Chapter 11: Byzantines,
Russians, and Turks Interact
(500 – 1500 CE)
 Section One: The Byzantine
Empire
 Section Two: The Russian
Empire
 Section Three: Turkish Empires,
Rise of Anatolia
Standard Four
 SSWH4: The student will analyze the
importance of the Byzantine and Mongol
Empires between 450 and 1500 CE.
 SSWH4a: Analyze the importance of
Justinian, include the influence of the
Empress Theodora, Justinian’s Code,
and the efforts to recapture the west.
Standard Four
 SSWH4b: Describe the relationship
between the Roman and Byzantine
Empires; include the impact Byzantium
had on Moscow and the Russian Empire,
the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar
Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of
Constantinople as a center of law,
religion, and the arts.
Standard Four
 SSWH4c: Explain the Great Schism of
1054 CE.
 SSWH4d: Analyze the spread of the
Mongol Empire; include the role of
Genghis Khan in developing the empire,
the impact of the Mongols on Russia,
China and the West, the development of
trade, and European observations
through the writings of Marco Polo.
Standard Four
 SSWH4e: Explain the Ottoman Empire’s
role in the decline of Byzantium and the
capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
Let’s Preview the Chapter
 Use pages 298 to 317.
 Essential questions and objectives:
 Describe Byzantine politics and the rise
of Emperor Justinian.
 Identify causes of the Byzantine Empire’s
collapse.
 Explain why the Eastern and Western
churches created two traditions.
Let’s preview the chapter..
 Summarize the Slavic, Greek, and Viking
roots of Russia and Russian culture.
 Describe the Kievan state.
 Explain how the Mongols conquered and
ruled Russia.
 Describe Russia’s rise to independence.
 Describe the rise of Seljuk Turks.
Pages 298-299
 What land did the Seljuk Turks
occupy?
 The Seljuk Turks occupied Persia.
 Two world religions, Islam and
Christianity, met head-to-head as Arabs
and Turks battled Byzantines and then
Crusaders. At the same time, disputes
over doctrine split Christianity into
competing branches.
Why might the Dnieper River
have been important to
Kievan Russia?
 The Dnieiper River connected Kiev with the
civilizations to the south and north.
 Byzantine influence inspired the growth of a
unique Russian culture. The Turks meanwhile
adopted Islam and sponsored a rebirth of
Persian ways to create a dynamic cultural
blend.
How does the map indicate that
there was probably conflict between
the Byzantine and Seljuk empires?
 The map shows striped areasto indicate the
land belonged to both the Seljuk and
Byzantine empires.
 The Byzantines, Slavs, Arabs, Turks, and
Mongols waged bloody wars to expand
their territories. However, each empire
also brought together people of diverse
traditions.
Timeline Review
 In what year did Justinian become ruler of the
Byzantine Empire? A.D. 527
 Why does the time line show events in China and
Mexico? To show that important events were happening in
many parts of the world as well asto show history of Central
Europe relative to eventselsewhere.
 How might the spreading of the Byzantine
culture into Russia in the 850’s affect Asia and Central
Europe ? It would link Russia more closely with
Central Asia than with Eastern Asia or Western
Europe.
Timeline Review
 What event directly involved Christianity?
 Pope Urban II launched thje first
Crusade.
 Which event occurred in North America?
 Montezuma II became leader of the
Aztec Empire.
Who is Justinian?
 A.D. 482 to 565.
 A high ranking Byzantine nobleman who
in 527 succeeded his uncle to the throne
of the Eastern Empire.
 He ruled almost all the territory that
Rome had ever ruled.
 He created a single, uniform law code
which consisted of four works.
Who is Justinian?
 He launched an ambitious public building
program in the Roman world.
 He was passionate about church
building. He viewed churches as the
most visible sign of the close connection
between church and state in his empire.
 He enlarged his palace and also built
baths, aqueducts, law courts, schools,
and hospitals.
Who is Justianian the
Great?
Who is Belisarius?
 One of Justinian’s best generals who was
used to recover North Africa from the
Germans and quickly succeeded.
 Two years later, he attacked Rome and
seized it from the Ostrogoths.
 After numerous attacks, Justinian’s army
won nearly all of Italy and parts of Spain.
Who is Belisaurus?
How are Byzantine and
Roman emperors alike?
 Like the Caesar’s, the Byzantine
emperors ruled with absolute power.
 They headed not just the state but the
church as well. They appointed and
dismissed bishops at will.
 The politics were brutal and often deadly.
 Emperors lived under constant risk of
assassination.
