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Chapter 1
File Systems and Databases
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and
Management, Fifth Edition, Rob and Coronel
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In this chapter, you will learn:
• What a database is, what it does, and why
database design is important
• How modern databases evolved from files and file
systems
• About flaws in file system data management
• What a DBMS is, what it does, and how it fits into
the database system
• About types of database systems and database
models
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Introducing the Database
• Data versus Information
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Data constitute building blocks of information
Information produced by processing data
Information reveals meaning of data
Good, timely, relevant information key to decision
making
– Good decision making key to organizational
survival
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Management
• Database is shared, integrated computer
structure housing:
– End user data
– Metadata
• Database Management System (DBMS)
– Manages Database structure
– Controls access to data
– Contains query language
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Importance of DBMS
• Makes data management more efficient and
effective
• Query language allows quick answers to ad
hoc queries
• Provides better access to more and bettermanaged data
• Promotes integrated view of organization’s
operations
• Reduces the probability of inconsistent data
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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DBMS Manages Interaction
Figure 1.2
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Design
• Importance of Good Design
– Poor design results in unwanted data redundancy
– Poor design generates errors leading to bad
decisions
• Practical Approach
– Focus on principles and concepts of database
design
– Importance of logical design
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Historical Roots of Database
• First applications focused on clerical tasks
• Requests for information quickly followed
• File systems developed to address needs
– Data organized according to expected use
– Data Processing (DP) specialists computerized
manual file systems
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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File Terminology
• Data
– Raw Facts
• Field
– Group of characters with specific meaning
• Record
– Logically connected fields that describe a person,
place, or thing
• File
– Collection of related records
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Simple File System
Figure 1.5
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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File System Critique
• File System Data Management
– Requires extensive programming in thirdgeneration language (3GL)
– Time consuming
– Makes ad hoc queries impossible
– Leads to islands of information
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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File System Critique (con’t.)
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Data Dependence
– Change in file’s data characteristics requires
modification of data access programs
– Must tell program what to do and how
– Makes file systems cumbersome from
programming and data management views
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Structural Dependence
– Change in file structure requires modification of
related programs
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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File System Critique (con’t.)
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Field Definitions and Naming Conventions
– Flexible record definition anticipates reporting
requirements
– Selection of proper field names important
– Attention to length of field names
– Use of unique record identifiers
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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File System Critique (con’t.)
•
Data Redundancy
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Different and conflicting versions of same data
Results of uncontrolled data redundancy
• Data anomalies
– Modification
– Insertion
– Deletion
• Data inconsistency
– Lack of data integrity
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Systems
• Database consists of logically related data stored
in a single repository
• Provides advantages over file system
management approach
– Eliminates inconsistency, data anomalies, data
dependency, and structural dependency problems
– Stores data structures, relationships, and access
paths
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database vs. File Systems
Figure 1.6
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database System Environment
Figure 1.7
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database System Types
• Single-user vs. Multiuser Database
– Desktop
– Workgroup
– Enterprise
• Centralized vs. Distributed
• Use
– Production or transactional
– Decision support or data warehouse
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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DBMS Functions
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Data dictionary management
Data storage management
Data transformation and presentation
Security management
Multiuser access control
Backup and recovery management
Data integrity management
Database language and application
programming interfaces
• Database communication interfaces
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Models
• Collection of logical constructs used to represent
data structure and relationships within the
database
– Conceptual models: logical nature of data
representation
– Implementation models: emphasis on how the data
are represented in the database
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Models (con’t.)
• Relationships in Conceptual Models
– One-to-one (1:1)
– One-to-many (1:M)
– Many-to-many (M:N)
• Implementation Database Models
– Hierarchical
– Network
– Relational
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Hierarchical Database Model
• Logically represented by an upside down tree
– Each parent can have many children
– Each child has only one parent
Figure 1.8
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Hierarchical Database Model
• Advantages
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Conceptual simplicity
Database security and integrity
Data independence
Efficiency
• Disadvantages
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Complex implementation
Difficult to manage and lack of standards
Lacks structural independence
Applications programming and use complexity
Implementation limitations
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Network Database Model
• Each record can have multiple parents
– Composed of sets
– Each set has owner record and member record
– Member may have several owners
Figure
1.10
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Network Database Model
• Advantages
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Conceptual simplicity
Handles more relationship types
Data access flexibility
Promotes database integrity
Data independence
Conformance to standards
• Disadvantages
– System complexity
– Lack of structural independence
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Relational Database Model
• Perceived by user as a collection of tables for
data storage
• Tables are a series of row/column intersections
• Tables related by sharing common entity
characteristic(s)
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Relational Database Model (con’t.)
Figure 1.11
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Relational Database Model
• Advantages
– Structural independence
– Improved conceptual simplicity
– Easier database design, implementation,
management, and use
– Ad hoc query capability with SQL
– Powerful database management system
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Relational Database Model
• Disadvantages
– Substantial hardware and system software
overhead
– Poor design and implementation is made easy
– May promote “islands of information” problems
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Entity Relationship Database Model
• Complements the relational data model concepts
• Represented in an entity relationship diagram
(ERD)
• Based on entities, attributes, and relationships
Figure 1.13
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Entity Relationship Database Model
• Advantages
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Exceptional conceptual simplicity
Visual representation
Effective communication tool
Integrated with the relational database model
• Disadvantages
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Limited constraint representation
Limited relationship representation
No data manipulation language
Loss of information content
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Object-Oriented Database Model
• Objects or abstractions of real-world entities are
stored
– Attributes describe properties
– Collection of similar objects is a class
• Methods represent real world actions of classes
• Classes are organized in a class hierarchy
– Inheritance is ability of object to inherit attributes
and methods of classes above it
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Comparison of OO
and E-R Data Models
Figure 1.15
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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OO Data Model
• Advantages
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Adds semantic content
Visual presentation includes semantic content
Database integrity
Both structural and data independence
• Disadvantages
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Lack of OODM
Complex navigational data access
Steep learning curve
High system overhead slows transactions
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Development of Data Models
Figure 1.16
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Database Models and the Internet
• Characteristics of “Internet age” databases
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Flexible, efficient, and secure Internet access
Easily used, developed, and supported
Supports complex data types and relationships
Seamless interfaces with multiple data sources
and structures
– Simplicity of conceptual database model
– Many database design, implementation, and
application development tools
– Powerful DBMS GUI make DBA job easier
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 5th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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