Advancing the language and literacy of English Learners in an era of the Common Core Standards Laurie Olsen, Ph.D. Alameda County Office of Education English Learner Institute January 26, 2013 [email protected] English Learners “There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum…for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education…” Lau v. Nichols, Supreme Court The task: To get them to English proficiency To ensure access to curriculum while learning English A moving target under the Common Core Standards _______________________________________________________________________ No English Proficient for Academic work Research on EL Civil Rights Families, Community District Initiatives • Growing Gap State & Federal • Declining progress Accountability towards English proficiency Reforms • New barriers to access • Persistent Long Term English Learner challenge Capacity Prof. development, teacher placement, credentialling, Politics Entering era of converging forces Long Term English Learner Research The Common Core Standards English Learner Research Long Term English Learner Research Long Term English Learners are created…….. Struggling Students K/1 gr.5 gr.8 Long Term EL gr. 10 HS grad English Learner Typologies • Newly arrived with adequate schooling (including literacy in L1) • Newly arrived with interrupted formal schooling - “Underschooled” - “SIFE” • English Learners developing normatively (1-5 years) • Long Term English Learner Reparable Harm research: Californians Together Survey (2010) • Data from 40 school districts • Data on 175,734 English Learners in grades 6 - 12 • This is 31% of California’s English Learners in grades 6 – 12 • Districts vary in EL enrollment, size and context Data collected on English Learners 6 - 12 • • • • • • # of years since date of entry Secondary ELs who enrolled in K/1 6+ by CELDT level 6+ by academic failure (Ds, Fs) Definition Placement Across all districts 59% of secondary school ELs are long term (103,635 in sample) Differs significantly from district to district (21% - 96%) Definitions vary • Nine of 40 have a formal definition • Length of time (years) is part of every definition • The number of years used in the definitions vary from 5 years to 7+ • Six districts include “lack of progress” or evidence of academic failure along with the number of years Their double challenge – our legal responsibility “English learners cannot be permitted to incur irreparable academic deficits during the time in which they are mastering English” “School districts are obligated to address deficits as soon as possible, and to ensure that their schooling does not become a permanent deadend.” Definition (AB 2193): An English Learner in secondary schools who….. Has been continuously or cumulatively enrolled in US schools for 6+ years Not met reclassification criteria Evidence of inadequate progress (e.g., slow, inadequate or stalled progress in English language development Is struggling academically (e.g., GPA of 2.0 or below; grades of D or F in two or more core classes) Building Block#1: Know who your English Learners are -the extent and magnitude of the LTEL issue in your schools Annual Expectations for English Learners Years in US 1 year 2 3 years years 4 years 5 years 6 years CELDT BEG EI INT INT EA ADV CST ELA FBB FBB BB BB+ Basic+ Prof+ CST Math FBB FBB BB Basic+ Prof+ Prof+ Recent survey • Data from 35 school districts (mix of suburban, rural and urban; geographic diversity; small to very large; vary in concentration of English Learners) • Data on 108,609 ELLs in grades 3 - 5 Indicators of Risk • After 5 years – haven’t reached CELDT proficiency • After 5 years – stalled at Intermediate Level III on CELDT for more than two years • After 5 years – scoring at FBB or BB on CST-ELA By fifth grade • Almost half of students who enrolled in Kindergarten as English Learners are redesignated • 52% of those who enrolled as an ELL in Kindergarten are still English Learners • Half of those have not yet reached CELDT proficiency • 1/3 have been stalled at Intermediate level for MORE than two years • ½ are scoring at FBB or BB on CST-ELA Action Items • Adopt a clear definition • Develop expectations for progress based on number of years of enrollment • Use those expectations to identify students at risk of becoming Long Term English Learners • Disaggregate achievement data by number of years in U.S. schools See BB#1 Checklist and data template A school – by the numbers # years Beg (I) Early Int (II) Interm (III) 1 yr. or less 45 30 21 1 0 2 years 9 46 28 1 0 Three years 6 28 45 3 1 Four years 3 17 57 12 3 12 59 17 6 13 51 20 12 Five Years Six years + 1 Early Adv Adv. (V) (IV) A STUDENT ROSTER Name CELDT # years CELDT CST Roster by Expectations Expectation Expectation ELD Benchmark Expectation Almanzar, L. III 5 No No No Barajas, J. IV 5 ✔ No ✔ Cruz, D. IV 6 No ✔ No Escobedo, M. III 6 No No No BUILDING BLOCK #2: KNOW WHAT TO WATCH FOR! Typical behavioral profile • Learned passivity, non-engagement, underlying discomfort in classes • Don’t ask questions or ask for help • Tend not to complete homework or understand the steps needed to complete assignments • Not readers • Typically desire to go to college – high hopes and dreams but unaware of pathway to those dreams • Do not know they are doing poorly academically – think they are English fluent By 6th grade, they have distinct language issues • High functioning in social situations in both languages – but limited vocabulary in both • Prefer English – are increasingly weak in their home language • Weak academic language – with gaps in reading and writing skills • Are stuck in progressing towards English proficiency The continuum: learning English as a second language 1 – 3 years years 7 – 10 _______________________________________________________________________ No English I II Oral, social English III CELDT Proficient CST Basic IV V Proficient for Academic work Big discrepancy between CELDT Proficiency and Basic on CST/ELA Percent English Learners attaining these benchmarks statewide What is an AMAO? Annual Measurable Achievement Objective • AMAO #1 – progress towards English proficiency measured by CELDT levels (target 54.6%) • AMAO #2 – attainment of English proficiency which is defined as “CELDT proficient” (overall Early Advanced, no domain less than Intermediate) - (target: 43.2% those <5yrs) • AMAO #3 – academic performance in English measured by scoring proficient on CST in ELA and Math (target: 67%) Which levels on CELDT are meeting growth target AMAO #1 (Alameda County)? % meeting growth target of 1 level Beginning (I) 70.5 Early Intermediate (II) 68.5 Intermediate (III) 46.2 Early Advanced (IV) 21.6 Advanced (V) 56.1 To get this data for your site…. • • • • www.cde.ca.gov Dataquest Level (county) Subject: English Language Development Test (CELDT) • Select county and submit • Click: CELDT results by prior proficiency • Select the district; and then the site Alameda Co. selected districts District A AMAO #1 met 66.0% AMAO #2B (5+ yrs) met 45.6% District B met 58.2% Not met 36.5% District C met 58.5% Not met 43.8% District D met 65.2% met 52.7% State target 56% 45.1% Action Items • Examine AMAOs for adequate growth and patterns • Conduct walkthroughs and observations, shadow students to monitor active participation and engagement • Build staff understanding of CELDT and data and normative expectations • Celebrate progress See BB#2 Checklist and data template Building Block #3: Understand what practices contribute towards the creation of LTELs – and what may need to change No services - mainstream • Three out of four spent at least two years in “no services” or mainstream • This trend has increased in California schools in past decade Trend: Towards the weakest EL Program Models Other contributing factors • • • • Inconsistent program placements Inconsistent implementation within programs Social segregation and linguistic isolation Transnational moves – transnational schooling Unintended consequences • Narrowed curriculum academic gaps & lack of academic language • Professional development and monitoring are tied to fidelity in implementation of core curriculum packages that aren’t adequate for the language development strategies English Learners need • Interventions as solution schedule filled with inadequate and inappropriate support classes, interventions that aren’t designed for English Learners CONFUSION ??? English Language Arts • Universal Access • Preview/Review English Language Development (ELD) Reading Support, English Intervention Classes The National Literacy Panel “Instructional strategies effective with native English speakers do not have as positive a learning impact on language minority students….. Instruction in the key components of reading is necessary but not sufficient for teaching language minority students to read and write proficiently in English.” On the issue of interventions • CAL (“Double the Work”) - reading interventions designed for native speakers aren’t appropriate for ELLs • National Literacy Panel - good literacy and reading interventions work for both ELL and proficient students - but they work BETTER for English proficient students (gap grows) and do not address some key needs of LTELs • From the 1.5 generation research on college students, and linguistics research - appears that WRITING may be a more powerful emphasis than READING strategies for LTELs In secondary schools….. (from the Californians Together survey) • 3 of 4 districts have no approach to serving Long Term English Learners • Majority of CA districts place their Long Term English Learners into mainstream • Three CA districts place Long Term English Learners