What is the Justinian
Code?
 Justinian put together a panel which combed
through 400 years worth of Roman laws that
were contradictory and created a single,
uniform code of laws.
 The Code decided legal questions that
regulated whole areas of Byzantine life such as
marriage, slavery, property, inheritance,
women’s rights, and criminal justice.
 Although Justinian died in 565, his code lasted
for 900 years.
What is the Justinian
Code?
 The code consisted of four works:
 The Code –contained nearly 5,000 Roman laws
that were still considered useful for the Byzantine
Empire.
 The Digest – quoted and summarized the opinions
of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers. It consisted of 50
volumes.
 The Institutes – a textbook that told law students
how to use laws.
 The Novellae – (New Laws) presented legislation
passed after 534.
What is the significance of
Hagia Sophia?
 Considered as the crowning glory of
Justinian’s reign.
 Hagia Sophia means “Holy Wisdom” in
Greek.
 A church bearing this same name had
been destroyed in 532, and Justinian had
it rebuilt and it was hailed as the most
splendid.
What was the Nika
Rebellion?
 City–wide rebellion in 532 BC which
resulted from rowdy fan groups of
Hippodrome (horse races)
entertainment activities.
 The fan groups were angry with the
government because they felt that city
officials had been too severe in putting
down a previous riot of Hippodrome fans.
What was the Nika
Rebellion?
 The fans packed the Hippodrome and
demanded the overthrow of Justinian but
Belisarius broke in with his troops and
slaughtered about 30,000 rebels.
Who is Empress Theodora
and why was she important?
 She was the most powerful woman in the
Byzantine Empire’s history who rose from deep
poverty. She was an actress.
 She met Justinian and in 525 they were
married.
 As his wife she met with foreign powers, wrote
to foreign leaders, passed laws, and built
churches.
 After her death, Justinian was so depressed
that he passed no major laws for the rest of his
reign.
Who is Empress
Theodora?
Why did the Byzantine
Empire fall?
 Justinian died.
 As a result of his death, the empire
suffered countless setbacks including
street riots, religious quarrels, palace
intrigues and foreign dangers.
 Each time the empire moved to the edge
of collapse, it found some way to
continue surviving.
What caused the empire
to be plagued?
 This crisis actually began before
Justinian died.
 It was a disease that resembled what we
know as the bubonic plague. The illness
hit Constantinople in the later years of
Justinian’s rule.
 On the average there were 10,000
people dying a day.
Why did Byzantine face
challenges from foreign
enemies?
 From the very start of its rise to power,
Byzantium faced constant challenges from
foreign enemies.
 The Byzantines used bribery, diplomacy,
political marriages, and military power to keep
their enemies at bay.
 Slowly, the Byzantine Empire shrank under the
impact of foreign attacks.
 Finally the city of Byzantine and the Empire fell
to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Why did the Christian
Church divide?
 Under the Byzantine Empire, Christianity
underwent a dramatic development and began
to develop differently in the Western and
Eastern Roman Empires.
 This was mostly due to the distance between
them and the lack of contact between the two
regions.
 The Eastern Empire became Byzantium and
flourished which caused differences that
ultimately split apart the Church.
The Great Schism
 The claiming of the two parts (Eastern
and Western) of the Ancient Roman
Empire that their pope was the true pope
of the Christian religion.
 This is what began the split in the Church
that became known as the Great
Schism.
What two branches of
Christianity developed as a
result?
 Roman Catholicism – was adopted by the
Western church.
 Eastern Orthodox – was adopted by the
Eastern church.
 Both churches believe in the gospel of Jesus
and in the Bible as interpreted by their church.
They also believe that God uses sacraments to
convey his love to humans.
 Sorting Activity Assignment
Who were the two most successful
Eastern missionaries during this
time period? Why?
 Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril
 They were instrumental in spreading
their form of Christianity to the Slavs.
These two missionaries also invented
the Cyrillic Alphabet for the Slavic
languages that would enable them to
read the Bible in their own languages.
Vocabulary
 Patriarch – a leading bishop of the
Eastern Christian church. Eventhough
this person was a leading bishop of the
church he did bow to the emperor.
 Icon – religious images used by the
Eastern Christian church to aid their
devotions. The emperor viewed the use
of icons as idol worship which caused the
people to riot and the clergy to rebel.
Vocabulary
 Excommunication – the outcasting of a
person from the church.
How did the Russian
culture begin? (Slide 1)
 Russia’s first unified territory originated west of
the Ural Mountains in the region that runs from
the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea.
