treatise presented in the workshop “Ecology of Psychotherapy”
1.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
I thank Prof. Marco Casonato and the Milan-Bicocca University for
having invited me to this very interesting conference.
The title of the workshop immediately addresses toward a vision of a
man immersed in a relational system. Relationships with:
a) itself;
b) other people;
c) natural environment.
A title that, therefore, stimulates, in the psychotherapeutic
field, the idea of an ecosystem inside which the human being
can develop a continuous exchange among interior world and
external world and in active form because, becoming more
and more deeply aware of it, she/he has the possibility of
participating, together with the others, to the construction of
a common satisfying environment.
2.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
By now the traditional psychotherapeutic methods, one by one, seem
incapaple to satisfy so many and subtly linked needs.
Post-modernity, in fact, asks the therapist to found new solution to
complexity that characterizes the contemporary human being.
The necessity to utilize new, more
appropriate to the new western society,
psychotherapeutic ways has emerged also
in the course of the recent
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico
(1-7 September 2006).
3.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Some short passages from the treatises of the Academics Teachers of the University of
Palermo Daniele La Barbera and Girolamo Lo Verso (Round Table: “The Cultural
matrixes of the Historical Self and the post-modern community”) seem to
confirmer these needs of innovation.
1 September 2006
Municipal Theatre - Marsala
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”
4.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Prof. Daniele La Barbera
“The Symbolic imaginary
in the post-modern epoch”
1 September 2006
Municipal Theatre - Marsala
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”
Prof. La Barbera says: we are living a fascinating epoch
because of many enormous changes that require the
capacity – more and more urgent in many ways for our
individual and collective psychological surviving – to
orientate ourselves through the rapid transformations that
more and more overhang us every day; and all of this has
some very remarkable implications, repercussions, also in
the clinic ambit. Today perhaps we can start to delineate
the tracts of a post-modern clinic, that is everything is
“new pathology” or, however, old troubles that nonetheless
appear in a new, very new, manner; we can think, for
example, to the Japanese Syndromes, that initiate to
spread also inside our cultural areas. This allows us the
hazard to talk about a post-modern psychotherapy.
The psychiatric rehabilitation, for example,
is a
discipline that puts together a series of
things, some times in a congruous and other times in
incongruous form, some times systematically and other
times eclectically, but anyway it is the prototype of a postmodern modality to approach the patient, to say nothing
of systemic psychotherapy that has in itself clearly a postmodern hearth …
5.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Prof. Girolamo Lo Verso
“Inside the sea, the inside sea:
the transpersonal among myths
and tales"
1 September 2006
Municipal Theatre - Marsala
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”
Also Prof. Lo Verso, wondering what’s post-modern
psychotherapy, answer that everyone is not an individual
river but a net; this, in the eyes of psychopathology, means
that more a person is suffering (and we have difficulty to
understand and cure it) and less she/he is an “individual”;
more she/he is conditioned by the family, anthropological,
“depersonalized” individual”; probably all this is particularly
true about the grave psychosis since we assume to treat
them with the therapeutic community or with the work
placement, giving to the patient the possibility of
reconnecting to networks. All in all, Lo Verso says, we have
been cured and ourselves are easy therapists about
persons that have the capacity to think their subjectivity;
but when we treat more hard disorders, so as personality
disorders, we need somehow integrated treatments
through a therapists’ group, that is a pharmacological
intervention, a study of family situation, to open
progressively subjectivity-spaces; they are treatments
were the relationship among the therapists is fundamental.
From this view point, post-modernity, Lo Verso underlines,
is exactly all that we have avoided until now: a true
relationship among therapists! With awkward patients the
treatments have to be integrated otherwise they don’t go!