by English proficiency level with other English Learners (in NYC, this is the common placement) Typical program placements for English Learners Intensive or strategic interventions! SDAIE Still English Learner, but in Mainstream 1 – 3 years _______________________________________________________________________ No English I II Oral, social English III CELDT Proficient CST Basic IV V Proficient for Academic work Placements NOT designed for them….. • Placed/kept in classes with newcomer and normatively developing English Learners – by CELDT level • Unprepared teachers • No electives – and limited access to the full curriculum • Over-assigned and inadequately served in intervention and reading support classes Secondary school version….. • An EL is an EL is an EL a struggling student is a struggling student is a ….. • “Mainstream” curriculum and classes • Perhaps ELD by CELDT level • Support classes, intervention classes (based on CST scores) that are designed for native English speakers and focused primarily on reading • CAHSEE prep • No electives • Difficulty fitting in A-G So far…from the LTEL research • Clearly defined EL program models (ELD plus access), consistently implemented • Consistency in placement and EL language approach (no ping-pong) • Importance of full academic curriculum • Strategies that promote student engagement as active learners • Importance of scaffolding instruction • No more “Interventions = EL Program” – especially interventions designed for native English speakers • No more “Mainstream = EL Program” Three converging forces Long-term English Learner Research The Common Core Standards X High leverage Instructional Strategies English Learner Research Building Block #4: Know the research, undo misconceptions that lead to harmful practices, New generation of research • National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth • California Department of Education: Research-based Practices for English Language Learners (commissioned papers) #1: Early childhood education makes a difference • Early years of development (cognitive, linguistic, social) are crucial • Quality preschool lays the foundation for better outcomes for children once they enter kindergarten • Preschool reduces disparities and longstanding achievement gaps between groups • Most powerful language policy/approach for preschool is primary focus on home language development So….. • Begin with preschool programs • Active outreach/recruitment to English Learner communities • Attention to supporting the transition from preschool into kindergarten • Articulation, alignment between the two systems (preschool and K-12) #2: Importance of rich oral language development • There are four domains to language development – oral language is key • Producing language encourages learners to process language more deeply than when just listening or receptive. • Verbal interaction is essential in the construction of knowledge • Oral language is the bridge to academic language associated with school and the development of literacy -- National Literacy Panel finding • Oral language development and proficiency is critical to literacy… and is often (and increasingly) overlooked in instruction • It is not enough to teach reading skills alone to language minority students; extensive oral English development must be incorporated into successful literacy instruction • Oral proficiency and literacy in the first language facilitates literacy development in English So…… • Multiple and frequent structured opportunities for students to be engaged in producing oral language should be features of classroom instruction • The amount, type and quality of student talk that is generated is a mark of good instruction • Emphasize complex vocabulary development • Model rich, expressive, amplified oral language #3: Academic Language is essential – complex, precise language is essential • Social, oral fluency (BICS) takes less time to develop than academic proficiency (CALP) • Academic language and literacy for ELs develop most powerfully where background knowledge is also being built – and in the context of engaging with academic content • Learning a second language for academic success requires explicit language development across the curriculum - ELD alone is not sufficient SIMPLE, BASIC, FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE RICH, COMPLEX, PRECISE LANGUAGE SOCIAL CONTEXTS ACADEMIC CONTEXTS X X So……. • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse patterns – and explicitly teach them • Monitor the rigor and complexity of the language used in text and instruction • Set a high bar for sophisticated, complex, precise language in both social and academic domains #4: Language develops in context So…… • Intentional language development across the curriculum • Full curriculum – including rich science and