Conjunctions and Prepositions Grammar and Vocabulary Ⅰ July 8, 2011 What day was yesterday? July 7th is the day of Tanabata. How do you translate it? According to Eijiro, Tanabata is translated into English as follows: Festival of the Weaver Star Festival Vega Festival legendary once-a-year rendezvous of two stars in the Milky way How do you celebrate Tanabata? この日、たくさんの人たちが色とりどりの短冊に 願い事を書いて、笹の枝につるします。 On the day, many people write their wishes on strips of colorful paper and hang them from bamboo branches. この日、人々は色とりどりの細長い紙（短冊）に 願い事を書いて、笹の枝につるします。 On the day, people write their wishes on colorful strips of paper and hang them on bamboo branches. keywords: recovery, reconstruction, restoration Prepositions（前置詞） Word placed before noun or pronoun to make clear its relation, especially of direction, to another word (in, to, at, etc.) Unit 118 At / on / in (Time) Compare at, on, and in: They arrived at 5:00. They arrived on Friday. They arrived in October. / They arrived in 1968. ↓ Can you guess? We use: at for the time of day: • at 5:00, at midnight, at sunset, etc. on for days and dates: • on Friday, on June 23, 2009, on your birthday in for longer periods (e.g., months / years / seasons) • in October, in 1988, in the past, in winter, in the future, in the Middle Ages Exercise 1 (p.36) (1) I had my breakfast ( ) half past seven this morning. ⇒ at (2) Mozart was born ( ) January 27th, 1756. ⇒ on (3) Japanese schools start ( ) April. ⇒ in (4) The second World War ended ( ) 1945. ⇒ in (5) Turn left ( ) the next intersection. ⇒ at (6) There is a vase ( ) the table. ⇒ on (7) You can see palm trees ( ) the street. ⇒ along (8) Some students went ( ) the classroom. ⇒ into 118.2 Put in at, on, or in 1. Mozart was born in Salzburg ( in ) 1756. 2. “Have you seen Kate recently?” “Yes, I saw her ( on ) Tuesday.” 3. The price of electricity is going up ( in ) October. 4. ( On ) weekends, we often go for long walks in the country. 5. I’ve been invited to a wedding ( on ) February 14. 6. Henry is 63. He’ll be retiring from his job ( in ) two years. 7. I’m busy right now, but I’ll be with you ( in ) a moment. 8. Jenny’s brother is an engineer, but he doesn’t have a job ( at ) the moment. 9. There are usually a lot of parties ( on ) New Year’s Eve. 10. I don’t like driving ( at ) night. 11. My car is being repaired. It will be ready ( in ) two hours. 12. The telephone and the doorbell rang ( at ) the same time. 13. Mary and David always go out for dinner ( on ) their wedding anniversary. 14. It was a short book and easy to read. I read it ( in ) a day. 15. ( On ) Saturday night I went to bed ( at ) midnight. 16. We traveled overnight to Paris and arrived ( at ) 5:00 ( in ) the morning. 17. The course begins ( on ) January 7 and ends sometime ( in ) April. 18. I might not be at home ( on ) Tuesday morning, but I’ll be there ( in ) the afternoon. Small Conversation ＴＲＡＶＥＬ Which country do you most want to visit? Why? Do you prefer to travel by plane, train, or bus? What’s the biggest fear when you travel? e.g., a plane crash / money problems / getting robbed / language problems If you were going to Hawaii, what kind of souvenirs would you buy? e.g., pineapples / aloha shirts / a baseball hat / macadamia nuts Which country do you most want to visit? Why? ⇒ I want to visit New Zealand because I want to go skiing in summer. Do you prefer to travel by plane, train, or bus? What’s the biggest fear when you travel? If you were going to Hawaii, what kind of souvenirs would you buy? Because, or, when, and if are all conjunctions 後半のテーマ： “conjunctions” Conjunctions（接続詞） Word used for joining other words or statements Coordinate Conjunctions “Jack and Jill went up a hill.” Subordinate Conjunctions We couldn’t drink the milk because it was too hot. Exercise 2 (pp.36-37) (1) I got up at seven, [ ]. (2) The weather forecast said it would rain today, [ ]. (3) We went there by taxi [ ]. (4) Our professor studies linguistics, [ ]. a. but it is clear b. or the science of languages c. because it was raining d. and had breakfast (1) I got up at seven, and had breakfast. (2) The weather forecast said it would rain today, but it is clear. (3) We went there by taxi because it was raining. (4) Our professor studies linguistics, or the science of languages. (5) Study hard, [ ]. (6) Will you give us a little discount, [ ]? (7) I would like to travel to the moon [ ]. (8) Let’s start dinner [ ]. a. when Mother comes back b. and you can pass the exam c. or I’m afraid we can’t buy it d. if it is cheap enough (5) Study hard, and you can pass the exam. (6) Will you give us a little discount, or I’m afraid we can’t buy it? (7) I would like to travel to the moon if it is cheap enough. (8) Let’s start dinner when Mother comes back. (9) It is well known [ ]. (10) We had little money with us, [ ]. (11) We will forget the sorrow [ (12) Someone called you [ ]. ]. a. while you were out b. as time goes by c. that they got married recently d. so we had to walk home (9) It is well known that they got married recently. (10) We had little money with us, so we had to walk home. (11) We will forget the sorrow as time goes by. (12) Someone called you while you were out. (1) and (2) but (3) because (4) or (5) and (6) or (7) if (8) when (9) that (10) so (11) as (12) while 等位接続詞 従属接続詞 BBC GRAMMAR CHALLENGE Time prepositions Prepositions are small grammatical words that usually go before nouns and pronouns. There are many different prepositions that are used to describe where things are, how things happen and when things happen, for example. In this Grammar Challenge we focus on the prepositions we use with certain time expressions http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learni ngenglish/radio/specials/954_gramchalle nge16/index.shtml WEB Exercise Prepositions_01_Time Prepositions_02_Position 前期末試験などについて 2011年7月19日（火） 2011年7月26日（火） Oral Communication Ⅰ ＡＢ，ＣＤそれぞれ合同で 英語統一試験（G-TELP） 詳細は後日お知らせします 2011年7月29日（金） Grammar and Vocabulary Ⅰ ＡＢ，ＣＤそれぞれ合同で See you next week!