PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
11
Programme for International Student Assessment
Strong performers and
successful reformers
The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national
standards alone but the best performing education systems
Andreas Schleicher
Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy
Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, EDU
PISA
PISA 2009 in brief
PISA countries in 2001
2003
2000
2009
2006
1998
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011

OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
22
Coverage
world economy 83%
Over half
a million of
students…
81%
77%
86%
85%
87%

representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 74* countries/economies
… took an internationally agreed 2-hour test…
Goes beyond testing whether students can
reproduce what they were taught…
… to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they
know and creatively apply their knowledge in novel situations

… and responded to questions on…


their personal background, their schools
and their engagement with learning and school
Parents, principals and system leaders provided data on…

*
school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors
that help explain performance differences .
Data for Costa Rica, Georgia, India, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Venezuela and Vietnam will be published in December 2011
PISA
PISA 2009 in brief

PISA countries in 2001
2003
2000
2009
2006
1998
Key principles
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011

OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
44
world economy
‘CrowdCoverage
sourcing’ andof
collaboration
83%
81%
77%
86%
85%
87%
– PISA draws together leading expertise and institutions from
participating countries to develop instruments and methodologies…
… guided by governments on the basis of shared policy interests

Cross-national relevance and transferability of policy experiences
– Emphasis on validity across cultures, languages and systems
– Frameworks built on well-structured conceptual understanding
of assessment areas and contextual factors

Triangulation across different stakeholder perspectives
– Systematic integration of insights from students, parents,
school principals and system-leaders

Advanced methods with different grain sizes
– A range of methods to adequately measure intended constructs with
different grain sizes to serve different decision-making needs
– Productive feedback, at appropriate levels of detail, to fuel
improvement at multiple levels .
PISA
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
55
What 15-year-olds can do
Shanghai-China
High reading performance
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
Singapore
New Zealand
Japan
Australia
Belgium
Poland, Switzerland
United States
Germany, Sweden
France, Ireland
Hungary, United Kingdom
Macao-China
Slovenia
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
66
Slovak Republic, Czech Republic
Luxembourg, Israel
Austria
Dubai (UAE)
Average performance
of 15-year-olds in
540.000
Korea
reading – extrapolate
Finland
Hong Kong-China
and apply
Canada
520.000
Netherlands
Norway , Estonia
Iceland
500.000
Liechtenstein
Chinese Taipei
Denmark
Portugal
Italy
Latvia
Greece
480.000
Spain
Croatia
Lithuania
Turkey
460.000
Russian Federation
Chile
Serbia
440.000
55
45
35
25
… 17 countries perform below this line
Low reading performance
High reading performance
PISA
High average performance
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
Large socio-economic disparities
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
77
Average performance
15-year-olds
Highof
average
performancein
science – extrapolate
High social equity
and apply
Strong socioeconomic impact on
student performance
Socially equitable
distribution of learning
opportunities
Low average performance
Low average performance
Large socio-economic disparities
High social equity
Low reading performance
High reading performance
2009
PISA
High average performance
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
Large socio-economic disparities
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
88
Durchschnittliche
High average performance
Schülerleistungen im
High social equity
Bereich Mathematik
Strong socioeconomic impact on
student performance
Socially equitable
distribution of learning
opportunities
Low average performance
Low average performance
Large socio-economic disparities
High social equity
Low reading performance
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
School performance and socio-economic background
Poland
Private school
Public school in rural area
Public school in urban area
Score
700
Student performance
PISA
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
13
13
593
300
-2
Disadvantage
-1
0
1
PISA Index of socio-economic background
2
Advantage
PISA
60
50
40
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
%
80
70
10
0
Shanghai-China
Hong Kong-China
Korea
Macao-China
Singapore
Finland
Japan
Turkey
Canada
Portugal
Chinese Taipei
Poland
New Zealand
Spain
Liechtenstein
Estonia
Netherlands
Italy
Switzerland
Latvia
Australia
OECD average
France
Belgium
Ireland
Iceland
Mexico
United States
Greece
Thailand
Croatia
Tunisia
Norway
Hungary
Sweden
Slovenia
Indonesia
Denmark
Chile
United Kingdom
Israel
Colombia
Germany
Brazil
Czech Republic
Slovak Republic
Luxembourg
Lithuania
Austria
Russian Federation
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Serbia
Jordan
Albania
Argentina
Dubai (UAE)
Romania
Bulgaria
Panama
Montenegro
Kazakhstan
Peru
Azerbaijan
Qatar
Kyrgyzstan
What students know and can do
30
20
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
14
14
Percentage of resilient students among
disadvantaged students
Resilient student: Comes from the bottom
quarter of the socially most disadvantaged
students but performs among the top quarter of
students internationally (after accounting for
social background)
Less than 15% resilient
students among
disadvantaged students
More than 30% resilient
students among
disadvantaged students
Between 15%-30% of resilient
students among
disadvantaged students
PISA
Policy
Policies and practices
R
R
System
E
School
Equity
Andreas Schleicher
7 December 2010
Learning climate
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
18
18
Discipline