social studies #5. To access the curriculum, English Learners need specially designed instruction SDAIE works when…… • Materials are designed for maximum contextual cues, etc. • Teachers understand which strategies are meant for which levels of proficiency • Students are grouped by level • Instruction is paced appropriately - and key power standards focused upon • L1 is used as a support So…… • Language objectives for content lessons based on analyzing the linguistic demands of the content • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse patterns and explicitly teach them • Professional development related to making content accessible to English Learners • Home language support • Home language instruction when possible • “Generic” approaches must be differentiated (e.g., Balanced Literacy) #6: ELD instruction can advance knowledge and use of English – and they need ELD through high levels of proficiency Daily dedicated time Leveled by proficiency These are related – but not the same ELD English Language Arts Academic language across curriculum #7: Development of the home language is important The home language plays a significant role in development • The best foundation for literacy is a rich foundation in language - not necessarily in English, but in the language strongest for the child and his or her family. • Children have more extended and complex vocabulary and language skills if their home language is developed • Bilingual children perform better than monolinguals on select cognitive tasks • English Learners make more academic progress when they have the opportunity to learn in both their home language and English • Systematic, deliberate exposure to English + ongoing development of L1 = highest achievement in both languages by end of 3rd grade and beyond. “The research indicates that instructional programs work when they provide opportunities for students to develop proficiency in their first language. Studies that compare bilingual instruction with English only instruction demonstrate that language minority students instructed in their native language as well as in English perform better, on average, on measures of English reading proficiency than language-minority students instructed only in English.” National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier “A national study of school effectiveness for Language Minority Students’ Long term academic achievement” 2001 “The astounding effectiveness of dual language education for all” 2004 www.crede.ucsc.edu/research/llaa/1.1_ final And, there are benefits to bilingualism…… so….. • Home language instruction and development whenever possible to high levels of proficiency • Transfer focus and contrastive analysis • Native speakers classes through to Advanced Placement • Create a climate that honors and affirms the value of bilingualism Common belief system • Sooner and more fully immersed in English, the better • Good teaching and standards-based curriculum work for all students and are sufficient for ELLs • English is the most important subject for ELLs – the more hours, the better • Home language holds students back Action Steps • Know the research • Determine which aspects of the research are most important to make known at this point in to order to clarify myths/misconceptions that may be in the way of delivering a strong EL research-based program Three converging forces Long Term English Learner Research The Common Core Standards English Learner Research What are the Common Core Standards (CCS)? • College and career readiness standards developed by National Governor’s Association and CCSSO in 2009 • Adopted in 2010 by California SBE, along with 47 other states • To be implemented in 2014-15 school year • Internationally benchmarked “so all students prepared to succeed in global economy and society” Increased Rigor so Students are College and Career Ready The new standards are the result of a state-led effort to increase rigor and build consensus on what students should know as they advance from kindergarten through high school, so they will graduate better prepared for college and the modern workplace. College and Career Readiness Standards Preparation for Rationale • • • • • By 2018, 61% of jobs in California will require post secondary education. • This is 2 percentage points below the national average of 63%. • California ranks 29th in post secondary intensity for 2018. University Community College Technical Programs Vocational Programs Structure and Organization CCS Anchor Standards • Define what a college and career ready person can do in the 21st century at the end of high school • Backwards map from 12th grade to kindergarten • Show progression for each standard from kindergarten to 12th grade • Have a consistent numbering system across the K-12 ELA standards Four Shifts • Language development