientific Underpinnings of the Importance of Early Child Development in a Globalized World. J. Fraser Mustard. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006. http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200602mustard.htm 18. Success by Ten. Jens Ludwig and Isabel Sawhill. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006.