6.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
4 September 2006
Marsala - Convent of Carmine
Prof. Gabriele Profita
Prof. Giuseppe Ruvolo
Large-group workshop "The
cultural matrixes of identity"
5 September 2006
Theatre of Segesta
Dott. Gabriella Signorello
Psychodrama and dancemovement-therapy a workshop
starting from the myth of Ariadne
It appears fruitful the research
experimentation of, above all,
group applicative techniques
and aimed to satisfy the
different need to self-know by
the contemporary man, whose
comparison with not many
years ago, appears today
sophisticated and, after all,
more desirous to benefit from
moments and, probably, from
contexts were the “cure of
soul” is favoured by the happy
marriage between nature and
5 September 2006
Theatre of Segesta
Dott. Rossana Messina
the myth of Ariadne
5 September 2006
Theatre of Segesta
The Bacchantes
Directed by Maria Teresa Cucchiara
Here I report
some short footages by
6° Itinerant Seminar
1-7 September 2006
7.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
The main crossroads of this vast ensemble of theories, models,
operative technique, is surely the dynamic psychology, to
which the dynamic psychotherapy goes back.
8.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
But about this field we must remember the psychosynthesis by Roberto Assagioli.
Considering the epoch when it was elaborated, it today appears really futuristic. In his
article “Dynamic psychology and psychosynthesis”, Assagioli emphasizes the
connexions between psychosynthesis and dynamic psychology. “If we now consider
psychosynthesis as a whole, with all its implications and developments, we see that it
should not be looked upon as a particular psychological doctrine, nor as a single
technical procedure.
It is first and foremost a dynamic, even a dramatic conception of our psychological
life, which it portrays as a constant interplay and conflict between the many different
and contrasting forces and a unifying center which ever tends to control, harmonize
and utilize them. Moreover, psychosynthesis is a combination of several methods of
inner action, aiming first at the development and perfection of the personality, and
then at its harmonious coordination and increasing unification with the spiritual Self.
These phases may be called respectively "personal" and "spiritual" psychosynthesis”.
The therapeutic context of psychosynthesis is however linked
to the classic psychoanalytical treatment - of which it is a
filiation – that is founded on the dual relationship.
9.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
suffering from many
anguishes, but there
model of care.
5 September 2006
Theatre of Segesta
The Blind
(by Maurice
“It is
necessary to
see for
10.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
According to Adriana Lis, Silvio Stella e Giulio Cesare Zavattini,
Manuale di psicologia dinamica 1999
“Dynamic psychology is an extremely articulated branch of psychology and is based on
psychoanalysis. However, even in the field of psychoanalysis, there are various trends
of thought which differ from one another, therefore putting the coherence and unity of
this discipline in doubt. These trends of thought have increased considerably, each
having its own trademark (post-Freudian, post-Kleinian, post-Kohutian etc...) and each
claiming attention and visibility. Are we heading towards a mixture of languages
which will simply cause confusion? The authors underline the elements the various
schools of thought have in common regardless of the risk of eclecticism and "wars of
To the question: What is dynamic psychotherapy? The North West Institute of
Dynamic Psychotherapy (N.W.I.D.P. answers:
“Psychodynamic psychotherapy recognises that problems in the present may have
their roots in past experience, and that current behaviour may be motivated by
feelings derived from that experience. Dynamic therapists work on the assumption
that such problems will emerge in the relationship with the therapist as well as in other
relationships (with family, partners, children, work colleagues, etc.), and thus the
therapeutic relationship is the central focus of therapy. The treatment consists of
developing a therapeutic conversation focusing on the "here and now" experience of
both patient and therapist. Dynamic psychotherapy is used for both in brief therapy
where there is a defined area of difficulty (a "focus"), and over the longer term, aimed
at helping change how patients function in relationships in all areas of their lives”.
11.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Certainly dynamic psychology was born from the demand to include, interlace,
encompass and develop and reciprocally integrate many and at times very different
fields of psychology but however all pertinent to the clinic ambit.
By now it is diffuse in the most of Italian universities as teaching discipline in the
psychology degree courses. The principal problem is that probably, beyond the
common epistemological matrixes, the oneness of this teaching get lost into thousand
rivulets when it has to become a well defined didactic program.
Dynamic psychology, on my opinion, goes up to two implicit risks:
the first is to become a sort of great container were everyone can put, at will, that
she/he wants;
the second is to become a multi-duplicate of various other teaching disciplines.
