Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism and
Racism
Week 01
10/7/2015
1
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism and Racism
The learning objectives for week 01 are:
– to understand the origins and meaning of the
terms Western and Nonwestern
– to understand the nature of racism and
ethnocentrism and the reasons why
anthropologists reject both of these beliefs
2
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism and Racism
Terms you should know for week 01 are:
– Indo-European language family
– Thermopylae
– Judeo-Christian-European cultural tradition
– ethnocentrism
– racism
– barbarian
3
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism and Racism
Sources:
1. West and NonWest
Bradford, Ernle. 1980. The Battle for the West: Thermopylae. New York: McGraw-Hill. A non-academic
account of the battle in tremendous detail.
Burn, Andrew R., Persia and the Greeks. The Defence of the West, c.546–478 B.C. (1962 London) pages
342–363, 378–381, 406–422
Hammond, N. G. L. The expedition of Xerxes, in: the Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed., vol.4, pages
518-590
Hignett, C. Xerxes' invasion of Greece (1963, Oxford), pages 113–148 and 356–378 (especially 371–378)
2. Ethnocentrism—What It Is and Why Anthropologists Reject It.
Patterson, Thomas C. 1997. Inventing Western Civilization. New York: Monthly Review Press. An archaeologist
summarizes the history of racism and ethnocentrism along with comments on Europeans who rejected both.
4
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism and Racism
Sources:
3. Racism—the Genetic Version of Ethnocentrism and Why Anthropologists Reject It
Benedict, Ruth. 1940. Race, Science, and Politics. New York: The Viking Press. The classic US
anthropological refutation.
Feldstein, Stanley. 1972. The Poisoned Tongue: A Documentary History of American Racism and Prejudice.
New York: William Morrow & Company.
Gossett, Thomas F. 1997. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Montagu, Ashley. 1997. Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: the Fallacy of Race. Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira
Press. 6th edition. The definitive encyclopedia of theories of racial superiority/inferiority and the biological
and genetic refutations of them.
5
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism
1. The belief that one's own culture is good,
beautiful, or important and that
– to the extent they are different –
10/7/2015
6
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
2. Other cultures are inhuman, disgusting,
irrational, ugly, savage...
10/7/2015
7
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism
…can be present in any culture, but it is
probably most important to identify and
question it in one’s own –
10/7/2015
8
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What's Wrong With Ethnocentrism?
1. It ignores enculturation: the teaching of a
culture by one generation to the next. In
other words, if the person pronouncing
another culture's practices as inhuman,
etc., had grown up in that culture, he/she
would think them beautiful, well-founded,
etc....
Source: Harris, Marvin. 1995. Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General
Anthropology. New York. HarperCollins College Publishers. Page 106.9
10/7/2015
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
2. Ethnocentrism interferes with scientific
understanding. If we make judgments
about something before we investigate it,
we are more likely to misunderstand it.
3. By contrast, recognizing the fallacy of
ethnocentrism leads to tolerance for and
curiosity towards cultural differences.
10/7/2015
10
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
4. Ethnocentrism has led to several errors
of interpretation and to much bad advice
– for example:
– 4.1. Western scientists ignored the
cumulative wisdom of traditional farmers,
and completely misunderstood the energy
dynamics of cattle in India.
10/7/2015
11
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
– 4.2. Western-designed high-tech hospitals
cost more and deliver less of the medical care
needed by many poor country populations.
10/7/2015
12
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
– 4.3. The American notion that milk is “the
perfect food” has led to the delivery of tons of
surplus milk, bringing much grief and suffering
among the 80% of the world's people who are
lactose intolerant.
– [Lactose intolerant = digestive system cannot
absorb the main sugar – lactose – in cow’s
milk.]
10/7/2015Source: Harris, Marvin. 1997. Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General
13
Anthropology. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Seventh edition.
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
European Ethnocentrism: 1400 AD
By AD 1400 the European upper classes had
developed a complex and sophisticated
system of ethnocentrism —including the
categories of
– 1. Barbarians: (Greek: “strangers”)
Treacherous, cruel, illiterate, uncultured
foreigners with different languages and
customs.
