Intercultural Education as a Method of Early Conflict Prevention in Multicultural Societies The Crimean Experience Margaryta Aradzhyoni, Iryna Brunova-Kalisetska Ukraine Integration and Development Center for Information and Research Second International Summit on Conflict Resolution Education (Cleveland, Ohio, USA) Geographical Location Crimea The most numerous ethnic groups in Crimea (according to the national census) 1897 1926 1939 1959 1989 2001 The whole population 546592 713823 1126429 1201517 2455900 2024056 Russians 45,3% 42,2% 49,6% 71,4% 68,7% 58,3% Ukrainians 11,8% 10,84% 13,7% 22,3% 29,3% 24,3% Byelorussians 0,4% No data 6,0% 1,8% 2,1% 1,4% 0,05% 0,5% 1,8% 12,0% Tatars 34,1% 25,1% 19,4% - Crimean Tatars Germans 5,8% 6,1% 4,6% - 0,1% 0,1% Jews 5,3% 5,6% 5,8% 2,2% 0,8% 0,2% Greeks 3,1% 2,3% 1,8% - 0,1% 0,1% Armenians 1,5% 1,5% 1,1% - 0,4% 0,4% Bulgarians 1,1% 1,6% 1,4% - 0,1% 0,1% Karaites 1,0% 0,7% 0,4% - 0,04% 0,03% Deported (in 1941-44) groups are marked with bold type Autonomous Republic of Crimea: Context/Challenges uneasy process of adaptation of mainly Russian-speaking population of Crimea to new Ukrainian reality the return of a big amount of the former deportees (Crimean Tatars , Armenians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks) during a short period of time – about 300 thousands the incapability of the state to meet the deportees’ economical, social and cultural needs to the full extend - a factor of tension in the region the necessity for development of education, culture, civic activities of the deportees as elements of social equality and prevention of the feeling of being discriminated in the social-cultural area raise of Muslim population during last 15 years up to 13 % - raise of islamophobia (society doesn’t have an experience of joint coexistence) high level of migration and lack of experience of joint co-existence in poly-ethnic and poly-confessional environment lack of joint vision and manipulation in ethnic area by political elites, struggle for resources Population/Schools in the Crimea (2008): Russian population – 63% (1260000 persons) Ukrainian population – 23% (460000 persons) Crimean Tatars – 12 % (240000 persons) Among 601 schools: 398 schools with one language of instruction (Russian– 365, Ukrainian – 18, Crimean Tatar – 15) 169 schools with two languages of instruction (Russian-Ukrainian – 142, Russian-Crimean Tatar - 27) 34 schools with three languages of instruction (Russian, Ukrainian, Crimean Tatar) Armenian, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Czech, Greek, Lithuanian languages are taught in secondary and Sunday schools Problems (level of education): Intolerance toward “the Other” seems to be on the rise nowadays (cases of xenophobia and religious intolerance have been reported). The infrastructure of school education is ill-prepared for multicultural environment. The teacher training system does not prepare teachers to deal with diverse classrooms with children from diverse ethnic backgrounds and/or learning abilities. Dominated ideology of ethnocentric nation-building (esp. in curriculum and textbooks). Answers of Educational Staff of Crimea Does the religious and ethnic dislike, hostility exist among pupils? Yes – 31,1% No – 61,8% What manifestations of religious and ethnic dislike among pupils and youth the teachers of your region faced with? abusive, pejorative language – 28% voluntary ethnic segregation – 12% demonstration of a superiority of one ethnic/religious group on another – 10,7% physical violence – 2,2% boycott or isolation – 0,9% It should be noticed, that answering to the direct 1st question about existence of hostility, less number of respondents marked this phenomenon. while the 2nd question helps them to realize the range of dislike behavior of youth What direction of a Concept of priority directions of a pedagogical work in educational institutions of AR Crimea you consider as the most topical and essential? Forming of tolerance – 49,8% (among 3 other directions) Is it necessary to introduce a special integrated course on intercultural education? Yes – 88,4% No – 5,8% Social and Ethnic Distance (2005, 2002) 10-11th grades students 5,9 4,8 5,2 4,9 5,1 5,2 1,9 2,4 3,9 4,7 4,6 4,8 4,5 4,5 Koreans Afroamericans Jews 2005 4,97 4,8 2,2 Turks Georgians 5,4 5,2 1,6 Roma 4,7 4,4 4,3 4,2 4,2 3,9 Crimean Tatars 6,4 5,6 Bulgarians Americans Armenians Germans Greeks Ukrainians 2002 Russians Multicultural (intercultural) approach Multiculturalism in education – is neither teaching the native languages to ethnic minority children (or even opening of the national schools), nor total introduction of the school subject “multiculturalism”. It is a