Engaging Students in the Study of History European Contact Teaching American History in Miami - Dade County October 29-31, 2001 ENGAGING STUDENTS IN THE STUDY OF HISTORY Investigating Historical Writing The Changing and Differing Interpretations of History THE TEXTBOOK • Not historical facts, but an invitation to join the historical debate. • Every generation writes its own history. • Uncovering as Opposed to Covering History. What to think about? • • • • Opposing Forces Contradictory Interpretations Consensus Paradoxes Questions and Considerations: • When was it written? • Who wrote it? • Where was it written? (Setting) • What was the intention of the writer? (Audience) • Are eye witness accounts reliable? • The Question of Bias Turning the historical debate into a narrative: (written, spoken, poetry, prose, images, song, theater or dance) • Using S.P.E.E.C.H. an AIHE Signature Strategy • Essential questions What really happened at Sand Creek? How could the framers of the Constitution talk so nobly about liberty while owning slaves? • Digital Story Telling The Mystery of History Time and again strangers came to a strange land Scandinavians, Iberians, French and English meet Americans for the first time Cultures exchanged, interacted and clashed Seek out and prepare a SPEECH on one of these chance meetings Your investigation should follow the S.P.E.E.C.H. outline Social: Who is involved in this event and what social factors define them and their interactions? Think of social class, schooling, work, etc. Political: What is the power structure of the people involved and how does it influence the chain of historical events? Think of structure of government, who holds the power? Economic: What resources are available and how do these resources influence the interactions of the people involved? What finances the society and describe their economic system? Environmental: How does the geographic location impact this chain of historical events? What are the major problems or benefits of the location? Cultural: What cultural factors defined these people and how did it impact their relationship? What are their values, attitudes, beliefs and ethnicity? Religion generally plays a large part in the evolving cultural relationships in history. Historical: • How does this event influence the course of history over time? • What other historical events can you find that are similar to what we have investigated in this research? Native American History European Contact Native Americans in North America: A More Than 12,000 Year Legacy Anthropologists have identified three major variations of the foraging subsistence pattern: 1. pedestrian (diversified hunting and gathering on foot) 2. equestrian (concentrating on hunting large mammals from horseback) 3. aquatic (concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal hunting) Native American Culture Areas Cultural patterns and societies were largely shaped by a specific natural environment Important factors: Climate and the availability/variability of animal and plant species – Deer/Polar Bear/Buffalo The density and distribution of population and its impact on the forms of cooperation between individuals and groups within society – Cahokia/Plains/Woodlands The political and religious features of community life – Kinship/Clan/Tribe/Nation Shamanism/Priest Cult CAHOKIA A wide range of adaptation patterns largely determined by the environment PLAINS INDIANS Egalitarian Societies Egalitarian societies are comprised of people who are considered to be equal amongst one another and choose the amount of power given to individual members of a certain group. Inuit Hunting Seal Laws were not written, but rather communal understandings. Punishment for breaching laws were mild, usually aimed at injuring a man's position in society (through gossip, ridicule or ostracism). Inuit punishments were not created to reprimand the criminal, but to reestablish the desired peace. Pueblo Indian History Paleo Indian: 9500 to 5500 BC or Earlier: Nomads Archaic Period: 5500 to 1000 BC Seasonal Campgrounds - Atlatl - Low Population Density - Weaving, but limited. Basket Maker 1000 BC to AD 750 Domesticated Plants Added to Diet - Three Sisters of the Garden - Elaborate Basketry - Plain Pottery - Bow and Arrow appears at the end of this period. Pueblo I: AD 750 TO 900 Large Villages with some Dispersed Settlements Living Rooms - Pithouses - Ceremonial Activities Wood and Adobe - Pottery becomes more decorative Pueblo II: AD 900 - 1150 Public Meeting Houses - Stone Masonry - Below Ground Kivas for religious rituals, associated with the kachina belief system. Hopi: Qatsina or anything that exists in the natural world element, quality, natural phenomenon, concept. Pueblo III: AD 1150-1300 Large and Small Pueblos Cliff Dwellings - Towers Beautiful Elaborate Pottery Pueblo IV: AD 1300-1600 Large Villages - Perhaps the Ancestors of the Navoho come to the region at this time. After 1600 the Navajo stole sheep and horses from the Spanish. Craftsmen and Traders. Present Day: The largest tribe f North American Indians. Mimbres Pottery http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/Files/mimbres.htm A.D. 100 and A.D. 1150 Indians - Europeans Technology The Earth Religion Political Structure Social Structure Language Concept of Ownership Warfare Economics Concentrate on Similarities and Differences One of the major advantages of Europeans was the use of steel weapons and firearms Human history has been shaped by technological innovation. Those with a greater range of metal technologies have had the superior advantage in conflict. THE EURASIAN ADVANTAGE • The course of history has been shaped by chance. Cereal Grasses of Eurasia A. Oats; B. Barley; C. Bread Wheat; D. Rye • America inherited different native grass and animal species. Domesticated Animals of Eurasia Eurasia's animal species provided another advantage: • Meat • Milk • Draft animals for farming and building …and even religion The Spread of Ideas Writing and Printing Continental Axis Europeans had access to a wealth of historical, cultural and military knowledge from previous eras Indians — a non-literate society. EUROPEAN CONTACT Use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast these two cultures. Humans have more in common than they do that is different. Viking Voyages The Columbian Exchange Domesticated Animals bee cat camel chicken cow dog goat goose horse rabbit pig rock pigeon sheep silkworm water buffalo alpaca dog guinea pig llama turkey Domesticated Plants almond apple apricot artichoke asparagus