Islamic Faith is a way of life…
Essential Question:
What are the Five Pillars of
Islam and how have they
shaped the culture of Arab
Geography ***PG. 55***
 2-3-1
-Arabian Peninsula (SW Asia-east of Sinai Peninsula)
-hot, dry desert
-sand dunes (hills of sand shaped by wind-800+ft. high and
hundreds of miles long—Rub’ al-Khali “Empty Quarter”
covers much of S Arabia)
-oases (wet, fertile lands in a desert)
-Mountains along S and W coasts
-marsh land along Persian Gulf
Geog. Continued
 The middle east includes parts of three continents
(Europe, Africa, and Asia)
 Saudi Arabia is the home of many important Islamic
cities and monuments. (Mecca and Medina)
 The Middle East region
Is often considered to extend
where ever Arabic is spoken
Trade & Economy
 2-3-1
-crossroads location for trade (in between Africa, Asia and
-trade along land (camels) and water
-traded spices, silk, and gold (date palm)-only needed water for
-EXPORTED: jewelry, glass, clothing
-IMPORTED: cotton, rice, oranges from India, China, and SE
-IMPORTED: ivory, cloves, slaves, and gold from Africa
-Arabs learned how to make paper and use gunpowder from
Chinese (Chinese soldiers captured in battle taught Abbasid
Trade & Economy cont’d.
-caravans (people who travel and trade together and relied
on oases)
-Souk-“market” (nomads[travelers] and townspeople
traded animal products, desert herbs, leather, clothing,
food, home supplies)
 2-4-1
-trade routes helped spread Islam as far east as modern
Malaysia and Indonesia and west into Spain
-mosque: building for Muslim prayer (minaret is narrow tower that
sounds call for Muslims to pray)
-Muhammad (“worthy of praise”):
-born in Mecca around 570
-father died before he was born, mother died when he was 6
-raised by uncle (caravan merchant)
-managed caravan business owned by Khadijah and they
married when Muhammad was 25
-concerned that wealthy people of Mecca were keeping all the
money for themselves, Muhammad would meditate
-when he was 40, he claimed he heard a voice in a cave telling
him to “Recite!”
-believed God had sent an angel to make him a prophet
-613 he started to share his message
Religion of Islam
-Islam (religion)
-Muslims (followers of Islam)
-Qur’an (holy book of Islam-contained messages Muhammad claimed
were from God)
-Allah “One God” in Arabic
-paradise for believers, suffering for others
-preparations for worship (wash before)
-no eating pork, no alcohol
-encouraged freeing of slaves
-women’s rights (own property, earn money, get an education)
-jihad “to make an effort or to struggle” (within self to follow Islamic
ways-external struggle to protect Muslim community- “holy war”)
-Sunnah (refers to how Muhammad lived and is basis for Muslim life)
-Shariah (Islamic law based on Qur’an and Sunnah)
Muhammad (Religion cont’d.)
-his teachings upset Arabs:
-told to stop worshipping multiple gods
-merchants would lose business if believers stopped
making the pilgrimage to Mecca to worship gods and
goddesses in a shrine
-belief in Allah meant a community without social classes
-leaders of Mecca threatened to kill him, so he left to
Medina “the prophet’s city” and this journey is known
the hegira
-Meccans finally welcomed Muhammad back in 630
Muhammad (Religion cont’d.)
-Muhammad died 632
-Fatimah (Muhammad’s daughter-PG 65)
-4 caliphates after his death—Muhammad
did not pick a successor
Five Pillars of Islam (Religion cont’d.)
1. statement of faith (“There is no god but
Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet”)
2. daily prayer (5 times toward Mecca)
3. yearly donation (help poor, build mosques,
pay debts)
4. fasting (holy month of Ramadan-fast from
sunrise to sunset)
5. hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in
life – PGS. 86-87)
Monotheistic Religions (Rel. cont’d.)
-similarities to Judaism and Christianity:
-Abraham and Moses as prophets
-differences from Judaism and Christianity:
-Islam does not teach Jesus as Son of
-face Mecca when pray (instead of
Jerusalem like Jews and Christians)
-Kaaba (house Abraham built to worship
God in Mecca)
Politics & Government
-After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr (“caliph”-highest leader of
Islam) takes over
-Muslims conquer lands (Persian and Byzantine
-make treaties with non-Muslims (Jews and Christians
had to pay special tax)
-Baghdad (capital of Islamic Empire in 762-trade, farming, art
important—between two rivers—designed in concentric circles
with citizens on outside, then an open circle for defense, then a
circle of army houses, and the caliph at the center)
-Cordoba (capital of what is now Spain in 756-center of
learning-center of Jewish culture-huge libraries)
Ottoman Empire (P&G cont’d.)
 2-4-2
-Ottoman Empire controlled much of Europe, Asia and Africa by mid1200s *PG. 89*
-Ottoman army trained Christian boys from conquered towns to
become soldiers called Janissaries (slaves converted to Islam)
-armed with cannons
-Mehmed *PG. 89* led Ottomans to conquer Constantinople and then
Byzantine Empire (renamed Constantinople Istanbuland turned
Hagia Sophia into a mosque)
-sultan-Ottoman ruler
-Suleyman I “the Magnificent” ruled from 1520-1566 and took control
of eastern Mediterranean-cultural peak
Ottoman Empire Cont’d. (P&G cont’d.)
-Ottoman culture:
-sultan in charge
-two classes:
-ruling class (judges, advisers-must practice
Islam, be loyal to sultan, understand
-other class (didn’t fit requirements-many
Christians and Jews formed
communities called
millets and had their
own government and
religious laws)
-women kept separate in harems and out of public life
-wealthy women could own property or businesses
Safavid Empire (P&G cont’d.)
-Safavid Empire (1501)
-leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made Shia the official
-conflicted with Ottomans because Safavid Empire was Shiite and
Ottomans were Sunni (Muslims had split into two groups in mid-600s)
-Shia-Muslims who believed only descendant of Muhammad should
rule (Fatimah married to Ali, a relative of Muhammad—Shia Muslims
believed Muhammad wanted him to rule…)
-Sunni-Muslims who believed people unrelated to Muhammad should
be allowed to rule
-major civilization until mid-1700s
Mughal Empire (P&G cont’d.)
-Mughal Empire (established by Babur in 1526)
-known for poetry and architecture
-Turkish Muslims
-Taj Mahal (built 1631-1647 by Akbar’s grandson for his wife)
-religious tolerance (from emperor Akbar) until late
1600s…then tax back and empire begins to fall apart
Society & Culture
-harsh weather forced two groups:
-nomads (lived in tents and stayed in tribesraised goats, sheep, camels)
-townspeople (settled in oases and farmed)
Astronomy & Geography
-observatories to study moon, sun, and stars
-astrolabe (invented by Greeks, but improved
by Muslims) to chart position of stars and
figure out their location
-advances in map-making
-advances in calculating distances
Math & Medicine (S&T cont’d.)
-al-jabr textbook (brought to Europe in 1500s)
-Muslim doctors had to take tests before treating people
-made encyclopedia of drugs and their effects
-wrote descriptions of diseases
-started first pharmacy school
-public hospital in Baghdad
-discovered how to diagnose and treat smallpox
-zoology (studied animals for medicine for humans)
Philosophy & Literature (S&T cont’d.)
-focus on spiritual issues (Sufism-find God’s love
through personal relationship)
-poetry and short stories (The Thousand and One
Nights with Sinbad, Aladdin, Ali Baba)
-House of Wisdom (educational institution in
Baghdad—scholars translate various works into
several languages—how we know a lot about
ancient cultures!)
Architecture & Art (S&T cont’d.)
-mosques (Blue Mosque in Istanbul PG. 99)
-palaces, marketplaces, libraries (domes, arches, colored
bricks, decorative tiles)
-Taj Mahal (started in 1631—20,000 men took 22 years to
build—northern India—Muslim ruler took throne by killing
his brothers, but built this as a memorial to one of his
wives, who had 14 children and died giving birth to the
last one—Islam spread through India)
-no people or animals (only Allah can create)
-calligraphy (“beautiful writing”-only writing worthy of
Allah) to write sayings from Qur’an

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