10/7/2015
14
Source: Patterson, Thomas C. 1997. Inventing Western Civilization. New York:
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
European Ethnocentrism: 1400 AD
2. Pagans (Latin: “civilian”)
– Rural people who remained non Christian
even after Christianity had been adopted in
the major cities
3. Heathens (Anglo-Saxon from “heath,” a
wasteland)
– Polytheists: not Christian, Muslim, or Jew.
10/7/2015
15
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
European Ethnocentrism: 1400 AD
4. Infidels (Latin: “unfaithful”)
– People following religions thought to be
opposed to Christianity; usually a reference to
Muslims
…and…
10/7/2015
16
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
European Ethnocentrism: 1400 AD
5. Savages (also called “wild men”) (Latin:
“silva,” forest)
– Wild, fierce, cruel, ungovernable, people
without good behavior, hairy, lacking the
ability to speak and lacking the ability to
conceive of a God
– Savages were thought to have fallen from an
original human status to live in the wilderness
like other animals and to survive only by
10/7/2015
17
strength and aggressiveness
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ethnocentrism
We can see ethnocentrism in the recent
history of European and North American
maps…
10/7/2015
18
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Mercator Projection
10/7/2015
19
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Geradus Mercator invented his famous
projection in 1569 as an aid to navigators. On
his map, lines of latitude and longitude intersect
at right angles and thus the direction of travel the rhumb line - is consistent. The distortion of
the Mercator Map increases as you move north
and south from the equator. On Mercator's map
Antarctica appears to be a huge continent that
wraps around the earth and Greenland appears
to be just as large as South America although
Greenland is merely one-eighth the size of
South America. Mercator never intended his
map to be used for purposes other than
navigation although it became one of the most 20
10/7/2015
popular world map projections.
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
During the 20th century, the National
Geographic Society, various atlases, and
classroom wall cartographers switched to the
rounded Robinson Projection. The Robinson
Projection is a projection that purposely makes
various aspects of the map sightly distorted to
produce an attractive world map. Indeed, in
1989, seven North American professional
geographic organizations (including the
American Cartographic Association, National
Council for Geographic Education, Association
of American Geographers, and the National
Geographic Society) adopted a resolution that
called for a ban on all rectangular coordinate
10/7/2015
maps due to their distortion of the planet.
21
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Robinson Projection: Less Distortion
10/7/2015
22
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Many 20th Century
US maps put the
US in the middle
Africa is shown as
much smaller than
it really is relative to
North America, for
example
10/7/2015
23
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Official 2011 CIA Map of the World
10/7/2015
24
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Peters Equal Area Projection
– Distorts the shapes somewhat
– But gives the correct relative sizes of the
continents and other land masses…
10/7/2015
25
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
10/7/2015
26
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Peters Projection Map of the
World
…is the logo for this course.
Can you see why?
10/7/2015
27
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism
…is the biological version of ethnocentrism.
In place of cultures, physical types are
used…
10/7/2015
28
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Racism is…
1.A set of practices
2.An element of institutions in society
3.A set of beliefs
10/7/2015
29
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Racism Is…
1. A set of practices, such as
•
•
•
•
•
10/7/2015
Housing segregation
Separate and unequal schools
Laws limiting the behavior of people according to a
racial classification
Laws against “intermarriage” among races
Genocide: attempts to completely destroy entire
peoples
30
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Racism Is…
2. An aspect of the institutions of society
(institutional racism) such as
• Patterns of income and employment (not necessarily resulting
from specific laws)
• Patterns of health and disease
• Patterns of education and achievement
• Patterns of incarceration, of political representation
…resulting from the daily workings of society, and not necessarily
desired by or caused by particular individuals
10/7/2015
31
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
These patterns are often referred
to as “institutional racism.”
10/7/2015
32
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Institutional racism is the most difficult to
identify and understand and is the source
of a great amount of confusion and
misunderstanding in today’s USA.
10/7/2015
33
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Affirmative action programs were
designed to try to overcome some
elements of institutional racism but have
become among the most controversial
outcomes of the civil rights movement
because of the lack of adequate public
understanding of institutional racism.
10/7/2015
34
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Racism Is…
3. A set of beliefs
In the remainder of this presentation, we
shall consider racism as a belief only.
