All the Mornings of the World
All the Mornings of the World
The Novel vs. the Film
All the World’s Mornings
Novel vs. Film
All the Mornings of the World
All the World’s Mornings
Novel vs. Film
What Quignard actually knew:
• Sainte-Colombe taught Jean Rousseau,
who reports he added the seventh string to
the viol.
• was a compatriot of Michel Colichon, a
famous instrument maker.
• gave concerts with his two daughters.
• wrote beautiful haunting compositions: 67
suites for two viols and 180 solos.
• practiced in a garden cabin
• would play unknowingly for Marais, who listened
under the cabin after his lessons with S-C were
discontinued.
• had a son Francois, who composed “Tombeau
pour Mr. De Sainte-Colombe le pere”
• was most likely a protestant, which would have
prevented his working in the king’s court and
forced him out of the country after 1685
• died in unknown circumstances on an unknown
date
Historical Elements
Jansenism
• Associated with Port Royal Cistercian Convent
and the Arnaud family
• Port Royal pupils included Racine, Arnuad family
and Pascal
• Emphasized original sin, human depravity, the
necessity of divine grace and predestination
• High level of moral rectitude and religious piety
• Influenced by Augustine’s philosophy
Society of Port Royal
“These were men whom the love of retirement had united
to cultivate literature, in the midst of solitude, of peace,
and of piety. They formed a society of learned men, of fine
taste and sound philosophy. Alike occupied on sacred, as
well as on profane writers, they edified, while they
enlightened the world. Their writings fixed the French
language. The example of these solitaries show how
retirement is favourable to penetrate into the sanctuary of
the Muses; and that by meditating in silence on the
oracles of taste, in imitating we may equal them.”
Blaise Pascal
• “We arrive at truth, not by reason only, but also
by the heart.”
• “[I feel] engulfed in the infinite immensity of
spaces whereof I know nothing, and which know
nothing of me, I am terrified The eternal silence
of these infinite spaces alarms me.”
• “However vast a man's spiritual resources, he is
capable of but one great passion.”
• “All man's troubles come from not knowing how
to sit still in one room.”
Lubin Baugin 1610-1663
• Master of the still-life
• Two distinct periods of work—earlier, still life
(France); later, religious portraits (Italy)
• Lived outside of Paris
• He was openly involved in republishing the
books of the empirical doctor, David Laigneau,
against bloodletting. A Protestant, Laigneau had
also written a treatise on alchemy. Could an
interest in empiricism and alchemy exist in
harmony with orthodox piety in 1660? In any
case, it was the sign of a free spirit.
St. Jerome--Bible Translator
Seymour Chatman
“What Novels can do that Films
can’t (and vice versa)”
Narratives vs. Images
• Narratives take time to read, while images are taken in in
a glance
• Narrative, more than an image, invokes a virtual, as well
as actual, time: “story time” (the imagined movement in
time) vs. “discourse time” (the actual movement of words
across the page)
• The time of a narrative can be ordered internally in a
manner an image cannot.
• But, keep in mind the film combines images with
narrative structure. Film images move. Storied time
(movement through time) pulses in counterpoint to the
synchronic presentation of scenes, of an image.
Complications in All the Mornings
• Because music is involved, the temporal
structure becomes more complicated
especially in the film
• Two “virtual” times—the time of the story
and the time of the musical pieces are fit
into the time of the film “discourse.”
Description in Narrative
• Interrupts and freezes the time structure of the
narrative and invokes a tableau vivant (a living
picture).
• Only a limited amount of details can be invoked
in the tableau
• The details are invoked in a particular order.
• An implied narrator easily asserts details as
existing: e.g. the “tiny” cart, a “mulberry” tree.
Setting a Scene in Cinema
• Occurs simultaneously as the action
unfolds
• Numerous details must be added
• The details can be structured visually but
are more synchronic than diachronic
• Assertions of an implied narrator cannot
be easily included in the setting up of a
scene.
• Action still occurs even when the director
has a scene stand still.
“Then he shoved the door of his hut full
open, and stood up trembling. He bowed
ceremoniously as Monsieur Marais entered. At
first they could not say anything. Monsieur de
Sainte Colombe sat on his stool and said to
Monsieur Marais:
‘Sit down!’
Monsieur Marais, still shrouded in his
sheepskin, sat down. The two of them just sat
there, awkward, embarrassed.”
The two of them just sat there,
awkward, embarrassed.”
They left…the snow had stopped falling but
Now reached to the tops of their boots. Night
had fallen with no moon and no stars. A man
passed by with a torch he was protecting with
his hand, and they followed him. A few flakes
were still drifting down.
Monsieur de Sainte Colombe took his pupil’s
arm and stopped him: in front of them a little boy
was pissing, making a hole in the snow. The
sound of the hot urine mingled with the noise of
snow crystals slowly melting. (p. 48).