perspective revision of the whole educational system and methods of teaching. What is new in the intercultural approach is the priority it gives to interaction, reciprocal relations and mutual influence. It is characterized by a transition from hierarchic systems to networks: cultures interact and enrich each other within a web of interdependence. The long-term goal of promoting active tolerance and early conflict prevention Multicultural approach to education creation of equal opportunities for children of ethnic communities education of mutual cultural understanding and tolerance among representatives of different ethnic (linguistic, religious, cultural) groups Multicultural education in Crimea (1997-2002) Series of publications “In the Crimean Home”, “Crimean Cradle”, “Fairytale Echo” and others Supplementary materials for existing courses on history, language and literature. Design of special courses for studying ethnic history, traditional cultures of Crimean ethnic communities, intercultural management and basics of conflict prevention and resolution (school mediation). Summer schools of peace for schoolchildren, students and community leaders (We are Crimeans, Renewed sources and others) Empowering education program spreading in the Crimean schools. Activities in 2003-2005 Independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic intolerance toward different ethnic groups of Ukraine (school level) The integrative course “Culture of Neighborhood” for all levels of education system, activities for the creation a program for kindergartens “Crimean wreath” (pre-school level) Special course including knowledge of ethnic history and conflict resolution for government officials and parliament members Research project on Historical experience of neighborhood – learning and popularization through TV programs Informational methodological center for multicultural education and tolerance with resource library established at the premises of the Crimean Ethnographic Museum Special educational programs and placements for students and pupils based on the potential of cultural ethno-centers of Crimea Stimulation of the state policy transformation Informational Methodological Center For Multicultural Education And Tolerance Aim: to popularize the ideas of tolerance, intercultural education, mutual respect and collaboration of the diverse ethnical and confessional groups in the Crimean society. Objectives: establishment of the resource base for informational and methodological assistance for development of a multicultural and ethnic education of the Crimean peoples; popularization of the cultures and religions of the peninsula, the ideas of the peaceful coexistence of the diverse confessions and ethnical groups of the Crimea; exchange of the innovational educational projects centered around inter-ethnic dialogue and poly-logue proficiency development; informational and methodological support of revival, preservation and development of the national languages and dialects; development and distribution of the special school educational programs, involving the potential of the Crimean Ethnographic museum and the cultural-ethnographic centers of Crimea; wide distribution of the practical experience in conflict prevention and resolution (peer mediation, trainings for NGOs and others). Monitoring Commission Created in 2003 at the Integration and Development Center, includes 11 members – teachers, officials, independent experts, scholars, civic leaders Tasks: Independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic intolerance toward different ethnic groups of Ukraine Independent monitoring of educational environment (opinion educators, school children, parents, etc.) Monitoring of regional educational materials Creation of special expert groups Activities: Questionnaire developed 7 manuals monitored and results sent to the Ministry of Education and Science Research of the schoolchildren attitudes toward textbooks conducted Research of school administration attitudes to tolerance issues in schools conducted Research of schoolchildren attitudes to tolerance issues in schools conducted Systemic approach and state involvement Monitoring of situation in school environment and school textbooks Round tables for all stakeholders Publication of materials and documents Negotiations with the Ministry of Education and Science Creation and approval of the Concept of Teaching Social Skills in the Crimean schools Culture of Neighborhood course design for all levels of education system, Monitoring Commission activities, Center for Multicultural Education and Tolerance and other Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood” (35 hours per year in primary, K-12, High Ed.) Main purpose: Forming of socially competent, critically thinking and tolerant citizens of Crimea and Ukraine The symbol of the course – the flower with 7 colors – is originated from the very popular fairy tale of Russian author, where the main values are kindness, altruism and help. Pupils of 5th and 6th grades were asked to draw their own images for the symbol. And this flower was the most frequent one. By a fluke the course also has 7 blocks. Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood” Main principles: Equality of all people despite their status, gender, number of population, ethnic origin, religion and period of living on the territory of the Crimea Priority of common human values Rebirth, preservation and development of ethno-cultural identity and dialogue of cultures Pluralism of opinions on the issues of ethno-genesis and ethnic history Priority of upbringing tasks Creative organization of educational activities (unity of the curriculum, extra-curriculum and extra-class activities) Links with other courses Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood” Main principles (continuation): Possibilities to modify the course into a subject of the invariant part of the curriculum, or a special or facultative course depending on the availability of teaching hours in the school curriculum Continuation of the course on all the levels of education process: from kindergartens through schools to institutions of higher learning Maximum involvement of students into practical activities aimed at getting know the home land through participation in every-day life of the Crimean autonomy, their town, village, community, school Involvement of a family and a community as a source of information and active participant of the education process Using no less than one third of the education time for practical activities, inter-active educational forms (e.g. trainings) and excursions Leading group of the Culture of Neighborhood course authors Andryuschenko Irina – Department of Cultural Studies, Tavrida National University Aradzhyoni Margaryta – candidate of history, Ethno-confessional research department, Crimean branch of the Institute of oriental studies (National Academy of science of Ukraine), Integration and development center for information and research (Head of the Group) Bykova Elizaveta – Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of education and science of Ukraine Cherny Eugeny – Candidate of psychology, Department of psychology, Tavrida National University Kravtsova Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education and pedagogy of the Crimean state engineering and pedagogical university Mukhomorina Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education, Crimean teacher training institute Openko Natalia - Department of psyhcology, Crimean teacher training institute Smirnov Oleg – candidate of philology, Integration and development center for information and research, Department of Inter-language communication and journalism, Tavrida National University (Head of the Project) Utikas Lyudmila - Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of education and science of Ukraine Yakovleva Tatyana – Ministry of education and science of Crimea General number of authors - 40 «Friendship vocabulary» - vocabulary of interaction (one of the components of the course) Any class includes children of at least 3 ethnic groups. Elementary contacts and mutual understanding through acquaintance with everyday words and phrases (greetings, etiquette, etc). The philologists of 26 national cultural communities united for its compiling. The teacher can choose a language according to national content of a class. Progress of Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood”: Activities 2003 – approval of the Concept 2004 – 2005 – approval of the program, start of didactic materials design 2005 – 2006 – Approbation of the course in 21 schools (1st,5th,10th grades) and 10 kindergartens Trainings for teachers and administration conducted Involvement of parents System of psychological monitoring developed 2006-2007 – for 2, 6, 11 classes and 2nd year of Crimean Wreath 2007-2008 – for 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 classes and colleges Progress of Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood”: growth of numbers 2006/2007 academic year 2007/2008 academic year 2008/2009 estimated 43 (23 schools among them) educational institutions, in 8 towns and 6 regions of Crimea 128 (64 schools, 6 colleges among them) educational institutions, in 12 towns and 11 regions of Crimea 46 groups/99 classes 118 groups/ 275 classes/ 20 students’ groups 3350 children from 4 till 17 y.o. Approx. 