Teacher behaviour

Parental pressure

Teacher-student
relationships

Dealing with heterogeneity
Grade repetition




Prevalence of tracking
Expulsions



Ability grouping
(all subjects)



Standards /accountability
Nat. examination

PISA
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
19
19
Does it all matter?
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
20
20
Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21
associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)
after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue,
place of residence, parental, education and family income
(reference group PISA Level 1)
Odds ratio
higher
education
20
entry
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Age 19
Age 21
Age 21
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
PISA
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
22
22
What does it all mean?
PISA

A commitment to education and the belief
that competencies can be learned and
therefore all children can achieve
Universal educational standards and
personalisation as the approach to
heterogeneity in the student body…
… as opposed to a belief that students have
different destinations to be met with different
Lessons
from PISA
expectations,
and selection/stratification
as
the approach to heterogeneity
on successful

Clear articulation who is responsible for
ensuring student success and to whom
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011

OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
25
25
education systems
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
28
28

Clear ambitious goals that are shared across
the system and aligned with high stakes
gateways and instructional systems
Well established delivery chain through which
curricular goals translate into instructional
systems, instructional practices and student
learning (intended, implemented and achieved)

High level of
metacognitive
Lessons
from
PISAcontent of
instruction

on successful
education systems
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
29
29

Capacity at the point of delivery
Attracting, developing and retaining high quality
teachers and
school PISA
leaders and a work
Lessons
from
organisation in which they can use their
on successful
potential

Instructional leadership
and human resource
education
systems
management in schools

Keeping teaching an attractive profession

System-wide career development

PISA

Incentives, accountability, knowledge management
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011

OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
30
30
Aligned incentive structures
For students


How gateways affect the strength, direction, clarity and nature of
the incentives operating on students at each stage of their education
Degree to which students have incentives to take tough courses and
study hard
Opportunity costs for staying in school and performing well
Lessons from PISA
For teacherson successful
Make innovations in pedagogy and/or organisation
systems
Improveeducation
their own performance







and the performance of their colleagues
Pursue professional development opportunities
that lead to stronger pedagogical practices
A balance between vertical and lateral accountability
Effective instruments to manage and share knowledge and
spread innovation – communication within the system and
with stakeholders around it
A capable centre with authority and legitimacy to act
PISA
How much autonomy individual schools have
over resource allocation
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
Selecting teachers for hire, OECD
average
Poland
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
31
31
Only "regional
and/or national
education authority"
Firing teachers, OECD average
Poland
Establishing teachers’ starting
salaries, OECD average
Poland
Both "principals
and/or teachers"
and "regional and/or
national education
authority"
Determining teachers’ salaries
increases, OECD average
Poland
Formulating the school budget,
OECD average
Poland
Only "principals
and/or teachers"
Deciding on budget allocations
within the school, OECD average
Poland
0%
20%
40%
60%
80% 100%
PISA
How much autonomy individual schools have
over curricula and assessment
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
Establishing student assessment
policies, OECD average
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
32
32
Only "regional
and/or national
education
authority"
Poland
Choosing which textbooks are used,
OECD average
Poland
Both "principals
and/or teachers"
and "regional
and/or national
education
authority"
Determining course content, OECD
average
Poland
Only "principals
and/or teachers"
Deciding which courses are offered,
OECD average
Poland
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
School autonomy, accountability
and student performance
PISA
Impact of school autonomy on performance in systems with and without
PISA score in reading
accountability arrangements
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
500
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
33
33
495
490
School autonomy in resource
allocation
Schools with more autonomy
480
Schools with less autonomy
Systems with more
accountability
Systems with less
accountability
System’s accountability arrangements
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
34
34
Local responsibility
and system-level prescription
Trend in OECD countries
System-level prescription
‘Tayloristic’ work organisation
Schools today
The industrial
model, detailed
prescription of
what schools do
Schools
tomorrow?
Building capacity
Finland today
Every school an
effective school
Schools leading reform
Teachers as ‘knowledge workers’
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
36
36
Lessons from PISA
on successful
education systems

