Engaging Students in the Study of History
European Contact
Teaching American History in Miami - Dade County
October 29-31, 2001
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN THE STUDY OF
HISTORY
Investigating Historical Writing
The Changing and Differing Interpretations of
History
THE TEXTBOOK
• Not historical facts, but an invitation to join
the historical debate.
• Every generation writes its own history.
• Uncovering as Opposed to Covering History.
What to think about?
•
•
•
•
Opposing Forces
Contradictory Interpretations
Consensus
Paradoxes
Questions and Considerations:
• When was it written?
• Who wrote it?
• Where was it written? (Setting)
• What was the intention of the writer? (Audience)
• Are eye witness accounts reliable?
• The Question of Bias
Turning the historical debate into a
narrative: (written, spoken, poetry, prose,
images, song, theater or dance)
• Using S.P.E.E.C.H. an AIHE
Signature Strategy
• Essential questions
What really happened at Sand
Creek?
How could the framers of the
Constitution talk so nobly about
liberty while owning slaves?
• Digital Story Telling
The Mystery of History
Time and again strangers came to a strange land
Scandinavians, Iberians, French and English meet
Americans for the first time
Cultures exchanged, interacted
and clashed
Seek out and prepare a
SPEECH on one of
these chance meetings
Your investigation should follow the S.P.E.E.C.H. outline
Social: Who is involved in this event and what social factors define them and their
interactions? Think of social class, schooling, work, etc.
Political: What is the power structure of the people involved and how does it influence
the chain of historical events? Think of structure of government, who holds the
power?
Economic: What resources are available and how do these resources influence the
interactions of the people involved? What finances the society and describe their
economic system?
Environmental: How does the geographic location impact this chain of historical
events? What are the major problems or benefits of the location?
Cultural: What cultural factors defined these people and how did it impact their
relationship? What are their values, attitudes, beliefs and ethnicity? Religion
generally plays a large part in the evolving cultural relationships in history.
Historical:
• How does this event influence the course of history over time?
• What other historical events can you find that are similar to what we have
investigated in this research?
Native
American
History
European Contact
Native Americans in North America:
A More Than 12,000 Year Legacy
Anthropologists have identified three major variations
of the foraging subsistence pattern:
1. pedestrian (diversified hunting and gathering on foot)
2. equestrian (concentrating on hunting large mammals from
horseback)
3. aquatic (concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal
hunting)
Native
American
Culture
Areas
Cultural patterns and societies were largely
shaped by a specific natural environment
Important factors:
 Climate and the availability/variability of animal and
plant species – Deer/Polar Bear/Buffalo
 The density and distribution of population and its
impact on the forms of cooperation between individuals
and groups within society – Cahokia/Plains/Woodlands
 The political and religious features of community
life –
Kinship/Clan/Tribe/Nation
Shamanism/Priest Cult
CAHOKIA
A wide range of
adaptation
patterns largely
determined by
the environment
PLAINS INDIANS
Egalitarian Societies
Egalitarian societies are
comprised of people who are
considered to be equal amongst
one another and choose the
amount of power given to
individual members of a certain
group.
Inuit
Hunting Seal
Laws were not written, but rather communal
understandings. Punishment for breaching laws
were mild, usually aimed at injuring a man's
position in society (through gossip, ridicule or
ostracism). Inuit punishments were not
created to reprimand the criminal, but to
reestablish the desired peace.
Pueblo Indian History
Paleo Indian: 9500 to 5500 BC or Earlier: Nomads
Archaic Period: 5500 to 1000 BC
Seasonal Campgrounds - Atlatl - Low Population
Density - Weaving, but limited.
Basket Maker 1000 BC to AD 750
Domesticated Plants Added to Diet - Three Sisters
of the Garden - Elaborate Basketry - Plain Pottery
- Bow and Arrow appears at the end of this period.
Pueblo I: AD 750 TO 900
Large Villages with some Dispersed Settlements Living Rooms - Pithouses - Ceremonial Activities Wood and Adobe - Pottery becomes more decorative
Pueblo II: AD 900 - 1150
Public Meeting Houses - Stone Masonry - Below
Ground Kivas for religious rituals, associated with
the kachina belief system. Hopi: Qatsina or
anything that exists in the natural world element, quality, natural phenomenon, concept.