10/7/2015
35
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Racism As a Set of Beliefs
Main psychological component is:
stereotyping
10/7/2015
36
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
In 1954 Harvard
psychologist Gordon
Allport wrote the classic
work on prejudice. He
defined a stereotype
as…
10/7/2015
37
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
“…an exaggerated belief associated with a
category [of people].”
Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. New York: Doubleday-Anchor. page 187.
10/7/2015
38
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Stereotypes are usually the basis of
“prejudice,” which Allport defined (p.8) as:
“An avertive or hostile attitude toward a
person who belongs to a group, simply
because he belongs to that group”
10/7/2015
39
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Stereotypes and prejudice can occur in
many ways and among any groups but in
the history of the United States probably
the strongest prejudices have been based
on racial stereotypes.
10/7/2015
40
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
We can say that racism is a stereotype
about a race of people, usually held by
some other race of people.
10/7/2015
41
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
To fully understand racism and what is
wrong with it we can make it into a set of
beliefs based on certain ideas that might or
might not be true.
10/7/2015
42
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Montclair State University
Resident and Board Member Ecovillage at Ithaca
Then we can decide if racism has any basis
in fact or reality.
10/7/2015
43
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: A Three–Part Belief System
1. The belief that physical differences
among races represent real genetic,
biological barriers,
…and…
10/7/2015
44
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: A Three–Part Belief System
…and…
2. That therefore, at least some races are
biologically “pure,”
…and therefore…
10/7/2015
45
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: A Three–Part Belief System
3. That some races are superior to others
that are inferior.
10/7/2015
46
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
1. There are no definitive biological
boundaries between the races:
– races have interbred and thus exchanged
genetic material for at least the last
100,000 years of human evolution.
10/7/2015
47
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
2. There are no consistent correlations
among racial traits: skin color does not
predict nose shape, etc.
10/7/2015
48
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
We can see this scientifically by
looking at some geographic
distribution maps:
10/7/2015
49
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
– The traditional four races
– Stature
– Skin color
– Hemoglobin S (sickle cell)
10/7/2015
50
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
The following maps filter out known
migrations and thus approximate the home
base of the various races.
10/7/2015
51
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
First, let’s look at each
characteristic separately…
10/7/2015
52
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
The Four
“Tradition
al” Races
10/7/2015
53
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Stature
10/7/2015
54
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Ski
n
col
or
10/7/2015
55
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Hemoglobi
nS–
sickle
cell
10/7/2015
56
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
Now let’s see if there is any
correlation between the four
traditional races and any of the
supposed racial characteristics…
10/7/2015
57
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Race
10/7/2015
Stature
58
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Race
10/7/2015
Skin Color
59
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Race
10/7/2015
Sickle Cell
60
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
What do you see?
10/7/2015
61
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
What about genetics
and race?
10/7/2015
62
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
3. Recent genetic evidence strongly
suggests that all humans evolved from
an ancient African population:
– we all have Black ancestors.
10/7/2015
63
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
4. Race is more of a social classification
system than a biologically sound
means of distinguishing individuals or
groups from one another.
For details, go to any of the source
readings listed on the beginning slides
of this lecture.
10/7/2015
64
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
5. Racism has led to degrading and
insulting stereotypes of individuals and
groups that bear no relation to reality.
10/7/2015
65
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
What’s Wrong With Racism?
6. Beliefs about racial inferiority or
superiority have helped justify
oppression, exploitation, slavery,
discrimination and genocide; wherever
it still exists, racism continues to
interfere with efforts to build a just and
peaceful world.
10/7/2015
66
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“Do not obtain your slaves from Britain
because they are so stupid and so utterly
incapable of being taught that they are not
fit to form a part of the household of
Athens.”
Cicero to Atticus, 1st Century BC
10/7/2015
67
Source: Benedict, Ruth. 1940. Race, Science, and Politics. New York: The Viking Press.
Pages 6 and 7.
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“The White [here meaning “Nordic”] race
originally possessed the monopoly of
beauty, intelligence and strength. By its
union with other varieties [here referring to
Alpines or Mediterraneans], hybrids were
created, which were beautiful without
strength, strong without intelligence, or if
intelligent, both weak and ugly.”
10/7/2015
Source: Arthur de Gobineau. 1856. Essay on the Inequality of Human Races.
68
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“Judgment, truthfulness and energy always
distinguish the Nordic man. He feels a
strong urge toward truth and
justice....Passion in the usual meaning of
the rousing of the senses or the heightening of the sexual life has little meaning
for him....He is never without a certain
knightliness.”
Hans
10/7/2015
F. K. Gunther. 1927. The Racial Elements of European History.
69
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
The Negroes Character
Cowardly and cruel are those Blacks
Innate,
Prone to Revenge, Imp of inveterate
hate.
He that exasperates them, soon
espies
Mischief and Murder in their very
eyes.
Libidinous, Deceitful, False and
10/7/2015
70
Rude,
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“Comparing them [blacks] by their faculties
of memory, reason, and imagination, it
appears to me, that in memory they are
equal to the whites; in reason much
inferior, as I think one could scarcely be
found capable of tracing and
comprehending the investigations of
Euclid; and that in imagination they are
10/7/2015
dull, tasteless, and anomalous.”
71
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“The innate love to act as body servant or lacquey
is too strongly developed in the negro race to be
concealed...the primordial cell germ of the
Nigritians has no more potency than what is
sufficient to form a being with physical
power...with the mental organization too
imperfect to enable him to extricate himself from
barbarism.”
Samuel Cartwright. 1860. On the Caucasians and the Africans.
Source: Feldstein, Stanley. 1972. The Poisoned Tongue: A Documentary History of
72
American Racism and Prejudice. New York. William Morrow & Company. Pages 37,
48–49, and 103.
10/7/2015
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Identifying an “Enemy”
“There is no difference between Jew and
Jew. Every Jew is a sworn enemy of the
German people. If he fails to display his
hostility against us, it is merely out of
cowardice and slyness but not because
his heart is free of it.”
Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Propaganda Minister, 1941
Source: Remax, Joachim, editor. The Nazi Years: A Documentary History.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969, page 156.
10/7/2015
73
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Identifying an “Enemy”
“The Japanese race is an enemy race and while many
second-and third generation Japanese, born on United
States soil, possessed of United States citizenship have
become “Americanized,” the racial strains are
undiluted…. It, therefore, follows, that along the vital
Pacific Coast over 112,000 potential enemies, of
Japanese extraction, are at large today.”
Lieutenant-General John L. DeWitt, Commanding General,
Western Defense Command, February, 1942
Source: Jacubus ten Broek, Edward N. Barnhart, and Floyd W. Matson.
Prejudice, War, and the Constitution, Berkeley, CA: University of California
10/7/2015
74
Press, page 263.
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Identifying an “Enemy”
“I suppose I should be ashamed to say that I
take the Western view of the Indian. I don’t go so
far as to think that the only good Indians are the
dead Indians, but I believe nine out of every ten
are, and I shouldn’t inquire too closely into the
case of the tenth. The most vicious cowboy has
more moral principle than the average Indian.”
Theodore Roosevelt, from his book, The Winning of the West, a 4 volume work
published 1889–1896.
Source: Gossett, Thomas F. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1997, page 238.
10/7/2015
75
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism and/or Ethnocentrism:
Identifying an “Enemy”
“Ellison’s […taking the oath on a Koran]
will embolden Islamic extremists and make
new ones, as Islamists, rightly or wrongly,
see the first sign of the realization of their
greatest goal – the Islamicization of
America.”
10/7/2015
76
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“If you’re incapable of taking the oath on [the
Bible], don’t serve in Congress.”
Dennis Prager, conservative radio host, after the first Muslim was
elected to the US Congress, Keith Ellison of Minnesota
10/7/2015
77
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Some Historical Views
“Keith Ellison…does not have to answer to
you, to me or anyone else in regards to
questions about his faith.”
Bill Pascrell, Democratic representative from the 8th District in New
Jersey that includes MSU’s campus.
10/7/2015
78
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
Racism: Identifying an “Enemy”
In a private ceremony (after being sworn in
publicly without any religious
paraphernalia) as an elected member of
the US House of Representatives in Jan
2007, Keith Ellison of Minnesota used
Thomas Jefferson’s Koran…
10/7/2015
79
Montclair State University Department of Anthropology
Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World
Dr. Richard W. Franke
End of Week 01
Lecture 02
Ethnocentrism and
Racism
10/7/2015
80
Descargar

Document