Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Chapter 9: Cognition
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Cognition: Definition of Terms
• Cognition: Mentally processing information
•
•
•
(images, concepts, etc.); thinking
Internal Representation: Mental expression of
a problem or situation
Concept: Generalized idea representing a
class of related objects or events
Language: Words or symbols, and rules for
combining them, that are used for thinking
and communication
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.1
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.2
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Types of Mental Images
• Stored Image: Mental image kept in long-term
•
•
memory (LTM) and retrieved when
appropriate
Created Image: Image that has been
assembled or invented rather than
remembered
Kinesthetic Image: Created from produced,
remembered, or imagined muscular
sensations
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Concepts
• Concept: Idea that represents a category of
•
•
•
objects or events
Concept Formation: Process of classifying
information into meaningful categories
Positive Instance: Object or event that
belongs to the concept class
Negative Instance: Object or event that does
not belong to the concept class
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Concept Formation
• Conceptual Rule: Guideline for deciding
•
whether objects or events belong to a
concept class
Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that
have two or more features (e.g., object is pink
and soft)
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Concept Formation (cont.)
• Relational Concept: Based on how an object
•
relates to something else or how its features
relate to one another
Disjunctive Concept: Objects that have at
least one of several possible features; eitheror concept (strike in baseball)
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
More Concept Issues and Terms
• Prototype: Ideal model used as an example
•
•
•
of a good concept
Denotative Meaning: Exact definition of a
word or concept
Connotative Meaning: Emotional or personal
meaning of a concept
Semantic Differential: Measure of connotative
meaning
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Faulty Concepts
• Social Stereotype: Inaccurate and
•
oversimplified concepts of groups of people
All-or-Nothing Thinking: One-dimensional
thought
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.3
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.4
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.5
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.6
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Language Structure
• Encoding: Translating information into
•
•
•
symbols that are easy to manipulate
Semantics: Study of meaning in language
Phonemes: Basic speech sounds
Morphemes: Speech sounds collected into
meaningful units, like syllables or words
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.8
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Language Structure (cont.)
• Grammar: Set of rules for making sounds into
•
•
words or words into sentences
Syntax: Rules for word order in sentences
Transformation Rules: Rules that allow us to
change a declarative sentence into other
voices (passive, active) or forms
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Language Structure (cont.)
• Productivity: Ability of language to generate
•
new thoughts or ideas
American Sign Language (ASL): Language
used by deaf and hearing-impaired people
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.9
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.10
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.11
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Problem Solving
• Mechanical Solution: Achieved by trial and
•
•
error or by rote
Algorithm: Learned set of rules that always
leads to a correct solution
General Solution: States the requirements for
success but not in enough detail to guide
further action
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
More on Problem Solving
• Random Search Strategy: All possibilities are
•
tried, more or less randomly
Heuristic: Strategy for identifying and
evaluating problem solutions
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.14
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Insight
• When an answer appears suddenly in
problem solving (“a-ha” learning)
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Insight Involves:
• Selective Encoding: Selecting information that
•
•
is relevant to a problem while ignoring
distractions
Selective Combination: Connecting
seemingly unrelated bits of useful information
Selective Comparison: Comparing new
problems with old information or with
problems already solved
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Fixations
• Tendency to repeat wrong solutions and to
•
“fixate” on them, or to become blind to
alternatives
Functional Fixedness: Inability to see new
uses (functions) for familiar objects or for
things that were used in a particular way
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Barriers to Problem Solving
• Emotional Barriers: Inhibition and fear of
•
•
•
making a fool of oneself or of making a mistake
Cultural Barriers: Belief that fantasy is a waste
and feelings and humor have no place in
problem solving
Learned Barriers: Taboos; staying with
conventional uses
Perceptual Barriers: Habits leading to a failure
to identify important elements of a problem
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.17
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.18
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• Computer programs that perform human-like
•
problem solving or intelligent responding
(Deep Blue, the chess-playing
supercomputer)
Computer Simulations: Programs that attempt
to duplicate human behavior, especially
thinking, problem solving, or decision making
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Artificial Intelligence (cont.)
