Bailey Ennis!
 The Basque is
located in the
northern part of
Spain and in the
southern part of
 The people of the
Basque are a nation.
 This group of people
sees themselves as
linked together as
brothers and sisters in
some way.
 The Basque identity
and Basque
nationalism is much
more present in Spain
than it is in France.
 The Basque country has 7 provinces
(four in Spain and three in France).
The total Basque population is
approximately 3 million.
Of this 3 million, 92% are Spanish
The Basque is considered a stateless
Related to the terms stateless nation
and ethno-nationalism.
Ethno-nationalism can lead to
The Basque is not considered a
multistate nation because it does not
have a national homeland that
overlaps into more than one state.
 The Basques are considered a nation because these people
share the same commonalties (culture).
The Basques have different characteristics to their culture
just like any other culture.
Here are some of the characteristics:
Basque Sports: goat races, wood-chopping contests,
regattas (boat races), and pelota (ball games).
Basque Food: The Basques cook with a lot of fish, and the
Basque cuisine has a great influence over international
cuisine especially in Spain and France where it is highly
 The Basque Language:
 The strong identity of the Basque is mainly tied to their
The language of the Basque is Euskera.
Euskera is the ancestral language of the Basque country.
Although some policies across the centuries have tried to
eliminate the Basque language (ex. During the time of
Franco’s dictatorship in Spain), Euskera “survived.”
To promote the language is a traditional way to promote a
nation and a specific culture.
 Basque Religion: mainly Catholocism
 Basque Festivals and Traditions: specific dances
and songs sung in Euskera are known for different
 University: classes such as Basque Philosophy and
Sociology and Linguistics of Euskera are available to
take. There are even some classes taught in Euskera.
 Art, literature, and architecture are also a big part
of the Basque culture.
 The Basque have their own flag and anthem.
 The Basque history is interconnected with Spanish and French
There are different key points in their history that will help us to
understand the conflict in the their region.
The key points in history are:
A lasting stay in the same geographic enclave throughout the
Romans, Celtics and Visigoths failed to leave a profound mark
upon the Basque country and to significantly influence the
Basque language.
From the 16th century, the Basque country was under the Crown
of Castille (1512). Nevertheless, after their annexation, the Basque
provinces maintained a system of liberties and benefits called
“fueros” (political and economic rights and privileges).
 After the Carlist Wars, Cánovas del Castillo’s conservative
government completely abolished the Fueros.
Fuerismo: broad popular movement appeared for the restoration
of the Fueros.
1895: Creation of the PNV, Partido Nacionalista Vasco, the first
Basque nationalist party created by Sabino Arana Goiri.
Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera from 1923 and 1930, the PNV was
repressed and could only continue its cultural activities.
Francisco Franco
1959: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)
1975: death of Franco
The Basque was finally able to become an atonomous
 After this analysis we can identify the roots of Basque
nationalism in the following factors:
 A reaction against the abolition of the fueros.
 A failure by Spain to establish a balanced and
homogeneous state during the 19th century as did
Germany and France.
 A fear of losing the national identity in the face of an
out of control migratory movement.
 The ETA stands for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (in English:
Basque Homeland and Freedom). The ETA is an armed
Basque nationalist and separatist organization created in
1959 (during Franco’s dictatorship). The ETA is considered
a terrorist group by the Spanish and French authorities.
The roots of ETA lay in the following factors:
An unfavorable encounter with the ideas of the PNV, that
were previously considered unsuccessful.
A marked lack of cultural identity that impeded the
foundation of its nationalism.
The abandonment of race and religious values and the
adoption of an ideology of the radical left that was the
basis of its armed action.
 The conflict is that the Basque feel like their own nation.
They don’t feel like they belong with Spain and France.
They already have political and economic autonomy in
Spain, so they want to completely break away and become
their own nation.
The problem with this is that Spain and France don’t want
this to happen because that is their land. If the people of
the Basque break away, then both of these nations would be
losing some of their territory.
Also, the protection and promotion of Euskera has always
been at the heart of Basque struggle. It’s their identity!
It is spoken now by 25% of the Basques in all territories.
It is even a co-official language in the provinces of Spain,
but it’s not the case in France.
 We decided the solution for this conflict would not be
for the Basque to break away from Spain and France.
 We have come up with two alternate solutions that
focus more on the social aspect of the three nations
than the political aspects because the Basque already
has political and economic autonomy in Spain.
 Here are our solutions:
1) Celebration of Nations!
2) Talk Show!
 Celebration of Nations would be kind of like a Culture
Day. It’s a day where different nations can come
together and share information about their culture and
interests so that the other nations can learn about
them. We think that if the nations could see how the
other nations came about and learn more about their
culture and history, then there would be less tension
between the people of the nations.
 This television broadcast would be focused in on the people
of the Basque, Spain, and France. It would be a weekly tv
show that would aired in all three nations. This show would
kind of be a meeting central for the people from all three
nations. Each week different people from the nations would
get together and discuss ongoing issues. It would be a way for
the people to be more comfortable with each other, and they
could get to know each other. This show would teach
everyone more about the three nations, and it would show
that even though there are differences, the three nations
could still get along. It would also show the people of the
nation that being together really is a benefit. There could also
be interviews of important people of the nations and other
interesting ways to learn more about the nations. We think
this would help some of the smaller issues between the
nations to be resolved.