ELC 200 Day 16
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE
From Vision to Fulfillment
Third Edition
Elias M. Awad
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Agenda
• Assignment 5 Due
– 3 more to g0
• Quiz 3
– April 10
– Chap 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11
– Same format as before
– One extra credit question
• Possible extra credit question
– Where did computer cookies get their name?
• ECommerce Initiative Frameworks
– Guidelines
– Due May 10 @ 8 AM
• Finish Discussion Web Portals and Web Services
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Quick Discussion
• What's the difference?
– Data
– A fact
– Information
– Understanding
– Knowledge
– Wisdom
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Portal Categories
• Horizontal Portal is an electronic exchange that
focuses on many subjects
(e.g. http://www.Yahoo.com)
• Enterprise Information Portal is a portal that ties
together multiple, heterogeneous internal
repositories and applications, as well as external
content sources and services, into a single
browser-based view that is individualized to a
particular user’s task or role
– Maine Street UMS portal
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Portal Categories (Cont’d)
• Knowledge portal is a Web page or a facility that offers a
single, uniform point from which all of an enterprise’s data
sources can be accessed
– Knowledge worker is a person who transforms business
and personal experience into knowledge through
capturing, assessing, applying sharing, and
disseminating it within the organization to solve specific
problems or to create value
– Knowledge producer interface
– Knowledge consumer interface
• http://www.us.army.mil/
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki
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Knowledge Portals versus
Information Portals
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Corporate Portal as a Gateway to
Information
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Knowledge Based Corporate
Portal Framework
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Functions of a Knowledge
Portal
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Search Engines
• Software agents whose task is to find information by
looking at keywords or by following certain guidelines or
rules
• Like Yellow Pages for online businesses
• Crawlers are computer-automated programs that scour the
Internet for Web links
• Site content and relevance are integral parts of automated
search engines
• http://www.Google.com
• http://www.Google.com/technology
• No search engine is free of drawbacks
• DMOZ project
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How Search Engines Work
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The Business Challenge
• The explosion in the volume of key business
information already captured in electronic
documents has left many organizations losing
their grip on information
– The speed with which quantity and content are
growing means rigorous internal discipline to
mine and integrate the sources of enterprise
knowledge
– Companies realize that they must develop
strategies and processes designed to best
utilize intellectual resources at strategic and
operational levels
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Role of Portals in Facing Business
Pressures
• Business Integration vs. Information Integration
or Application Integration
• Process Integration
• Application and Information Integration
• Enterprise Metadata Repository
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Key Functionalities of Portal
• Gathering
• Categorization
• Distribution
• Collaboration
• Publish
• Personalization
• Search/Navigate
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Collaboration
• The goal of the collaboration tool is to support information
sharing
• Two or more people working together in a coordinated
manner over time and space using electronic devices
• Asynchronous collaboration is human-to-human interaction
via computer subsystems having no time or space
constraints
• Synchronous collaboration is computer-based, human-tohuman interaction that occurs immediately (within 5
seconds) using audio, video, or data technologies
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Synchronous and Asynchronous
Collaboration Tools
Synchronous Collaboration
Asynchronous Collaboration
• Teleconferencing
• Electronic Mailing Lists
• Computer
Video/Teleconferencing
• Web-Based Discussion
Forums
• Online Chat Forum
• Lotus Notes
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Requirements for
Successful Collaboration Tools
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Content Management
• Also referred to as content management system (CMS); a
system used to manage the content of a Web site
• Includes structured and unstructured internal information
objects
• Complexity is handled by building sophisticated knowledge
management taxonomy based on metadata
• CMS handles the way documents are analyzed, stored and
categorized
• Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the specification
developed by the W3C designed especially for Web
documents
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Sample XML Document
<?xml version=1.0 encoding=“ISO-8859-1”?>
<note>
<to>Tove</to>
<from>Jani</from>
<heading>Reminder</heading>
<body>Don’t forget me this weekend!</body>
</note>
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Services of Intelligent Agents
• Customized customer assistance with online
services
• Customer profiling
• Integrating profiles of customers into a group of
marketing activities
• Predicting customer requirements
• Negotiating prices and payment schedules
• Executing financial transactions on the
customer’s behalf
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Web Services and Portals
• Web services are essentially business services,
composed of standards that allow different
platforms, operating systems, and languages to
exchange information or carry out a business
process together
• Improve the ways a company conducts electronic
transactions with trading partners
• A simple “packaging” technology accessible over
the Internet that does not require any technology
tied to a vendor’s platform
• Web services are mobile and interactive
• More about successful business strategy than
technology
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Major Aspects of Web Services
• A service provider that provides an interface for
software that can perform specified tasks
• A client that invokes a software service to provide
business solution or service
• A repository that manages the service
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Web Services
25
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Figure 11-13: Ordinary Webservice versus
Web Service
Web Service
HTTP Request
Client PC
SOAPCapable
Browser
HTTP Response
SOAP Message
Using XML Syntax
Web
Service
Webserver
-Interface
Properties
Methods
Web services are objects (programs)
Clients send them commands and data
Web services send back results
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Figure 11-13: Ordinary Webservice versus
Web Service
Web Service
HTTP Request
Client PC
SOAPCapable
Browser
HTTP Response
SOAP Message
Using XML Syntax
Web
Service
Webserver
-Interface
Properties
Methods
Web service requests are sent via FTP
They are sent as SOAP messages written in XML
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Figure 11-13: Ordinary Webservice versus
Web Service
Web Service
HTTP Request
Client PC
SOAPCapable
Browser
HTTP Response
SOAP Message
Using XML Syntax
Web
Service
Webserver
-Interface
Properties
Methods
Web services have interfaces that will accept commands
Commands contain methods and properties (parameters)
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Figure 11-14: Simple SOAP Request and Response