The tenet subjects of the dynamic psychology often concern: the Freudian thought
and the development of the most important post-Freudian psychoanalytic models like
the model of the object relationships (M. Klein) and that of the psychoanalytic
psychology of the Self (A. Freud, H. Hartmann, M. Mahler), as well as of the other
psychoanalysts that have elaborated original models of development as the so-called
Independent (among which Fairbairn, Balint, Winnicott); the thought of Carl Gustav
Jung; the development and the functions of the Self, the development of the pulsions
and the relationships with the object; the concepts of anguish, conflict, defence
mechanism, motivation, mental space and so on.
All that could also come under a teaching as “History of the Psychoanalysis from the
origins until our days”.
12.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Today the emergent tendency in university field is to associate dynamic and clinic
psychology in only one teaching.
A course, in general structured for instance as the following, can probably
meet the future dynamic psychology expert’s real needs.
Theory and methodology of the research and the assessment in psychodynamic ambit
Analytically oriented dynamic and clinic psychology
Family relationships and community Psychology
13.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Purpose of the course is to form a figure of clinical psychologist, psychodynamically
oriented, who can apply its knowledge to the preventive aspects, diagnostic,
prognostic, therapeutic indication and cure. The theoretical approach is
psychodynamic and psychoanalytic. This approach intends to form psychologists
endowed with a scientific-professional identity able to operate a link between the
basic dynamic-clinic psychological theories and the practice of the preventive,
diagnostic and/or supportive intervention to which they are called to answer.
Particular attention it will also turn to the acquisition of competences in
methodological-clinical ambit, with particular attention to the specificities required by
the dynamic psychology. For this reason a space will be given both to the quantitative
(among which the various test techniques and the projective methods) and the
qualitative, descriptive and interpretative (among which observation and clinical
interview) methodologies.
14.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
More specifically the course intend to prepare experienced psychologists:
- in the methodology of the psychodynamic assessment, through the specific
competences matured in both clinician and methodological ambit, particularly the
methodology of the research in the psychodynamic area; the assessment with
particular reference to the most up-to-date versions of the projective methods; the
evaluation of the psychological treatment;
- in the field of the normal and pathological intrapsychic functioning with particular
attention to the development, inside the psychic evolution, of the main subjective
lived; evaluation, diagnosis and therapeutic indications;
- in the evaluation and management of the intervention towards the parental role, in
the management of the family counselling, in the analysis of situations at risk keeping
in mind that the individual is a part of a wider community context, in the planning and
realization of promotional programs about the wellbeing and the prevention of the
uneasiness at different levels and the valuation of their efficacy.
15.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Another example of dynamic and clinic psychology university teaching, that integrates
also the value in psychosocial and psychosomatic field of such disciplines, is the
Course of Dynamic and Clinic Psychology of the Person, of the Organizations
and of the Community.
Objectives: the acquisition of an advanced preparation in the theoretical, planning
and operational ambits of the psychology related to the disciplinary sectors and to the
professional areas defined as "dynamic psychology" and "clinical psychology", as well
as a basic knowledge within the methodologies of the psychological research and the
social psychology; an ability to take on full responsibility in the planning and the
conduction of psychological-clinical interventions in relation to prevention, diagnosis
and evaluation, psychological support and rehabilitation congruent with the people’s
demands in the groups, in the organizations and in the communities; an ability to
appraise the quality and the effectiveness of the aforesaid interventions; an ability to
conduct the interventions in these areas with full professional autonomy; a knowledge
of the computer tools and the telematic communication within the one’s competence
areas; an advanced writing and oral knowledge at least of one European Union
language over Italian.
16.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Competences: to develop projecting, planning, realization and verification of
psychological interventions turned to single people, social groups, productive
organizations or service, community. The realization of the psychological interventions
involves the acquisition of competences within the followings professional areas:
competence to apply and to use, for the psychological knowledge, the tools of
investigation and survey what the psychometric and personality tests; interview for
the assessment, the counselling, the analysis of the request, the scholastic and
professional orientation, the psychological diagnosis, the support and the adaptation
to the social and working trials; client and verification interviews; tools of analysis
about the organizational cultures; group meetings for the survey of the attitudes, for
the analysis of the interactions, the relationship and emotional systems within the
organizations; application and use of intervention methods turn to the psychological
support of single people or to the facilitation to the change of specific organizational
components. A particular importance will be given to the acquisition of the
psychological tools and methods aimed to support, from the point of view of the
integration among physiological and psychological aspects, specifically psychosomatic,
about the adult individual; to the acquisition of tools and methods turned to support
and to facilitate the change, in the perspective of the dynamic integration between
individual and social context.