Investing resources where they can make
most of a difference


Alignment of resources with key challenges (e.g.
attracting the most talented teachers to the
most challenging classrooms)
Effective spending choices that prioritise high
quality teachers over smaller classes
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
37
37
PISA
A learning system
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment



An outward orientation of the system to keep
Lessons from PISA
the system learning, international benchmarks
as the ‘eyes’ and ‘ears’ on
of the
system
successful
Recognising challenges and potential future
threats to current success, learning from them,
designing responses and implementing these
education systems
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011

OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
38
38
 Coherence of policies and practices



Alignment of policies
across all aspects of the system
Coherence of policies
over sustained periods of time
Consistency of implementation
Fidelity of implementation
(without excessive
control) from
Lessons
PISA
on successful
education systems
PISA
Education reform trajectories
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
The old bureaucratic system
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
39
39
Some students learn at high levels
Student inclusion
The modern enabling system
All students need to learn at high levels
Curriculum, instruction and assessment
Routine cognitive skills, rote learning
Learning to learn, complex ways of
thinking, ways of working
Teacher quality
Few years more than secondary
High-level professional knowledge workers
Work organisation
‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical
Flat, collegial
Accountability
Primarily to authorities
Primarily to peers and stakeholders
PISA
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
40
40
Beyond schooling
PISA
-10
Qatar
Panama
Italy
Chile
New Zealand
Hungary
Portugal
Macao-China
Korea
Hong Kong-China
Croatia
60
Denmark
Germany
Lithuania
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
What students know and can do
Score point difference
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
41
Parental support at the beginning of
41
primary school
Score point difference between students whose parents often do
(weekly or daily) and those who do not:
"talk about what they had done"
50
40
30
20
10
0
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
120
20
0
Israel
Singapore
Belgium
Qatar
Macao-China
Italy
France
Hong Kong-China
Switzerland
Denmark
United Kingdom
Liechtenstein
Dubai (UAE)
Greece
Kyrgyzstan
Uruguay
Argentina
Shanghai-China
Germany
Spain
New Zealand
Australia
Slovak Republic
Sweden
Brazil
Hungary
Luxembourg
Mexico
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
Canada
OECD average
Chinese Taipei
Indonesia
Poland
Iceland
Kazakhstan
Panama
Romania
Czech Republic
Japan
Tunisia
Peru
Austria
Jordan
Bulgaria
Norway
Albania
Azerbaijan
Russian Federation
Colombia
Portugal
Chile
United States
Lithuania
Turkey
Serbia
Montenegro
Netherlands
Ireland
Slovenia
Croatia
Finland
Korea
Latvia
Estonia
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
difference
pointWhat
Score
students know and can do
PISA
42
42
Beyond schooling
Performance difference between students who had attended preprimary school for more than one year and those who did not
100
80
60
40
Observed performance advantage
Performance advantage after
accounting for socio-economic factors
PISA
Andreas Schleicher
Warsaw, 10 February 2011
OECD Programme for
International Student Assessment
What students know and can do
47
47
Find out more about PISA at…
 OECD www.pisa.oecd.org
– All national and international publications
– The complete micro-level database

U.S. White House www.data.gov

Email: [email protected]
Thank you !
… and remember:
Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
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