6000 children from 4 till 20 y.o. abt. 12.000 children and students 4-20 y.o. 146 teachers 340 teachers More than 500 220 ed.institutions (130 schools, abt. 20 – colleges and univerities) 13 towns, 12 regions of Crimea Psychological criteria of the program effectiveness: Main goals and criteria: Forming social competence Criteria: high level of communication culture and adaptability critical thinking history, culture knowledge behavioral skills Forming high level of tolerance Criteria: social (ethnic) distance reduction negative stereotypes minimization status deprivation reduction non-ethnic, non-confessional component prevailing in communication emotional comfort level positive change Identities correspondence optimization Criteria: ego-identity distinctness ethnic, religious, regional and other identities shaping priority of personal identity over any other social identities Progress of Cross-cultural adaptation in interpersonal interethnic relations Criteria: prevalence of high stages of cross-cultural adaptation preference of integration over marginalization, assimilation and separation System of psychological monitoring of the program effectiveness For kindergarten and primary school level: Outline of teacher’s observation of personal and behavioral changes Questionnaire for parents of pupils For Secondary school level: Projective methods for pupils Questionnaire for parents of pupils For High school level: 3 Questionnaires for pupils Some results of program effectiveness’ monitoring Kindergarten and primary school level (parents’ questionnaire) 2005-2006 - parents, that took part in the program - - Parents, that noticed the development of their own interest to their own culture and religion as well as to the others cultures - - K-level – 67,7% Slavs, 57,6% Crimean Tatars Parents, that noticed the development of their children’s interest to their own culture and religion as well as to the others cultures - - K-level – 16,1% Slavs, 18% Crimean Tatars Primary school – 11,7% Slavs, 5,1% Crimean Tatars Primary school – 90,7% Slavs, 79,3% Crimean Tatars Parents, that marked their children as more friendly, opened and sociable - K-level – 50,2% Slavs, 54,5% Crimean Tatars Primary school – 39,4% Slavs, 36,2% Crimean Tatars Some results of program effectiveness’ monitoring High school level (Questionnaires for pupils) 2005-2006 Identity Tendencies: Tendencies of Tolerance Reinforcement of positive ethnic identity Reinforcement of regional and civil identity Increasing of prevalence of personal identity Decreasing of the negative stereotypization Reduction of ethnic and religious distance Tendencies of Cross-Cultural Adaptation Decreasing of preference of Separation and Marginalization Increasing of preference of Integration Publications 2005-2007 Syllabi of the Good Neighborhood for 1-12 grades and high education Playing Together, Collection of ethnic games for kindergarten level Researches, papers and documents on multicultural education and related topics Writing-books for 1st and 2nd grades of Good Neighborhood State Support Approval of the course’s program for schools in a complete set (27.12.2006, Board of Ministry of Education and Science of AR Crimea) Approval of the course’s program for the students of republic colleges and universities (25.04.2006, Board of MES of AR Crimea) Approval of the course’s program of the subject commissions of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (course is recommended for the usage in the institutions of general education throughout the Ukraine (the Letter of Institute of Innovation Technologies and Content of Education MES of Ukraine 1.4/18-1306 from 12.06.2007) Insertion of the article #134 «Elaborate and prepare for publication textbooks on course «Culture of Neighborhood» (was not financed) into the Program of Economical and Social Development of AR Crimea 2007 (the Decree of the Parliament of AR Crimea #386-5/07 from 22 of March 2007) Summary Outcomes that we have State support for educational institutions and to textbooks and manuals publication. Established procedures of curriculum and new courses development and approval. Stimulation of civic initiatives. The shift in the approaches towards activities of the "national" NGOs in the Crimea. Outcomes that expect Cultural focus functions as a preventive approach (prevents ethnic conflicts). Interventions associated to cultural differences involve building cultural competency and respect for diversity. CONTACTS Margaryta Aradzhyoni [email protected] Iryna Brunova-Kalisetska [email protected] Integration and Development Center for Information and Research www.integration.org.ua THANK YOU!