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

Carried in HTTP request or response message

Formatted using XML Syntax

Similar to HTML syntax but
the sender and receiver can
create new tags that
they can then use in
transactions, such as
<price>$33</price>
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HTTP Header
SOAP
Body
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Figure 11-14: Simple SOAP Request and Response

Situation

There is a pricing object that returns the price if
another object sends the part number, quantity, and
shipping type (rush, etc.) on an interface

Objects can be on different computers
Request
(PartNum, Quantity, ShippingType)
Sending
Object
Pricing
Object
Response
(Price)
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Figure 11-14: Simple SOAP Request and Response

SOAP Request Message
HTTP Request Header pointing to program
<?xml version=“1.0”>
<BODY>
<QuotePrice xmlns=“QuoteInterface”>
<PartNum>QA78d</PartNum>
<Quantity>47</Quantity>
<ShippingType>Rush</ShippingType>
</QuotePrice>
</BODY>
Note: xmlns specifies an XML namespace for the object
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Figure 11-14: Simple SOAP Request and Response

SOAP Response Message
HTTP Response Header
<?xml version=“1.0”>
<BODY>
<QuotePrice xmlns=“QuoteInterface”>
<Price>$750.33</Price>
</QuotePrice>
</BODY>
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Web Services: A More Complex Example
Service
Via HTTP:
SOAP +
XML
Client PC
With
Browser
Web service
1
(Object)
Server
Service Via HTTP:
SOAP + XML
Web service
2
(Object)
Service Via HTTP:
SOAP + XML
Web service
3
(Object)
Mainframe
Minicomputer
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Figure 11-15: Universal Description, Discovery, and
Integration (UDDI) Server for Web Services
UDDI Functions:
Client PC
2.
Web Service Interaction
1.
UDDI
Request for
Information,
Response
UDDI Server
Server with
Web Service
Interaction Between
UDDI Servers
to Fulfill a Request
White Pages
By name
Yellow Pages
By type
Green Pages
Details of how
to use,
payment, etc.
UDDI Server
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Web Service Description Language (WSDL)

Protocol for asking a corporate
webserver about the company’s
SOAP-compliant services
Client PC
WSDL
Request-Response Cycle
Corporate
Webserver
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Perspective on Web Services


Benefits of Web Services

Offers a way to standardize interactions between
objects over the Internet

Can make distributed computing far simpler once
Web services standards are fully developed
Concerns

High overhead (very chatty)

Standards immaturity

Security is embryonic
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Issues in Providing IT for
Knowledge Sharing
• Responsiveness to user needs
• Content structure
• Content quality requirements
• Integration with existing systems
• Scalability
• Hardware-software compatibility
• Synchronization of technology with the
capabilities of the user
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Planning and Developing an Enterprise
Portal
• Identify the sore points in the business that a
portal can help address.
• Identify the portal users and their role in the firm.
• Select, install, and incorporate portal technology
and associated hardware.
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Chapter Summary
• A portal is a secure, Web-based interface that
provides a single point of integration for and
access to information, applications, and services
for all people
• Portals have made their way into enterprises,
bringing together not only information from the
Internet, but in-house data as well
• The term data sources encompasses structured
data and unstructured data, but also includes the
data resulting from specific processes and
enterprise applications
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Chapter Summary (Cont’d)
• Content management requires directory and
indexing capabilities to manage automatically the
ever-growing store of structured and unstructured
data residing in data warehouses, Web sites, ERP
systems, legacy applications
• Collaborative functionality can range from
tracking e-mail to developing workplace
communities
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