Pueblo III: AD 1150-1300
Large and Small Pueblos Cliff Dwellings - Towers Beautiful Elaborate Pottery
Pueblo IV: AD 1300-1600 Large Villages - Perhaps the
Ancestors of the Navoho come to the region at this time.
After 1600 the Navajo stole sheep and
horses from the Spanish. Craftsmen and
Traders.
Present Day: The largest tribe f North
American Indians.
Mimbres Pottery
http://www.princetonol.com/groups/iad/Files/mimbres.htm
A.D. 100 and A.D. 1150
Indians - Europeans
Technology
The Earth
Religion
Political Structure
Social Structure
Language
Concept of Ownership
Warfare
Economics
Concentrate on Similarities
and Differences
One of the major
advantages of
Europeans was the
use of steel weapons
and firearms
Human history has been shaped by technological
innovation. Those with a greater range of metal
technologies have had the superior advantage in conflict.
THE EURASIAN ADVANTAGE
• The course of history has been shaped
by chance.
Cereal Grasses of
Eurasia A. Oats;
B. Barley; C. Bread
Wheat; D. Rye
• America inherited different native
grass and animal species.
Domesticated
Animals of
Eurasia
Eurasia's animal species provided
another advantage:
• Meat
• Milk
• Draft animals for farming and building
…and even
religion
The Spread of Ideas
Writing and Printing
Continental Axis
Europeans had access to a wealth
of historical, cultural and military
knowledge from previous eras
Indians — a non-literate society.
EUROPEAN CONTACT
Use a Venn Diagram to compare
and contrast these two cultures.
Humans have more in common
than they do that is different.
Viking Voyages
The Columbian
Exchange
Domesticated
Animals
bee
cat
camel
chicken
cow
dog
goat
goose
horse
rabbit
pig
rock pigeon
sheep
silkworm
water
buffalo
alpaca
dog
guinea pig
llama
turkey
Domesticated Plants
almond
apple
apricot
artichoke
asparagus
banana
barley
beet
black pepper
cabbage
cantaloupe
carrot
coffee
cotton
citrus
cucumber
eggplant
flax
garlic
hemp
kiwifruit
kola nut
lettuce
mango
millet
oat
okra
olive
onion
opium
peach
pea
pear
pistachio
radish
rhubarb
rice
rye
soybean
sugarcane
taro
tea
turnip
wheat
walnut
watermelon
amaranth
avocado
bean
bell pepper
blueberry
cashew
chia
chicle
chili pepper
coca
cocoa
cotton
Cranberry
huckleberry
maize
manioc
papaya
peanut
pecan
pineapple
potato
quinoa
rubber
squash (incl.
pumpkin)
sunflower
strawberry
(American
species used in
modern hybrids)
sweet potato
tobacco
tomato
vanilla
Eurasia
Americas
Infectious
Disease
bubonic plague
cholera
influenza
malaria
measles
scarlet fever
sleeping sickness
smallpox
tuberculosis
typhoid
yellow fever
syphilis (possibly)
Great Pox
yaws
yellow fever
1492 Begins Three Centuries of Spanish Expansion in the
New World
• Caribbean
• Central American
• South America
• Southwestern United States
Aztec Scroll
Bernal Diaz del Castillo
(1496 - 1584)
The encomienda itself was a
grant of Indians within a
geographic region, which were
given to an encomendero, the
Spaniard who received the
grant of Indians.
Spain in the New World
The Encomienda System
Origins of the Slave Trade
As large numbers of
Indians died under cruel
working conditions
landowners in New Spain
began to look for
alternative sources of
labor.
Early Drawings of Florida
Indians at European Contact
Ponce de Leon had sailed
with Columbus, De Narvaez
had fought against Cortez
for his honors in Mexico, and
Hernando de Soto, who
undertook to finish the work
they had begun in Florida,
had served as soldier in the
West Indies and then in
Peru under Pizarro. When he
planned an expedition to
conquer Florida, so great
was his reputation as a
successful soldier that he
had no difficulty in getting
permission from the king of
Spain.