• Expert Systems: Computer programs that
•
•
respond as a human expert would
– Responding like a chess Grand Master
Organized Knowledge: Systematic
information
Acquired Strategies: Learned tactics
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Defining Intelligence
• Global capacity to act purposefully, think
•
rationally, and deal effectively with the
environment
Operational Definition: Procedures used to
measure a concept
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.19
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Testing Intelligence
• Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth
Edition (SB5): Widely used individual
intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred
Binet’s first intelligence test; items are ageranked
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Intelligence Quotients
• Chronological Age: Person’s age in years
• Mental Age: Average intellectual performance
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
SB5: Cognitive Factors Measured
• Fluid reasoning
• Knowledge
• Quantitative reasoning
• Visual-spatial processing
• Working memory
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.22
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
More Terms
• Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index;
•
•
original definition; mental age divided by
chronological age, then multiplied by 100
Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s
relative standing in his or her age group; how
far above or below average a person’s score
is, relative to other scores
Average IQ in the U.S.: 100
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Wechsler Tests
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3rd Edition
•
(WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates
verbal and performance intelligence and
abilities
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th
Edition (WISC-IV): Downscaled version of the
WAIS-III; for children from 6 years to 16
years, 11 months, 30 days
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Types of Intelligence
• Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal
•
intelligence
Verbal Intelligence: Language or symboloriented intelligence
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.23
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Group Tests
• These tests can be given to a large group of
•
people with little supervision; usually contain
multiple-choice items
Normal (Bell-Shaped) Curve: Most scores fall
close to the average, and very few are found
at the extremes
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
IQ Research Results
• A strong correlation (about .50) exists
•
•
between IQ and school grades
IQ is NOT a good predictor of success in art,
music, writing, dramatics, science and
leadership
Men and women do NOT appear to differ in
overall intelligence, Larry Summers’
assertions notwithstanding
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Giftedness
• Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or
special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at
age 5)
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.24
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
•
•
•
•
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple
Intelligences
Language: Lawyers, writers, comedians
Logic and Math: Scientists, accountants,
programmers
Visual and Spatial Thinking: Engineers,
inventors, artists
Music: Composers, musicians, music critics
– Where does Simon Cowell fit?
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
•
•
•
•
Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple
Intelligences (cont.)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Dancers, athletes,
surgeons
Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Poets,
actors, ministers
Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities):
Psychologists, teachers, politicians
Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand
Natural Environment): Biologists, organic
farmers
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
•
Mental Retardation (or Developmentally
Disabled): Some Definitions
Presence of a developmental disability and
an IQ score below 70; a significant
impairment of adaptive behavior also figures
into the definition
– Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as
dressing, eating, working, hygiene;
necessary for self-care
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Familial Retardation
• Mild retardation that occurs in homes that
have inadequate nutrition, intellectual
stimulation, medical care, and emotional
support
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Organic Causes of Mental Retardation
• Related to physical disorders
• Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen to the brain, for
•
•
•
example
Fetal Damage: Prenatal damage from
disease, infection, or drug use by the mother
Metabolic Disorders: Rate of energy use and
production in the body are affected
Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the
genes, such as missing genes, extra genes,
or defective genes
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Creative Thinking
• Inductive Thought: Going from specific facts
•
•
•
or observations to general principles
Deductive Thought: Going from general
principles to specific situations
Logical Thought: Going from given
information to new conclusions based on
explicit rules
Illogical Thought: Thought that is intuitive,
associative, or personal
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.25
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
How to “Rate” Creative Thoughts
• Fluency: Total number of suggestions you can
•
•
•
•
make
Flexibility: Number of times you shift from one
class of possible uses to another
Originality: How novel or unusual your ideas
are
Convergent Thinking: Many thoughts or
variations converging on a single answer;
conventional thinking
Divergent Thinking: Many possibilities
developed from one starting point
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
•
•
•
Tests of Creativity (This is the “Twilight
Zone”
Unusual Uses Test: Find as many uses for an
object as possible (“Tell me all the things you
can do with this pencil.”)
Consequences Test: List all the
consequences that would follow if a basic
change were made in the world (“What would
happen if we were able to read everyone’s
thoughts?”)
Anagrams Test: Make as many new words as
possible from the letters in a given word
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Stages of Creative Thought
• Orientation: Defining the problem
• Preparation: Gaining as much information as
•
•
•
possible
Incubation: The problem, while not appearing
to be actively worked on, is still “cooking” in
the background
Illumination: The “a-ha” experience; rapid
insight into the solution
Verification: Testing and critically evaluating
the solution
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Creative Personality
• Smarter people have a slight tendency to be
•
•
•
more creative
Creative people usually have a greater than
average range of knowledge and interests
Creative people have openness to a wide
variety of experiences
Creative people value independence and
have a preference for complex things
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Logic and Intuition
• Intuition: Quick, impulsive thought that does
•
•
•
not make use of clear reasoning
Representativeness Heuristic: Giving a
choice greater weight if it seems to be
representative of what is already known
Base Rate: Underlying probability of an event
Framing: The way a problem is stated or the
way it is structured
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
How to Enhance Creativity
• Break mental sets and challenge
•
•
•
assumptions
– Mental Set: Tendency to perceive a
problem in a way that blinds us to possible
solutions
Define problems broadly
Restate the problem in different ways
Allow time for incubation
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
How to Enhance Creativity (cont.)
• Seek varied input
• Look for analogies
• Take sensible risks
• Delay evaluation
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Brainstorming
• Keeping the production of ideas separate
•
from the evaluation of them; producing ideas
with no criticism
Cross-Stimulation Effect: When one
participant’s ideas in a brainstorming session
trigger ideas from others
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Some Rules for Brainstorming
• Criticism of ideas is barred
• Modification or combination with other ideas
•
•
•
•
is encouraged
Quantity of ideas is sought
Unusual, remote, or wild ideas are sought
Record ideas as they occur
Elaborate or improve on the most promising
ideas
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
The Match Problem and Its Solution
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.26
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon
Chapter 9
Figure 9.27
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