17.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Not a long time ago I have written and published (What dynamic psychology means;
in, 18.03.206), that Dynamic Psychology represents the
emergent psychological discipline since, even if it is related to the traditional
psychoanalytic schools, integrates them with the modern theoretical and application
acquisitions especially with reference to the experimental psychology, to the
groupanalysis and the study of the transpersonal world, to the psychology of the Self
and the intersubjectivity, to the family relationships system and the influence of the
communicational interaction, finally, to the various factors that have a remarkable role
at level of community psychology. An interesting sector of the dynamic psychology
concerns the study of the role and the value of the symbolic world (the Itinerant
Seminar "L’immaginario Simbolico" is an advanced model of this research trend).
Today I have matured the necessity to also add the psychobiology.
18.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
In realty, the first theories and the practice of the psychoanalysis, after some time,
have appeared less and less suitable to understand the post-modern man, because of
its demand to not only have a cure about the unconscious problems but also to
benefit from a psychotherapeutic support relatively both to the various real human
and environmental problems met since the birth and relatively to the stress of
adaptation to a too quickly changing society.
Today one cannot deny that the confining the psychotherapy only to the deep study of
the unconscious it is restrictive in comparison to the modern dynamic psychology that
- besides the analysis of the patient's experiential world, the relationship with her/his
parents and with the other important figures of the infancy - extends the analysis to
the cultural matrixes to which the individual belongs and to the problems that can rise
among her/his subjectivity (as unique and unrepeatable person) and the
environmental ecosystem (human environment and natural environment), the
community and the contexts were she/he is formed and has lived.
Finally, a particular attention is necessary about the mind-body relationship because
of the increase about the so called psychosomatic troubles, that is physical troubles in
which psychological factors result determinants.
What still today has been lacking in dynamic psychology it is the capacity to convert
the ensemble of its approaches and models into a characteristic clinic-therapeutic
practise: an apparently impossible task!
19.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
I have to clarify what I have aforesaid. We have already assumed that dynamic
psychology embraces, integrating them inside itself, sometimes apparently distant
research and scientific schools and approaches. We have assigned to these schools a
common denominator which is to have anyway a value in the clinic ambit. The
traditional psychotherapy does not foresee that the therapist mixes two or more
models in the course of a same treatment, evidently alternating them, for instance
that systemic and that cognitive-behavioural or that psychoanalytically oriented. It is
clear that an expert psychotherapist has a good knowledge, for example, not only of
Freudian and post-Freudian theories but also of others as systemic, intersubjectivity
etc.; but to be a good theories connoisseur, and in this she/he will be facilitated by
the end of the fights among schools, it doesn't mean to be sufficiently trained about
the most disparate applicative methods. It doesn't exist a so “totipotent”
psychotherapist to apply with skill the thirty percent of the application models which
can fall into dynamic psychology. But even if a so omnipotent therapist existed her/his
modus operandi would result largely “unusual”: it doesn’t reasonable that, for
instance, for a certain time she/he treat the patient with an analytical method and
subsequently with a behavioural method or vice versa and so on. One thing is to
place side by side to a determined form of psychotherapy another different
psychotherapeutic model, another thing (and methodologically not shareable) is
that a psychotherapist uses, during the same a treatment, now a model and later a
different model.
Before reaching the solution that I will propose you to solve the matter, it is necessary
that you tolerate a short apparent digression.
20.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Unfortunately the whole medical culture - and partly also the psychological culture - is
still anchored to a tradition founded upon two essential aspects: the first is the
dimension typically dual of the doctor-patient relationship; the second is the
hospitalism (in the shape of a bedded patient in a specific department where a pool of
operators diagnose-assist-cure her/him).
21.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
We are still too tied to the cot, to the hospital, to the hospital divisions (precisely
divisions!) (where the share by different experts from those of the department
happens at the most through the consultation), to the series of private studies where
doctor and patient end up remaining alone the one in front or alongside the other
together with the illness. We are too conditioned by the separations, also in the
university teaching: separations among the places of the doctrines (the course of
degree, the school of specialization) and the places of the research (university
department, special hospital division) and the places of the practical learning and
application (training).