 There were hilly grasslands in the south.
 The north is densely forested, swampy and flat.
 It has three great rivers: The Dnieper, Don, and
Volga. They run from the heart of the forests to
the Black Sea or the Caspian Sea.
How did the Russian
culture begin? (Slide 2)
 In early Byzantium Empire days the forests
were inhabited by tribes of Slavic farmers and
traders.
 They spoke similar languages but had no
political unity.
 In the 1800’s, small bands of adventurers
came down among them from the north.
These people were called Varangians or Rus
and were probably Vikings.
Who is Rurik?
 A Viking chieftan who the Slavs invited to
be their king. He founded Novgorod,
Russia’s first important city.
Who is Vladimir?
 Background Information
 A member of Kievan nobility who was the
grandson of a Kievan princess named
Olga. Olga traveled to Constantinople
and publicly converted to Christianity.
 She governed Kiev until her son was old
enough to rule, but he resisted
Christianity.
Who is Vladimir?
 He is Olga’s grandson who took the
Kievan throne in 980 and considered
converting to Christianity. He sent out a
team to examine the major religions of
the time and was convinced most by the
findings of the Byzantine Christian
religion of which he and all his subjects
converted to.
Who is Yaroslav the Wise?
 The rise of Kiev marked the appearance
of Russia’s first important unified territory.
 Vladimir led the way in establishing
Kiev’s power by expanding the state into
Poland.
 Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir’s son came
to the throne and led Kiev to even greater
glory than that of his father.
Who is Yaroslav the Wise?
 He skillfully married off his daughters and
sisters to the kings and princes of
Western Europe, which helped him forge
important trading alliances.
 He created a legal code.
 He built the first library in Kiev.
 Under his rule, Christianity prospered.
Kiev was home to some 400 churches.
What caused the decline
of Kiev? (additional)
 It started with the death of Yaroslav in
1054. During his reign he made a crucial
error by dividing his realm among his
sons, instead of passing the throne to the
eldest son as custom called for. After
their father’s death, they tore the
kingdom apart.
Who are the Mongols and
Genghis Khan?
 Mongols – a ferocious group of
horsemen from central Asia who slashed
their way into Russia. They were
nomads.
 Genghis Khan – one of the most feared
warriors of all time who led the Mongols
into the world scene at the beginnings of
the 1200’s. (Mongol Assignment)
Who is Alexander Nevsky?
 A Russian noble who was a prince and
military hero. He advised his fellow
princes to cooperate with the Mongols
when they moved in and conquered the
Russians.
Alexander Nevsky
Who were some of Moscow’s
most powerful princes and
why were they so powerful?
 A line of Russian princes emerged who would
control nearly all of European Russia and
challenge the Mongols.
 Prince Ivan I – earned the gratitude of the
Mongols by helping to crush a Russian revolt
against Mongol rule. He was appointed tax
collector of the Slavic lands. He also obtained
the title “Grand Prince”. He became the most
powerful of all Russian Princes. He was the
wealthiest and became known as “Ivan the
Moneybag.”
Who is Ivan III and why did
he take the title of czar?
 He made the Russian state into a
genuine empire during his 43 year reign.
 When he became prince, he openly
challenged Mongol rule.
 He took the name czar (Russian
version of Caesar) and publicly claimed
his intent to make Russia the “Third
Rome”.
Who is Ivan III?
 In 1480, he made a final break with the
Mongols. In a bloodless battle, because
neither the Russian nor Mongol army
would advance to fight, the Russians
marked this as their liberation from
Mongol rule.
 After this liberation, the czars could
openly pursue an empire.
Ivan I and Ivan III
The Mongols
(Additional Notes)
 Pastoralists – Nomadic peoples who
herded domesticated animals. These
people were constantly on the move
searching for good pasture to feed their
herds.
 These people did not wander, but rather
followed seasonal patterns and returned
on a regular basis to the same
campsites.
The Mongols
(Additional Notes)
 These people depended on their animals
for food, clothing, and housing. Their
food consisted of meat and mare’s milk.
They wore clothing made of skins and
wool and they lived in portable felt tents
called yurts.
More on Genghis Khan…..
 A Mongol clan leader named Temujin
sought to unite the Mongols under his
rule. He fought and defeated his rivals
one by one.
 In 1206 he took the title, Genghis Khan
 which meant “universal one”.
 Over his 21 years of rulership, he led the
Mongols in conquering much of Asia.
Genghis Khan? Why a
conqueror?
