Intercultural Education as a Method of Early Conflict
Prevention in Multicultural Societies
The Crimean Experience
Margaryta Aradzhyoni,
Iryna Brunova-Kalisetska
Ukraine
Integration and Development Center for Information and Research
Second International Summit on Conflict Resolution Education
(Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
Geographical Location
Crimea
The most numerous ethnic groups in Crimea
(according to the national census)
1897
1926
1939
1959
1989
2001
The whole population
546592
713823
1126429
1201517
2455900
2024056
Russians
45,3%
42,2%
49,6%
71,4%
68,7%
58,3%
Ukrainians
11,8%
10,84%
13,7%
22,3%
29,3%
24,3%
Byelorussians
0,4%
No data
6,0%
1,8%
2,1%
1,4%
0,05%
0,5%
1,8%
12,0%
Tatars
34,1%
25,1%
19,4%
-
Crimean Tatars
Germans
5,8%
6,1%
4,6%
-
0,1%
0,1%
Jews
5,3%
5,6%
5,8%
2,2%
0,8%
0,2%
Greeks
3,1%
2,3%
1,8%
-
0,1%
0,1%
Armenians
1,5%
1,5%
1,1%
-
0,4%
0,4%
Bulgarians
1,1%
1,6%
1,4%
-
0,1%
0,1%
Karaites
1,0%
0,7%
0,4%
-
0,04%
0,03%
Deported (in 1941-44) groups are marked with bold type
Autonomous Republic of Crimea: Context/Challenges

uneasy process of adaptation of mainly Russian-speaking population of Crimea to new
Ukrainian reality

the return of a big amount of the former deportees (Crimean Tatars , Armenians,
Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks) during a short period of time – about 300 thousands

the incapability of the state to meet the deportees’ economical, social and cultural
needs to the full extend - a factor of tension in the region

the necessity for development of education, culture, civic activities of the deportees as
elements of social equality and prevention of the feeling of being discriminated in the
social-cultural area

raise of Muslim population during last 15 years up to 13 % - raise of islamophobia
(society doesn’t have an experience of joint coexistence)

high level of migration and lack of experience of joint co-existence in poly-ethnic and
poly-confessional environment

lack of joint vision and manipulation in ethnic area by political elites, struggle for
resources
Population/Schools in the Crimea (2008):




Russian population – 63% (1260000 persons)
Ukrainian population – 23% (460000 persons)
Crimean Tatars – 12 % (240000 persons)
Among 601 schools:
398 schools with one language of instruction (Russian– 365, Ukrainian
– 18, Crimean Tatar – 15)

169 schools with two languages of instruction (Russian-Ukrainian – 142,
Russian-Crimean Tatar - 27)

34 schools with three languages of instruction (Russian, Ukrainian,
Crimean Tatar)

Armenian, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Czech, Greek, Lithuanian
languages are taught in secondary and Sunday schools
Problems (level of education):

Intolerance toward “the Other” seems to be on the rise nowadays (cases of
xenophobia and religious intolerance have been reported).

The infrastructure of school education is ill-prepared for multicultural
environment.

The teacher training system does not prepare teachers to deal with diverse
classrooms with children from diverse ethnic backgrounds and/or learning
abilities.

Dominated ideology of ethnocentric nation-building (esp. in curriculum and
textbooks).
Answers of Educational Staff of Crimea

Does the religious and ethnic dislike, hostility exist among pupils?
 Yes – 31,1%
 No – 61,8%

What manifestations of religious and ethnic dislike among pupils and youth
the teachers of your region faced with?
 abusive, pejorative language – 28%
 voluntary ethnic segregation – 12%
 demonstration of a superiority of one ethnic/religious group on another –
10,7%
 physical violence – 2,2%
 boycott or isolation – 0,9%
It should be noticed, that answering to the direct 1st question about existence of hostility, less number of
respondents marked this phenomenon. while the 2nd question helps them to realize the range of
dislike behavior of youth

What direction of a Concept of priority directions of a pedagogical work in
educational institutions of AR Crimea you consider as the most topical and
essential?
 Forming of tolerance – 49,8% (among 3 other directions)

