The letters to the Kings
Messages both universal and specific
The nature of the letters
• Not only to Kings, also Presidents of the American
republics and to two Turkish ministers
• Some were to kings and rulers in general
• By the close of the scramble for Africa of 1885-7,
these monarchs etc were to rule most of the
• The Blessed Beauty was usually kind and polite,
even to those who received an element of
How were they delivered?
Through Consuls
In what languages were they written?
Which were received?
Pius IX (“Pio No, no”)
Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church,
King of Rome
Napoleon III Bonaparte
Emperor of France
Empress of France, and their Summer Palace at Biarritz
The Prince Imperial
their son,
killed in 1878 while serving in the British army in the Zulu war
Alexander II
Czar of all the Russias
Queen of Great Britain, Empress of India
The message to Queen Victoria
“Verily, no God is there but Me”
Commended on suppressing the slave trade
Commends parliamentary approach
Don’t spend too much on arms… collective
Shah of Persia
Ali Pasha
Prime Minister of the Ottoman Empire
Fu’ad Pasha
Minister of the Ottoman Empire
Abdu’l Aziz
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Letter to the Sultan
• “Beware, O King, that thou gather not around
thee such ministers as follow the desire of a
corrupt inclination…Know thou for a certainty
that that whoso disbelieveth in God is neither
trustworthy nor truthful.”
• Don’t pass the reins of state to others
• “Place not thy reliance on thy treasures.”
• “Thou art God’s shadow upon earth”
Mark Twain
It’s tough at the top
Franz Joseph II
Emperor of Austro-Hungary
Franz Joseph II’s son Rudolf, who committed suicide in 1889
Emperor of Mexico, put into
power by Napoleon III, abandoned and executed by the Mexican nationalists in 1867
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austro-Hungary,
assassinated in 1914 in Sarajevo
Wilhelm I
Kaiser of Germany
Wilhelm I with von Bismarck
Chancellor of Germany
“O Banks of the Rhine, We have seen you covered
with gore, inasmuch as the swords of retribution
were drawn against you.”
“And you shall have another turn.”
And We hear the lamentations of Berlin, though
she be today in conspicuous glory.”
Andrew Johnson or Ulysses Grant
Presidents of the United States of America
We have just touched upon a massive
Over to you!

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