How can one do research, prevention, cure, for instance in psychosomatics, without
gathering in the same équipe the physician internist, the psychologist, the
psychotherapist, the histo-immuno-pathologist, the neuro-psycho-pharmacologist, the
sociologist and so on?
22.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
One see the necessity to transform the actual medical and psychological culture into a
culture of the pluridisciplinary équipe, or rather into a culture that replaces the single
therapist with a multidisciplinary net of therapists, the hospital department with the
integrated functional services and the mobile assistance on the territory, the
therapeutic community with the social centre, and so on. The monospecialized equipé
appears by now on the avenue of the sunset.
Luckily in psychology we have an intermediary model, the group model, by now
largely diffused, that represents an evolution - even if probably it still suffers from
some prototypes (Foulkesian, Morenian etc.), that is the treatment of the individual in
a group context; except for the Bionian group, that, on my experience, is a good
formative tool to knowledge the experential group but it is not suited for the clinical
situations and, particularly, when patients are seriously disturbed.
If “ecology of the psychotherapy”, we have said, prefigures a “ecosystem inside
which the human being can develop a continuous exchange among interior world and
external world and in active form because, becoming more and more deeply aware of
it, she/he has the possibility of usefully self-determining, self-adapting and, besides,
participating, together with the others, to the construction of a common satisfying
environment”, we now have to make an effort to find a model of the dynamic
psychology that can answer to such demands on the clinical plan, with the awareness
that only inside this discipline we can find the outfit of potentialities that are necessary
to reach that finalities.
23.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
It is true, as psychotherapists, it is our custom to consider more or less suitable one
determined form of psychotherapy according to the kind of pathology from which the
patient is suffering; myself have made mention of some generic indications in my
publication “Psychotherapeutic methodologies, orientations for not-experts” (in, 24.06.206) but I am not quite happy of it. One will
understand well that the criterion of choice founded on the type of trouble is one of the
parameters for a option but not the only one and at times not even the principal. It
would be sufficient to consider the not low cultural, intellectual (and economic) level
that are required to the patient to undertake a classical psychoanalysis; but all that is
not enough: she/he hasn’t to be in a acute clinical state and has to possess an
adequate insight and a good attitude to the introspection. She/he always will have
perfectly clean her/his clothing (of course because the cot or the sofa must be uses by
the next patient)!
24.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
At this point I would like to invite you to put yourself, for example, in a young
patient’s shoes who to the tensions connected to common anguishes of postmodernity unites the feelings and the frustrations tied up a specific trouble – it could
be a personality disorder, a depressive syndrome, an obsessive-compulsive disorder,
an eating disorder and so on - and to try to mentally trace a hypothetical
psychotherapeutic way.
What form of psychotherapy should this hypothetical patient undertake? How to avoid
that her/his choice to undergo to one determined form of psychotherapy - individual
or group, psychoanalytic, analytically oriented, Jungian, Freudian, ecosystemic, arttherapeutic, autogene training and so on - is fruit of the case, of the suggestion by
the family doctor or her/his aunt or a friend or another patient or, at last, by virtue of
being attracted by the sagacity of the therapist who more recently appeared on TV?
25.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Leaving aside the Japanese Syndrome, the Pathological Gambling, the Substances
Abuse and so on, indeed think we that the contemporary man, the patients, above all
the young people, have to go to any therapy on the model that is experienced by the
consulted psychotherapist rather than on a model appropriate to the patient’s real
Do we succeed in conceiving that before giving the possibility to the patient, as
Girolamo Lo Verso says, of “reconnecting to networks” it is necessary to offer her/him
a net of therapists?
26.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Certainly, from the point of view of the psychotherapeutic setting, the acquisitions of
the dynamic psychology are fundamental for a clinical work that mostly uses the
armchair, the vis à vis therapeutic relationship, the group therapies and the expansion
of the expressive and creative abilities of the person, and, besides, the techniques of
empowerment finalized to allow the patient to find or to recover the strength (or the
courage) to develop a more active role in the belonging community in the bosom of
which her/he can bring the personnel "way of feeling" and ideas and, besides, can,
together with the others, to try to build a more liveable social reality.
Perhaps the time is ripe that psychotherapy, after having consented to the patient to
leave the sofa and to sit down in an armchair, can now cure also allowing her/him to
standing, to move and to find expression through the body, to dance, to narrate
herself/himself through the dramatization and so on!
27.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Now the true new challenge that is set to the dynamic psychology is to find the way
for doing a step forward, a further progress relatively to the therapeutic plan.
I invite you to consider if it is interesting the eventuality that the therapeutic way of a
patient doesn’t happen according to a casual or adventurous string but according to
the opinion of a pluripotential team of psychotherapists, that is a équipe able to offer
- through the different specialization of its own components - a plausible pathway in
relation to a preliminary reasoned evaluation of the case and a periodic revision, in
other terms a real therapeutic program decided with the patient’s compliance and
periodically checked about the achieved results.
I am about to introduce the
Multimodal Model of the Dynamic Psychotherapy
28.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
The Multimodal Dynamic Psychotherapy
The model that I want here to propose implies four conditions:
1) the équipe gathering as mainstay of the work group;
2) the équipe’s polyvalence;
3) a culture of the reception;
4) the équipe members' ability the to net-interconnecting and to cooperate.
1) The équipe gathering as mainstay of the work group
It is necessary to welcome the idea that the équipe is be able to use more therapeutic
modalities in succession or placed side by side with multilevel interventions modulated
following the indications that come from the specific clinical case and according to a
dynamic program established by the multidisciplinary équipe during the équipe
gathering (and stage by stage accepted from the patient). Every therapist intervenes
in the global treatment exclusively with her/his own specific competences and when
her/his professional work is considered essential.
2) The équipe’s polyvalence;
At the minimum the équipe should be made up the following specialist figures: clinical
psychologist experienced
in personality tests; individual psychotherapist;
groupanalyst; systemic family psychotherapist; psycho-drama-therapist; specialist in
expressive psychotherapy; art-therapist; movement-dance-therapist; music-therapist;
expert in psychobiology and neuropsychopharmacologist; experienced in autogene
training and of relaxation tecniques psychotherapist; expert on empowering and
community psychology.
29.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
3) A culture of the reception
The patient has need of a welcoming reception, to feel comfortable
co-participating to a therapeutic project that requires a suitable preliminary evaluation
founded upon the acquisition of all the clinical and testological parameters necessary
to reach a deepened diagnosis.
About the adoption of clinical evaluation means - as the psychological tests precise rules don't exist, but generally one can affirm that, the chose, in the phases
that precede the beginning of the psychotherapeutic treatment, the application
of an objective test of personality (for instance, the M.M.P.I. which is a rather
complete test for evaluating the basic personality characteristic and the emotional
disorders) can furnish important data on particular aspects of the patient’s psyche,
whose knowledge can result particularly profit both when one has to establish the
initial psychotherapeutic program and later in the course of the cure. Instead, the
projective tests (for example, the T.A.T. or the Rorschach Test) - since, proposing
stimuli a little diversified, vague and ambiguous, they also activate in the patient a
projection of unconscious contents of the personality (therefore, they are able, in
some cases, to favour the insight and the compliance of the subject) - it is preferable
that they are eventually employed in the preliminary phases of the treatment
directly by the designated psychotherapist.
Particular emergencies excepted, it is not, instead, suitable to submit the patient to
test during the other phases of the treatment. Particularly, in the final phases, it
could result very useful to verify, also in a objective way, the achieved results, but we
have to be aware that the ending of a psychotherapy perhaps is the most delicate
moment of the whole treatment and it isn’t opportune to insert objectifying
30.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
4) The équipe members' ability the to net-interconnecting and to cooperate
In the traditional formative baggage of the psychotherapists, in general a culture of
the équipe and a specific formation to group-work are missing. This probably because
the practice of the psychotherapy has not sufficiently been studied in its possible
multimodal evolution.
The psychotherapist who work in a public service certainly has a greater familiarity
with the team and pluridisciplinary work and, surely, she/he will have been able to
discover some advantages of this form of organization, at least in the more complex
and more intricate clinical situations. Repeatedly I have proposed for the mental
health services a model of cooperation that metaphorically goes back to the chess
play (in fact, in the chessboard every piece has its own movements and a proper
functional dynamism; A. Anania “The fourth element”, in, edited by G. Lo Verso, T.