Is it necessary to introduce a special integrated course on intercultural
education?
 Yes – 88,4%
 No – 5,8%
Social and Ethnic Distance (2005, 2002)
10-11th grades students
5,9
4,8
5,2
4,9
5,1
5,2
1,9
2,4
3,9
4,7
4,6
4,8
4,5
4,5
Koreans
Afroamericans
Jews
2005
4,97
4,8
2,2
Turks
Georgians
5,4
5,2
1,6
Roma
4,7
4,4
4,3
4,2
4,2
3,9
Crimean Tatars
6,4
5,6
Bulgarians
Americans
Armenians
Germans
Greeks
Ukrainians
2002
Russians
Multicultural (intercultural) approach

Multiculturalism in education – is neither teaching the native
languages to ethnic minority children (or even opening of the national
schools), nor total introduction of the school subject “multiculturalism”.

It is a perspective revision of the whole educational system and
methods of teaching.

What is new in the intercultural approach is the priority it gives to
interaction, reciprocal relations and mutual influence.


It is characterized by a transition from hierarchic systems to networks:
cultures interact and enrich each other within a web of
interdependence.
The long-term goal of promoting active tolerance and early conflict
prevention
Multicultural approach to education
creation
of equal opportunities
for children of ethnic
communities
education
of mutual cultural
understanding and
tolerance
among representatives
of different ethnic
(linguistic, religious,
cultural) groups
Multicultural education in Crimea (1997-2002)

Series of publications “In the Crimean Home”, “Crimean Cradle”,
“Fairytale Echo” and others

Supplementary materials for existing courses on history, language
and literature.



Design of special courses for studying ethnic history, traditional
cultures of Crimean ethnic communities, intercultural management
and basics of conflict prevention and resolution (school mediation).
Summer schools of peace for schoolchildren, students and
community leaders (We are Crimeans, Renewed sources and
others)
Empowering education program spreading in the Crimean schools.
Activities in 2003-2005

Independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic intolerance toward
different ethnic groups of Ukraine (school level)

The integrative course “Culture of Neighborhood” for all levels of education system,
activities for the creation a program for kindergartens “Crimean wreath” (pre-school level)

Special course including knowledge of ethnic history and conflict resolution for government
officials and parliament members

Research project on Historical experience of neighborhood – learning and popularization
through TV programs

Informational methodological center for multicultural education and tolerance with resource
library established at the premises of the Crimean Ethnographic Museum

Special educational programs and placements for students and pupils based on the
potential of cultural ethno-centers of Crimea
Stimulation of the state policy transformation
Informational Methodological Center For Multicultural
Education And Tolerance
Aim: to popularize the ideas of tolerance, intercultural education, mutual respect and
collaboration of the diverse ethnical and confessional groups in the Crimean
society.
Objectives:
 establishment of the resource base for informational and methodological assistance
for development of a multicultural and ethnic education of the Crimean peoples;

popularization of the cultures and religions of the peninsula, the ideas of the
peaceful coexistence of the diverse confessions and ethnical groups of the Crimea;

exchange of the innovational educational projects centered around inter-ethnic
dialogue and poly-logue proficiency development;

informational and methodological support of revival, preservation and development
of the national languages and dialects;

development and distribution of the special school educational programs, involving
the potential of the Crimean Ethnographic museum and the cultural-ethnographic
centers of Crimea;

wide distribution of the practical experience in conflict prevention and resolution
(peer mediation, trainings for NGOs and others).
Monitoring Commission
Created in 2003 at the Integration and Development Center, includes 11
members – teachers, officials, independent experts, scholars, civic
leaders
Tasks:
Independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic
intolerance toward different ethnic groups of Ukraine
Independent monitoring of educational environment (opinion
educators, school children, parents, etc.)
Monitoring of regional educational materials
Creation of special expert groups
Activities:
Questionnaire developed
7 manuals monitored and results sent to the Ministry of Education and
Science
Research of the schoolchildren attitudes toward textbooks conducted
Research of school administration attitudes to tolerance issues in
schools conducted
Research of schoolchildren attitudes to tolerance issues in schools
conducted
Systemic approach and state involvement

Monitoring of situation in school environment and school
textbooks

Round tables for all stakeholders

Publication of materials and documents

Negotiations with the Ministry of Education
and Science

Creation and approval of the Concept of Teaching Social
Skills in the Crimean schools

Culture of Neighborhood course design for all levels of
education system, Monitoring Commission activities, Center
for Multicultural Education and Tolerance and other
Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood”
(35 hours per year in primary, K-12, High Ed.)
Main purpose:
Forming of socially competent, critically thinking and tolerant
citizens of Crimea and Ukraine
The symbol of the course – the flower with 7 colors – is originated from
the very popular fairy tale of Russian author, where the main values are
kindness, altruism and help.
Pupils of 5th and 6th grades were asked to draw their own images for the
symbol. And this flower was the most frequent one.
By a fluke the course also has 7 blocks.
Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood”
Main principles:

Equality of all people despite their status, gender, number of
population, ethnic origin, religion and period of living on the
territory of the Crimea

Priority of common human values

Rebirth, preservation and development of ethno-cultural identity
and dialogue of cultures

Pluralism of opinions on the issues of ethno-genesis and ethnic
history

Priority of upbringing tasks

Creative organization of educational activities (unity of the
curriculum, extra-curriculum and extra-class activities)

Links with other courses
Integrated course “Culture of Neighborhood”
Main principles (continuation):

Possibilities to modify the course into a subject of the invariant part of the
curriculum, or a special or facultative course depending on the availability
of teaching hours in the school curriculum

Continuation of the course on all the levels of education process: from
kindergartens through schools to institutions of higher learning

Maximum involvement of students into practical activities aimed at getting
know the home land through participation in every-day life of the Crimean
autonomy, their town, village, community, school

Involvement of a family and a community as a source of information and
active participant of the education process

Using no less than one third of the education time for practical activities,
inter-active educational forms (e.g. trainings) and excursions
Leading group of the Culture of Neighborhood
course authors
Andryuschenko Irina – Department of Cultural Studies, Tavrida National University
Aradzhyoni Margaryta – candidate of history, Ethno-confessional research department, Crimean branch of the Institute
of oriental studies (National Academy of science of Ukraine), Integration and development center for information
and research (Head of the Group)
Bykova Elizaveta – Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of
education and science of Ukraine
Cherny Eugeny – Candidate of psychology, Department of psychology, Tavrida National University
Kravtsova Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education and pedagogy of the Crimean state engineering and
pedagogical university
Mukhomorina Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education, Crimean teacher training institute
Openko Natalia - Department of psyhcology, Crimean teacher training institute
Smirnov Oleg – candidate of philology, Integration and development center for information and research, Department of
Inter-language communication and journalism, Tavrida National University (Head of the Project)
Utikas Lyudmila - Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of
education and science of Ukraine
Yakovleva Tatyana – Ministry of education and science of Crimea
General number of authors - 40
«Friendship vocabulary» - vocabulary of interaction
(one of the components of the course)

Any class includes children of at least 3 ethnic groups.

Elementary contacts and mutual understanding
through
acquaintance with everyday words and phrases (greetings,
etiquette, etc).

The philologists of 26 national cultural communities united for its
compiling.

The teacher can choose a language according to national
content of a class.
Progress of Integrated course “Culture of
Neighborhood”: Activities



2003 – approval of the Concept
2004 – 2005 – approval of the program, start of
didactic materials design
2005 – 2006 – Approbation of the course in 21 schools
(1st,5th,10th grades) and 10 kindergartens





Trainings for teachers and administration conducted
Involvement of parents
System of psychological monitoring developed
2006-2007 – for 2, 6, 11 classes and 2nd year of
Crimean Wreath
2007-2008 – for 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 classes and colleges
Progress of Integrated course “Culture of
Neighborhood”: growth of numbers
2006/2007
academic year
2007/2008 academic year 2008/2009
estimated
43 (23 schools
among them)
educational
institutions, in 8
towns and 6
regions of Crimea
128 (64 schools, 6
colleges among them)
educational institutions, in
12 towns and 11 regions
of Crimea
46 groups/99
classes
118 groups/ 275 classes/
20 students’ groups
3350 children from
4 till 17 y.o.
Approx. 6000 children
from 4 till 20 y.o.
abt. 12.000
children and
students 4-20 y.o.
146 teachers
340 teachers
More than 500
220 ed.institutions
(130 schools, abt.
20 – colleges and
univerities)
13 towns, 12
regions of Crimea
Psychological criteria of the program effectiveness:
Main goals and criteria:

Forming social competence
Criteria:
high level of communication culture and adaptability
critical thinking
history, culture knowledge
behavioral skills

Forming high level of tolerance
Criteria:
social (ethnic) distance reduction
negative stereotypes minimization
status deprivation reduction
non-ethnic, non-confessional component prevailing in communication
emotional comfort level positive change

Identities correspondence optimization
Criteria:
ego-identity distinctness
ethnic, religious, regional and other identities shaping
priority of personal identity over any other social identities

Progress of Cross-cultural adaptation in interpersonal interethnic relations
Criteria:
prevalence of high stages of cross-cultural adaptation
preference of integration over marginalization, assimilation and separation
System of psychological monitoring
of the program effectiveness

For kindergarten and primary school level:
 Outline of teacher’s observation of personal and behavioral
changes
 Questionnaire for parents of pupils

For Secondary school level:
 Projective methods for pupils
 Questionnaire for parents of pupils

For High school level:
 3 Questionnaires for pupils
Some results of program effectiveness’ monitoring
Kindergarten and primary school level
(parents’ questionnaire) 2005-2006
-
parents, that took part in the program
-
-
Parents, that noticed the development of their own interest
to their own culture and religion as well as to the others
cultures
-
-
K-level – 67,7% Slavs, 57,6% Crimean Tatars
Parents, that noticed the development of their children’s
interest to their own culture and religion as well as to the
others cultures
-
-
K-level – 16,1% Slavs, 18% Crimean Tatars
Primary school – 11,7% Slavs, 5,1% Crimean Tatars
Primary school – 90,7% Slavs, 79,3% Crimean Tatars
Parents, that marked their children as more friendly,
opened and sociable
-
K-level – 50,2% Slavs, 54,5% Crimean Tatars
Primary school – 39,4% Slavs, 36,2% Crimean Tatars
Some results of program effectiveness’ monitoring
High school level (Questionnaires for pupils) 2005-2006

Identity Tendencies:




Tendencies of Tolerance



Reinforcement of positive ethnic identity
Reinforcement of regional and civil identity
Increasing of prevalence of personal identity
Decreasing of the negative stereotypization
Reduction of ethnic and religious distance
Tendencies of Cross-Cultural Adaptation


Decreasing of preference of Separation and
Marginalization
Increasing of preference of Integration
Publications 2005-2007
Syllabi of the Good
Neighborhood
for 1-12 grades
and high education
Playing Together,
Collection of ethnic
games for
kindergarten level
Researches, papers
and documents on
multicultural
education and
related topics
Writing-books for 1st and 2nd grades of Good Neighborhood
State Support

Approval of the course’s program for schools in a complete set
(27.12.2006, Board of Ministry of Education and Science of AR Crimea)

Approval of the course’s program for the students of republic colleges and
universities (25.04.2006, Board of MES of AR Crimea)

Approval of the course’s program of the subject commissions of Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine (course is recommended for the usage
in the institutions of general education throughout the Ukraine (the Letter
of Institute of Innovation Technologies and Content of Education MES of
Ukraine 1.4/18-1306 from 12.06.2007)

Insertion of the article #134 «Elaborate and prepare for publication
textbooks on course «Culture of Neighborhood» (was not financed) into
the Program of Economical and Social Development of AR Crimea 2007
(the Decree of the Parliament of AR Crimea #386-5/07 from 22 of March
2007)
Summary
Outcomes that we have

State support for educational institutions and to textbooks and manuals publication.

Established procedures of curriculum and new courses development and approval.

Stimulation of civic initiatives.

The shift in the approaches towards activities of the "national" NGOs in the Crimea.
Outcomes that expect

Cultural focus functions as a preventive approach (prevents ethnic conflicts).

Interventions associated to cultural differences involve building cultural competency
and respect for diversity.
CONTACTS
Margaryta Aradzhyoni
[email protected]
Iryna Brunova-Kalisetska
[email protected]
Integration and Development Center for
Information and Research
www.integration.org.ua
THANK YOU!
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