banana barley beet black pepper cabbage cantaloupe carrot coffee cotton citrus cucumber eggplant flax garlic hemp kiwifruit kola nut lettuce mango millet oat okra olive onion opium peach pea pear pistachio radish rhubarb rice rye soybean sugarcane taro tea turnip wheat walnut watermelon amaranth avocado bean bell pepper blueberry cashew chia chicle chili pepper coca cocoa cotton Cranberry huckleberry maize manioc papaya peanut pecan pineapple potato quinoa rubber squash (incl. pumpkin) sunflower strawberry (American species used in modern hybrids) sweet potato tobacco tomato vanilla Eurasia Americas Infectious Disease bubonic plague cholera influenza malaria measles scarlet fever sleeping sickness smallpox tuberculosis typhoid yellow fever syphilis (possibly) Great Pox yaws yellow fever 1492 Begins Three Centuries of Spanish Expansion in the New World • Caribbean • Central American • South America • Southwestern United States Aztec Scroll Bernal Diaz del Castillo (1496 - 1584) The encomienda itself was a grant of Indians within a geographic region, which were given to an encomendero, the Spaniard who received the grant of Indians. Spain in the New World The Encomienda System Origins of the Slave Trade As large numbers of Indians died under cruel working conditions landowners in New Spain began to look for alternative sources of labor. Early Drawings of Florida Indians at European Contact Ponce de Leon had sailed with Columbus, De Narvaez had fought against Cortez for his honors in Mexico, and Hernando de Soto, who undertook to finish the work they had begun in Florida, had served as soldier in the West Indies and then in Peru under Pizarro. When he planned an expedition to conquer Florida, so great was his reputation as a successful soldier that he had no difficulty in getting permission from the king of Spain. Hernando de Soto (1496-97-May 21, 1542) served with Francisco Pizarro (1471-June 26, 1541) in Peru during the years 1532-35. He returned to Spain a wealthy man. In 1537 he was given permission by the Spanish Crown to explore and settle Florida, albeit at his own expense. He was the first explorer to bring livestock on an expedition. The French Empire July 27, 1605, founded Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America • France’s American venture was loosely controlled but covered a large area of North America. • The Fur Trade was the dominant focus and the French created many alliances with the Indian tribes. Africa - India - The Caribbean - Southeast Asia Ends in the 1960’s The British Empire Proprietary Governors, appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements. Settlements based on the notion of freedom and the establishment of new communities. British Colonies in North America The British Empire 1897 Largest In History 1. Newfoundland 2. Nova Scotia 3. The Thirteen Colonies 4. Bermuda 5. Bahamas 6. Honduras 7. Jamaica 8. Lesser Antilles The general pattern of Indian response to white settlement: Native American prehistoric population of about 2,500,000 in what is now the United States (excluding Alaska), 1890 numbers fell to a low of about 250,000 • Initial period of increased prosperity brought on by trade with whites • Followed by a period of decline after the spread of disease, and the game, furs, and land for Indians became scarce. Smallpox Disease was one of the leading causes of population decline, for the Indians had no immunity to many diseases brought in by settlers from Europe and slaves from Africa. Some estimates are as high as 95% of the population. Malnutrition due to depletion of game and other food sources was also a critical factor in the decline of population. In addition, armed conflicts with whites and enemy Indians. These various disturbances led also to generally inadequate child care. The period after European contact and before complete EuroAmerican domination may be considered a “middle ground,” a time when neither Native Americans nor Europeans were the supreme rulers of a given territory and when the ties between Indians and whites were stronger than their differences. The 1600s and 1700s. Decline Timeline • East Coast: The period of decline set in before 1700 • Great Plains: Stealing of the first horses from the Spanish ranches in New Mexico about 1600. The decline did not come until the buffalo were almost exterminated in the 1870s and 1880s. • West Coast: The impact of the gold rush of 1849 was so sudden that the period of prosperity failed to materialize at all and that of decline began at once. Where do the Indians go? Forced Migration! One rationale for these treaties was that Indians were migratory hunters who only followed the game and had no attachment to any particular lands. The Treaty of Easton, signed between the Lenape and the English in 1766, removed them westward, out of present-day New York and New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and beyond. Indian Religious Beliefs Life after death. Ghosts, gods, and anthropomorphic spiritual personalities with intelligence, emotions, and freedom of will to intervene in human affairs. All Indians further believed in a supernatural power, shared by spiritual personalities, human beings, and the entities of the natural world. Their religiousness was an attempt to understand, enter into relations with, appease, revere, and, if possible, manipulate these sources of existence in order to promote their own lives and the lives of their relatives. The Vision Quest Shamanism Shamanistic traditions have existed throughout the world since prehistoric times. Every Native American community had its medicine men and women, shamans, or priests. These were persons who had especially close contact with the supernatural and who interceded on behalf of others thought to have less ability to communicate with the spirits. Native American Prophet Movements Contact with Christians proved traumatic for Native American religions, as both civil and religious authorities attempted to repress native spirituality and force conversion. Over the past three centuries, this attempt has provoked the rise of various native religious movements. The Longhouse Religion, also known as the Handsome Lake cult, or Gai'wiio (Good Message in Seneca) is a religious movement started by the Seneca Chief Handsome Lake (Ganioda'yo). Founded in 1799, it is the oldest active prophet movement in North America. Prophet Movements • Mesoamerican Prophecies • The Delaware Prophet • The Shawnee Prophet • Smohalla ….and WAVOKA and the Ghost Dance Cult. This leads to the incident at Wounded Knee.