Hernando de Soto (1496-97-May 21, 1542) served with Francisco Pizarro
(1471-June 26, 1541) in Peru during the years 1532-35. He returned to
Spain a wealthy man. In 1537 he was given permission by the Spanish Crown
to explore and settle Florida, albeit at his own expense. He was the first
explorer to bring livestock on an expedition.
The French Empire
July 27, 1605, founded Port Royal in the
colony of Acadia in North America
• France’s American venture was loosely controlled but covered a
large area of North America.
• The Fur Trade was the dominant focus and the French created
many alliances with the Indian tribes.
Africa - India - The Caribbean - Southeast Asia
Ends in the 1960’s
The British Empire
Proprietary Governors, appointed under mercantile
charters to English joint stock companies to found and
run settlements. Settlements based on the notion of
freedom and the establishment of new communities.
British Colonies in North America
The British Empire
1897
Largest In History
1.
Newfoundland
2.
Nova Scotia
3.
The Thirteen Colonies
4.
Bermuda
5.
Bahamas
6.
Honduras
7.
Jamaica
8.
Lesser Antilles
The general pattern of
Indian response to white
settlement:
Native American prehistoric
population of about
2,500,000 in what is now
the United States
(excluding Alaska),
1890 numbers fell to a low
of about 250,000
• Initial period of
increased prosperity
brought on by trade with
whites
• Followed by a period of
decline after the spread
of disease, and the game,
furs, and land for Indians
became scarce.
Smallpox
Disease was one of the leading
causes of population decline, for
the Indians had no immunity to
many diseases brought in by
settlers from Europe and slaves
from Africa. Some estimates are
as high as 95% of the population.
Malnutrition due to depletion of game and other food sources
was also a critical factor in the decline of population.
In addition, armed conflicts with whites and enemy Indians.
These various disturbances led also to generally inadequate
child care.
The period after European contact and before complete EuroAmerican domination may be considered a “middle ground,” a
time when neither Native Americans nor Europeans were the
supreme rulers of a given territory and when the ties between
Indians and whites were stronger than their differences. The
1600s and 1700s.
Decline Timeline
• East Coast: The period of decline set in before 1700
• Great Plains: Stealing of the first horses from the Spanish
ranches in New Mexico about 1600. The decline did not come
until the buffalo were almost exterminated in the 1870s and
1880s.
• West Coast: The impact of the gold rush of 1849 was so
sudden that the period of prosperity failed to materialize at all
and that of decline began at once.
Where do the
Indians go?
Forced Migration!
One rationale for these treaties
was that Indians were migratory
hunters who only followed the
game and had no attachment to
any particular lands.
The Treaty of
Easton, signed
between the Lenape
and the English in
1766, removed them
westward, out of
present-day New
York and New Jersey
and into Pennsylvania,
then Ohio and
beyond.
Indian Religious Beliefs
Life after death.
Ghosts, gods, and anthropomorphic spiritual personalities
with intelligence, emotions, and freedom of will to intervene
in human affairs.
All Indians further believed in a supernatural power,
shared by spiritual personalities, human beings, and the
entities of the natural world.
Their religiousness was an attempt to understand, enter
into relations with, appease, revere, and, if possible,
manipulate these sources of existence in order to promote
their own lives and the lives of their relatives.
The Vision Quest
Shamanism
Shamanistic traditions have
existed throughout the world
since prehistoric times.
Every Native American
community had its medicine
men and women, shamans, or
priests. These were persons
who had especially close
contact with the supernatural
and who interceded on behalf
of others thought to have less
ability to communicate with
the spirits.
Native American Prophet Movements
Contact with Christians proved traumatic
for Native American religions, as both
civil and religious authorities attempted
to repress native spirituality and force
conversion. Over the past three
centuries, this attempt has provoked the
rise of various native religious
movements.
The Longhouse Religion, also known as the Handsome Lake
cult, or Gai'wiio (Good Message in Seneca) is a religious
movement started by the Seneca Chief Handsome Lake
(Ganioda'yo). Founded in 1799, it is the oldest active
prophet movement in North America.
Prophet Movements
• Mesoamerican Prophecies
• The Delaware Prophet
• The Shawnee Prophet
• Smohalla
….and WAVOKA and the Ghost Dance Cult. This leads to
the incident at Wounded Knee.
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