across the curriculum • Increased focus on oral language and multiple opportunities for developing speaking and listening skills • Use of more informational, rigorous and complex texts • Emphasis on collaboration, inquiry and teamwork Major Shift #1: From Old Paradigm then Learn English OR Language Academic content Academic vocabulary as overlap Academic Content To new CCS Paradigm: language is central to all academic areas MATH SCIENCE Language* * LANGUAGE ARTS • instructional discourse • expressing and understanding reasoning Shift: Increased focus on Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration Day to day, purposeful academic talk one to one, small group and large group setting Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas Formal sharing of information and concepts, including through the use of technology for all students, across the curriculum Shift: Focus on more complex, rigorous text (+ incr. in informational) • ELLs will need background knowledge to comprehend and critically engage with academic text and at the levels of CCCS. • Practices of a narrowed curriculum and years spent in English and math interventions, support classes and instruction (little or no science, social studies, arts) have resulted in gaps in ELL students’ essential academic background knowledge. Shift: Active engagement in collaboration • The CCSs recognize that students need to develop skills to collaborate in academic work – skills for teamwork, active and skillful participation in discussions, and inquiry-based collaboration. (Anchor standard: Speaking and Listening #1) CCSs alone do not address a pathway towards English proficiency for ELLs • New English Language Development standards aligned to the CCSs (adopted November 2012) • Implementation of CCSs must be accompanied by full implementation of the new ELD standards New ELD Standards aligned to CCS • Language development focused on making meaning, collaboration, comprehension, communication – with content integral to language learning • From traditional notion of grammar with syntax and discrete skills at center to language within context of discourse, text structure, syntax and vocabulary in meaningful contexts • Descriptors of 3 proficiency levels: collaborative communication, interpretation, production of language, metalinguistic awareness, accuracy of production • New adoption of materials in 2016; new ELD assessment for 2015-16 CALIFORNIA NEXT GENERATION ELD STANDARDS aligned to the Common Core ELA LANGUAGE MODES LANGUAGE PROCESSES Interacting in Meaningful Ways Learning How English Works Collaborative Structuring Cohesive Texts Productive Emerging Connecting and Condensing Ideas Interpretive Expanding Expanding and Enriching Ideas Bridging The CCS as Opportunity for ELLs • Many aspects of the CCS align with researchbased best practices for English Learners • Many aspects of the CCS align with what ELLs need to avoid becoming LTELs • Yet the level of rigor and language expectations pose challenges for ELLs. Need for explicit attention to ELLs • One in four California students are English Learners. • English Learners face specific language barriers to participation and access, and have special needs. • Most general school improvement efforts in the past have inadequately addressed the achievement gap for English Learners. • The California Common Core Standards (CCSS)are a major reform of public education that do not explicitly state how English Learners needs should be addressed. Currently • • • • Persistent achievement gap Large number of Long Term English Learners Narrowed curriculum and lack of access Disproportionately high drop out rates Current statewide practices provide weak foundation •Weak or non-existent ELD programs •Lack of use of research-based and consistent programs •Insufficient use of SDAIE strategies to assist comprehension and engagement •Inadequate curriculum materials to scaffold access to content • Many ELLs fail to reach CELDT proficiency, a low-bar for academic access and participation. • Many ELLs become Long Term English Learners stalled in progress towards proficiency and amassing academic gaps. • CCCS calls for ramped up rigor. • CCCS implementation without attention to a basic foundation of English Learner support will fail. • Roll out initial implementation of CCCSs with focus on high leverage areas that overlap between ELL research, LTEL research and CCCS mandates • Don’t forget the ELD standards • Continue to build the understanding, skills, capacity and foundation for strong ELL programs • Professional development for all teachers that focus on the intersect! Three imperatives! Long Term English Learner Prevent theResearch harm! End the creation of LTELs The Common Core Standards English Learner Research Enact what we know works! Realize the Promise; Guard against new barriers!