Federico, G. lo Coco, “Il lavoro clinico con i gruppi nel sociale” , Borla Ed.; Rome;
2000), but the multimodal model has an extra and different something from the chess
play, in fact it implies an interactive ability over that cooperative.
The group training (groupanalysis, Bionian experiential group, and so on) appears
useful to acquire the aforesaid abilities.
31.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Advantages of the Multimodal Dynamic Psychotherapy
The first advantage of the model is to offer to the patient, if it needs, the different
psychotherapeutic potentialities that can be attributed today to the dynamic
psychology but that never the single one, also plurispecialized, psychotherapist could
develop. Contemporarily the same psychotherapist is relieved about the heaviness
and the risks (of failing in the treatment) connected to the isolated work, especially
in the more serious and difficult clinical cases. Besides, the dynamic multimodal
équipe offers to every of its components continuous possibilities of cognitive
enrichment, support, exchange, sharing, monitoring and supervision otherwise
relegated to the ritual moments foreseen by the different schools of affiliation.
But it is above all the patient to benefit from the team operational light in the different
phases of the treatment. In fact, it is not a foregone conclusion that it is preferable to
adopt initially an individual psychotherapeutic treatment rather than a psychoanalytic
group or a family therapy, or that one has to undertake an analytical psychotherapy
without contemporarily to benefit from the participation to movement-dance-therapy
group and so on. The équipe is probably more “prudent” and “wise” to appraise and
to decide what, among the different reasonable therapeutic ways, can result the most
suitable to a datum moment and to operate, if the verification of the results of the
treatment is disappointing, the necessary changes of “setting” (readjustment
relatively the therapeutic program).
32.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Disadvantages of the Multimodal Dynamic Psychotherapy
They are the disadvantages common to all the contexts organized on the teamgroup:
a) the interpersonal dynamics;
b) the role conflicts;
c) the power plays.
Everything, however, point to the fact that these events in a working group composed
by psychotherapists are minimal if not entirely excluded!
33.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Avv. Fabio D’Anna
“The space of soul in the technology
age - among norm, visions
and language”
1 September 2006
Municipal Theatre - Marsala
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”
The lawyer Fabio D’Anna says “also the myths, the
gods seem eroded by the disenchantment of the world”.
In D’Anna’s opinion, the contemporary man “ cannot
find an escape in the social organization, not in the
economy, not in the rule (that ends up to be imprisoned
by a logic that makes to coincide the existence with the
job and that therefore it doesn't exhaust the wealth of
man) but in the return to the sentiment, to the caress
the soul, to listen again its song”. Perhaps “the poetry”,
says D’Anna evoking Giacomo Leopardi, “bringing back
us to the song and the archaic feast, can allow us, both
as beneficiaries and as creators, to found a way of
knowledge of the soul, of listening to other and to
The poet Prof. Antonino Contiliano
and the guitar of the
musician Gino De Vita
6 September 2006
Convent of Carmine - Marsala
6° Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”
34.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Psychotherapy as a voyage.
A true voyage, starting from the meeting and knowing places and the people, allows
the individual also a trip into her/his past, in the present and into her/his future; in
synthesis in the personal psychological interiority. The trip has a strong symbolic
value, therefore, as a psychotherapy, involves always a process of personal
transformation. If our purpose is to tend to an ecology of the psychotherapy, we
perhaps have to learn also to resort to experiences that, as the Itinerant Seminar
“L’Immaginario Simbolico”, beginning from the happy marriage between nature and
culture, through the recovery of the Historical Self and the activation of the imaginal
world, allow the partakers to taste a healing full immersion in the soul.
If this kind of immersions can be counted among the “experiences alongside” a
psychotherapeutic treatment within the multimodal model is too soon to state it
with certainty, but in every case they introduce an interesting research trend in the
field of the dynamic psychology.
5 September 2006
Theatre of Segesta
The Bacchantes
Directed by Maria Teresa Cucchiara
Temple of Segesta
35.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©
Alfredo Anania
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36.The Multimodal model of dynamic psychotherapy.17.11.2006©