“Then they were standing beside the stove
in Monsieur Bagin’s studio. The painter
was busy painting a still-life on a table: a
half-filled glass of red wine, a lute on its
side, an open music score, a black velvet
purse, some playing cards with the knave
of clubs uppermost, a chessboard on
which were arranged a vase holding three
carnations and an octagonal mirror
learning against the wall.”
(pp. 44-45)
“Then they were standing beside the
stove in Monsieur Bagin’s studio.”
They were in the garden; she urged him to creep
under the wooden hut built in the low branches
of the ancient mulberry tree…One day it so
happened that a thunderstorm broke…he
sneezed violently several times. Monsieur de
Sainte Colombe rushed out into the rain, caught
him with his chin on his knees crouching on the
wet earth, and started to kick him and call for his
menservants. He managed to reach his feet and
legs with his kicks and to make him get out,
seized him by the collar and asked the first
manservant to arrive to bring him the whip. (p.
56)
“Whereas in novels, movements
and hence events are at best
constructions imaged by the
reader out of words, that is,
abstract symbols which are
different from them in kind, the
movements on the screen are so
iconic, so like the real life
movements they imitate, that the
illusion of time passage simply
cannot be divorced from them.”
Once they got a real fright. They were in the
house because Monsieur Marais was hoping to
overhear the airs Madeleine had told him about
by creeping under the branches of the mulberry
tree. She was standing in front of him in the
living room. Marin was in a chair. She had
drawn near. She thrust her breasts forward,
close to his face. She undid the top of her
dress, drew aside her undergarment. Her
breasts leaped out, Marin Marais could only bury
his face in them. (p. 65).
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bahktin
“Discourse in the Novel”
Dialogical Discourse
•
•
•
•
A living utterance
A particular historical moment
A socially specific environment
Dialogical “threads” woven about a social
object
• The utterance stems from the dialogue
and enters back into it—participatory
rather than theoretical
Heteroglossia
• To use language at all is to speak in many
languages
• A social stratification of language(s)—
literary genres, professional usages,
religious discourses, regional idioms etc.
• Every speaker of language is inhabited by
these multiple forms of language in
juxtaposition to one another.
Internal Dialogization
• Rather than looking for a pure and
coherent image, form or metaphor, the
novelist/poet registers in his or her
discourse the heteroglossia of language
• To understand any utterance, one must
hear it against the background of language
and the multiplicity of concrete utterances
language allows
From All the Mornings of the
World
‘Monsieur…I have received the command to invite
you to play at court. His Majesty has expressed
a desire to hear you play, and, should your
playing meet with his approval, he would
welcome you among the musicians of his Privy
Chamber.’
‘Monsieur…I have bounded my life by these
planks of grey wood set in a mulberry tree; by
the sounds of a viol’s seven strings; by my two
daughters’ needs. My friends are my memories.
My court are those willows there, the running
water, the chub, the gudgeon and the elder
blossoms. You may inform his Majesty that his
palace is no place for a wild man of the woods
who was presented to the late king his father
these thirty-five years ago.’
From The Unbearable
Lightness of Being
By Milan Kundera
Cemetery
Cemeteries in Bohemia are like gardens. The
graves are covered with grass and colorful flowers.
Modest tombstones are lost in the greenery. When the
sun goes down, the cemetery sparkles with tiny
candles. It looks as though the dead are dancing at a
children’s ball. Yes, a children’s ball, because the
dead are as innocent as children. No matter how
brutal life becomes, peace always reigns in the
cemetery. Even in wartime, in Hitler’s time, in Stalin’s
time, through all occupations. When she felt low, she
would get into the car, leave Prague far behind, and
walk through one or another of the country cemeteries
she loved so well.
For Franz a cemetery was an ugly dump of
stones and bones.
From Ceremony
By Leslie Marmon Silko
“Do something for me, the way you did for others who
came back. Because what if I didn’t know I killed one?”
But the old man shook his head slowly and made a low
humming sound in his throat. In the old way of warfare, you
couldn’t kill another human being in battle without knowing it,
without seeing the result, because even a wounded deer that got
up and ran again left great clots of lung blood or spilled guts on
the ground. That way the hunter knew it would die. Human
beings were no different. But the old man would not have
believed white warfare—killing across great distances without
knowing who or how many had died. It was all too alien to
comprehend, the mortars and the big guns; and even if he could
have taken the old man to see the target areas, even if he could
have led him through the fallen jungle trees and muddy craters of
torn earth to show him the dead, the old man would not have
believed anything so monstrous. Ku’oosh would have looked at
the dismembered corpses and the atamic heat-flash outlines,
where human bodies had evaporated and the old man would have
said something close and terrible had killed these people. Not
even oldtime witches killed like that.
The way
I hear iit
Was
In the old days
Long time ago
They had this
Scalp Society
For warriors
Who killed
Or touched
Dead enemies.
They had things
They must do
Otherwise
K’oo’ko would haunt their dreams
With her great fangs and
Everything would be endangered.
Maybe the rain wouldn’t come
Or the deer would go away.
That’s why
They had things
They must do
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