Chandana Gaddipati! Celia Hanssen! Matthew Kirk! Bailey Ennis! The Basque is located in the northern part of Spain and in the southern part of France. The people of the Basque are a nation. This group of people sees themselves as linked together as brothers and sisters in some way. The Basque identity and Basque nationalism is much more present in Spain than it is in France. The Basque country has 7 provinces (four in Spain and three in France). The total Basque population is approximately 3 million. Of this 3 million, 92% are Spanish citizens. The Basque is considered a stateless nation. Related to the terms stateless nation and ethno-nationalism. Ethno-nationalism can lead to separation. The Basque is not considered a multistate nation because it does not have a national homeland that overlaps into more than one state. The Basques are considered a nation because these people share the same commonalties (culture). The Basques have different characteristics to their culture just like any other culture. Here are some of the characteristics: Basque Sports: goat races, wood-chopping contests, regattas (boat races), and pelota (ball games). Basque Food: The Basques cook with a lot of fish, and the Basque cuisine has a great influence over international cuisine especially in Spain and France where it is highly regarded. The Basque Language: The strong identity of the Basque is mainly tied to their language. The language of the Basque is Euskera. Euskera is the ancestral language of the Basque country. Although some policies across the centuries have tried to eliminate the Basque language (ex. During the time of Franco’s dictatorship in Spain), Euskera “survived.” To promote the language is a traditional way to promote a nation and a specific culture. Basque Religion: mainly Catholocism Basque Festivals and Traditions: specific dances and songs sung in Euskera are known for different occasions. University: classes such as Basque Philosophy and Sociology and Linguistics of Euskera are available to take. There are even some classes taught in Euskera. Art, literature, and architecture are also a big part of the Basque culture. The Basque have their own flag and anthem. The Basque history is interconnected with Spanish and French history. There are different key points in their history that will help us to understand the conflict in the their region. The key points in history are: A lasting stay in the same geographic enclave throughout the ages. Romans, Celtics and Visigoths failed to leave a profound mark upon the Basque country and to significantly influence the Basque language. From the 16th century, the Basque country was under the Crown of Castille (1512). Nevertheless, after their annexation, the Basque provinces maintained a system of liberties and benefits called “fueros” (political and economic rights and privileges). After the Carlist Wars, Cánovas del Castillo’s conservative government completely abolished the Fueros. Fuerismo: broad popular movement appeared for the restoration of the Fueros. 1895: Creation of the PNV, Partido Nacionalista Vasco, the first Basque nationalist party created by Sabino Arana Goiri. Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera from 1923 and 1930, the PNV was repressed and could only continue its cultural activities. Francisco Franco 1959: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) 1975: death of Franco The Basque was finally able to become an atonomous community. After this analysis we can identify the roots of Basque nationalism in the following factors: A reaction against the abolition of the fueros. A failure by Spain to establish a balanced and homogeneous state during the 19th century as did Germany and France. A fear of losing the national identity in the face of an out of control migratory movement. The ETA stands for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (in English: Basque Homeland and Freedom). The ETA is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization created in 1959 (during Franco’s dictatorship). The ETA is considered a terrorist group by the Spanish and French authorities. The roots of ETA lay in the following factors: An unfavorable encounter with the ideas of the PNV, that were previously considered unsuccessful. A marked lack of cultural identity that impeded the foundation of its nationalism. The abandonment of race and religious values and the adoption of an ideology of the radical left that was the basis of its armed action. The conflict is that the Basque feel like their own nation. They don’t feel like they belong with Spain and France. They already have political and economic autonomy in Spain, so they want to completely break away and become their own nation. The problem with this is that Spain and France don’t want this to happen because that is their land. If the people of the Basque break away, then both of these nations would be losing some of their territory. Also, the protection and promotion of Euskera has always been at the heart of Basque struggle. It’s their identity! It is spoken now by 25% of the Basques in all territories. It is even a co-official language in the provinces of Spain, but it’s not the case in France. We decided the solution for this conflict would not be for the Basque to break away from Spain and France. We have come up with two alternate solutions that focus more on the social aspect of the three nations than the political aspects because the Basque already has political and economic autonomy in Spain. Here are our solutions: 1) Celebration of Nations! 2) Talk Show! Celebration of Nations would be kind of like a Culture Day. It’s a day where different nations can come together and share information about their culture and interests so that the other nations can learn about them. We think that if the nations could see how the other nations came about and learn more about their culture and history, then there would be less tension between the people of the nations. This television broadcast would be focused in on the people of the Basque, Spain, and France. It would be a weekly tv show that would aired in all three nations. This show would kind of be a meeting central for the people from all three nations. Each week different people from the nations would get together and discuss ongoing issues. It would be a way for the people to be more comfortable with each other, and they could get to know each other. This show would teach everyone more about the three nations, and it would show that even though there are differences, the three nations could still get along. It would also show the people of the nation that being together really is a benefit. There could also be interviews of important people of the nations and other interesting ways to learn more about the nations. We think this would help some of the smaller issues between the nations to be resolved.