The letters to the Kings Messages both universal and specific The nature of the letters • Not only to Kings, also Presidents of the American republics and to two Turkish ministers • Some were to kings and rulers in general • By the close of the scramble for Africa of 1885-7, these monarchs etc were to rule most of the world • The Blessed Beauty was usually kind and polite, even to those who received an element of criticism How were they delivered? • • • • Badi Through Consuls In what languages were they written? Which were received? Pius IX (“Pio No, no”) Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church, King of Rome (Louis) Napoleon III Bonaparte Emperor of France Eugenie Empress of France, and their Summer Palace at Biarritz The Prince Imperial their son, killed in 1878 while serving in the British army in the Zulu war Alexander II Czar of all the Russias Victoria Queen of Great Britain, Empress of India The message to Queen Victoria • • • • “Verily, no God is there but Me” Commended on suppressing the slave trade Commends parliamentary approach Don’t spend too much on arms… collective security Nasiri’d-Din Shah of Persia Ali Pasha Prime Minister of the Ottoman Empire Fu’ad Pasha Minister of the Ottoman Empire Abdu’l Aziz Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Letter to the Sultan • “Beware, O King, that thou gather not around thee such ministers as follow the desire of a corrupt inclination…Know thou for a certainty that that whoso disbelieveth in God is neither trustworthy nor truthful.” • Don’t pass the reins of state to others • “Place not thy reliance on thy treasures.” • “Thou art God’s shadow upon earth” Mark Twain It’s tough at the top Franz Joseph II Emperor of Austro-Hungary Franz Joseph II’s son Rudolf, who committed suicide in 1889 Maximillian Emperor of Mexico, put into power by Napoleon III, abandoned and executed by the Mexican nationalists in 1867 Franz Ferdinand Archduke of Austro-Hungary, assassinated in 1914 in Sarajevo Wilhelm I Kaiser of Germany Wilhelm I with von Bismarck Chancellor of Germany “O Banks of the Rhine, We have seen you covered with gore, inasmuch as the swords of retribution were drawn against you.” “And you shall have another turn.” And We hear the lamentations of Berlin, though she be today in conspicuous glory.” Andrew Johnson or Ulysses Grant Presidents of the United States of America We have just touched upon a massive subject. Over to you!