Genghis Khan - Conqueror
# 1 He was a brilliant organizer who
assembled his Mongol warriors into a
mighty fighting force.
# 2 He was a gifted strategist who used
various tricks to confuse his enemy.
# 3 He used cruelty as a weapon. He
believed in terrifying his enemies into
surrender.
Why were the Mongols
such mighty fighters?
 The soldiers were superb horsemen,
having spent all their lives in the saddle.
Animal game roundups gave young men
the chance to practice skills they would
use in battle and gave their leaders the
opportunity to spot promising warriors.
 Each soldier was accompanied by three
extra horses allowing them to stay in a
saddle for up to 10 days, and allowing
them to cover up to 120 miles a day.
How did the empire thrive after
the death of Genghis?
 His sons and grandsons continued the
campaign of conquest. The Khanate
armies drove south, east, and west from
Asia.
 By 1260 the Mongols had divided their
huge empire into four regions or
khanates.
What type rulers were the
Mongols?
 Because of the ferocious nature of the Mongols
in their conquests, many areas that they
invaded never recovered.
 The Mongols destroyed irrigation systems in
the Tigris and Euphrates valley regions.
 While they were ferocious in war, they were
tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their
beliefs or way of life on those they conquered.
 Over time, some Mongol rulers even adopted
aspects of the cultures they ruled.
What is the Mongol
peace?
 From the mid-1200’s to the mid-1300’s,
the Mongols imposed stability and law
and order across much of Eurasia.
 This period is called Pax Mongolica or
Mongol Peace. During this time period,
Mongols guaranteed safe passage for
trade caravans, travelers, and
missionaries from one end of the empire
to another.
Who is Kublai Khan?
 The grandson on Genghis Khan, who
assumed the title Great Khan in 1260.
His goal was to fulfill his grandfather’s
wishes by conquering all of China.
 After becoming the new emperor, he
founded a new dynasty called the Yuan
Dynasty.
The Yuan era was important for several
reasons:
Who is Kublai Khan?
 First, Kublai united China for the first time in
more than 300 years. For this he is considered
one of China’s great emperors.
 Second, the control imposed by the Mongols
across all of Asia opened China to greater
foreign contacts and trade.
 Finally, Kublai and his successors tolerated
Chinese culture and made few changes to the
system of government.
Who is Kublai Khan and
Marco Polo?
Who are the Turks?
 A group of people referred to as Tu-Kiu
by the Chinese were nomads who rode
horses over the vast plains.
 These people herded goats and sheep,
lived in tents, and used two-humped
camels to carry their goods.
 The Islamic world first met them as
raiders and traders along their
northeastern frontiers.
Who are the Abbasids?
 A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim
Empire from AD 750 to 1258.
 The Abbasids took note of the Turks for
their military skills.
 They began buying Turkish children to
raise as slaves, train as soldiers, and
employ as bodyguards.
 The Abbasids came to prize the slaves
for their skills and loyalty.
How did the Turks become
known as the Seljuks?
 In the 10th Century, a growing number of
Turks began converting to Islam and
slowly migrating into the Abbasid Empire.
 One of the first migrating Turkish groups
was known as the Seljuks, after the
family that led them.
What is a vizier? Who is
Malik Shah?
 A person who served as a prime minister
or sultan in the Seljuk government
structure.
 Malik Shah is thought to be the greatest
of the Seljuk sultans.
 He took pride in supporting Persian
artists and architects. He beautified the
city of Isfahan by building many splendid
mosques.
Who is Malik Shah?
 He was capable of great cruelty. He is
said to have blinded his brother and
poisoning his wife.
 He ruled as the last of the strong Seljuk
leaders.
 After his unexpected death, no other
capable shah appeared who could
replace him.
In what ways did the Turks
show respect for their Persian
subjects?
 They showed great admiration of Persian
learning.
 They adopted Persian as the language of
the culture.
 They looked to Persians for cultural and
religious guidance.
How did the death of Malik Shah
affect the Seljuk Empire?
 The Seljuk Empire slowly disintegrated
into a loose collection of minor kingdoms.
 At this point the West launched a
counterattack against the Turks and
other Muslims for control of the Holy
Land of the Middle East which became
known as the Crusades.
What role did Urban II play in
the history of the Turks?
 He launched the First Crusade in 1095 in
which he called on Christians to drive the
Turks out of Anatolia and recover
Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
What happened when the
Seljuks met the Mongols?
 The Mongols headed into Seljuk territory
in 1258. He burned down the palace and
had tens of thousands of people killed.
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Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact (500