NOTES FROM THE
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
M. Tomak
GEORGE SARTON
• “History of civilization is the history of
science. The reason lies in the fact that the
main difference between today’s
civilization and the antiquity is the scientific
knowledge. Saints of today are no different
than the ancient ones. Today’s artists are no
more skillful than the ancient ones.”
GEORGE SARTON
• “But the knowledge of our scientists is
much more and deeper. So, one of the most
cumulative human activity is science. Thus,
the most important difference between the
two civilizations is in the levels of the
scientific knowledge.”
Times
Nicolas Copernicus
De Revolutionibus : Copernicus
1473 -1543
1543
Tycho Brahe
1546 - 1601
Galileo Galilei
1564 - 1642
William Shakespeare
1564 - 1616
Johannes Kepler
1571 - 1630
Isaac Newton
1642 - 1727
Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543
Scientific Revolution
Sun Centered System
• Collected Observations
(Zic: Astronomic
almanac)
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
• Supported Copernicus,
• “Libertes philosophica”,
supported free thinking,
• Burned in Rome.
Enlightment
• Starts with Kepler:
Born,27 Dec.1571 near
Stutgart , Lutheran, studied
theology inTübingen
University to be a priest but
perfect in mathematics and
astronomy.
Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630)
KEPLER
• Instead of becoming a priest,
accepted a position as teacher of
mathematics and Astronomy in
Graz,Austria (later Graz University)
(1594-1600).
KEPLER
• Universe is an image of God.
• Tycho Brahe (who corrected Copernicus-zic by
careful observations) invited him to Prag on Jan.
1,1600 (1600-1612).
• Brahe died on 24 Oct., 1601.
• Kepler takes his position and data, and starts to
work on the trajectory of Mars.
Freedom of the Mind!
• Works on Mars data till 1605.
• After 5 years in vain, abondons
the idea of church, that favors
circular orbits,
• And discovers elliptical orbits!
GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)
• Galileo Galilei, observes
Jupiter’s moons in University
of Padua(1610), with his
telescope, contrary to the
views of the church.
• Supports Copernicus,
• Does experiments on the
motion of objects.
Galileo Galilei(1564-1642)
GALILEO
“You cannot learn
physics from the holly
books. You have to do
experiments for this.
You can only learn
how to be a good
person.”
Scientific Revolution
• 1543 Copernicus,
• 1609, 1619 Kepler,
• 1610 Galileo,
• 1620 Bacon
• 1637 Descartes,
• 1686 Newton
150 years, to abolish 2000 years old
Aristoteles-Physics,PtolemaiosAstronomy,İbn-i Sina – Medicine.
Scientific Revolution is
continuing....
• Nano-science today
• LHC
The year(s) of the nano
Friction of Molecules
• Micromachines gearing
up? Microscopic gears
may stick or grind to a halt
because of novel kinds of
friction at the molecular
level.
• A. R. Burns, J. E.
Houston, R. W. Carpick,
and T. A. Michalske
Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1181
(issue of 8 February 1999)
Reducing Friction without Oil
• Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,
126101 (2004)
• Hair trigger. The
"Tribolever" device can
sense atomic scale forces
on its tip in all three
dimensions. Tribolever
experiments demonstrated
a regime of extreme
slipperiness between the
tip and surface
How to Grab an Atom
• Phys. Rev. Lett. 90,
176102 (2003)
• Now you see it, now you
don't. Researchers used
the tip of an atomic force
microscope to lift a single
atom from a surface
(above, before and after)
and then replace it (not
shown). The method
works with nonconducting materials,
unlike past atom
manipulation techniques.
The Magic of Nanoclusters
• Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 066101
(2002)
• Clusters everywhere. Billions
of identical metal clusters can
spontaneously form on a silicon
surface. Each triangle contains
six indium atoms. (With more
indium, the clusters fill in some
of the empty space, making
complete rows and columns of
triangles.) The nanoclusters
may be useful for electronic
devices, for data storage, or for
fostering chemical reactions.
Nanocrystals
• Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 951
(2000)
• Air-cleaning crystal. The
first atomic-scale images
of nanocrystals that help
reduce pollution show a
surprising triangular,
rather than hexagonal,
shape. The new
information should help
researchers improve the
chemical process
NANO-BALANCE
• The atom at the tip of a
nanotube is changing the
vibrational frequency of the
tube.
Molecular Conductivity Takes
Shape
• Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,
176804 (2002)
• Mind the gap. By
breaking a tiny gold
bridge (shown in false
color), researchers make
electrodes for driving
current through a single
molecule. Now they have
shown a specific way in
which the molecule's
shape affects its
conductivity.
Fullerenes
• The fullerenes are a family of molecules with a
closed cage of carbon atoms arranged in
pentagons and hexagons. Each carbon is sp2
hybridized.
– The most symmetrical member is
buckminsterfullerene, C60.
– Buckminsterfullerenes show potential for
applications in superconductivity and catalytic
activity.
24
Buckminsterfullerene
A frame
model
of C60.
By permission of Dr.
Richard Smalley, Rice
University
25
Nanotube Electronics
Chips made from tubes.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 79
(1999)
• Chips made from
tubes. Adding atoms
(blue and red) to an allcarbon nanotube makes
the nanoworld
equivalent of a
semiconductor
junction--the basis for
computer chips
Nanotubes Under Stress
• Hande Ustunel/Cornell
Univ.
• Springy Nanotubes. A
carbon nanotube, when
pressed in the middle, will
stretch like a rubber band.
According to experiments,
the stretching modifies the
quantum states available
to electrons, which alters
the nanotube's electrical
resistance.
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
• Substrate wafers
transferred to high
vacuum growth chamber
(red arrow)
• Elements kept in K-Cells
at high temp
• Shutters over cells open
to release vaporized
elements, which deposit
on sample
Adapted from: Farrow, R.F.C., ed. Molecular Beam
Epitaxy: Applications to Key Materials. Noyes
Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1995.
Ge30Si70/Si Quantum Well
Reduced Dimensionality
Confining the electron motion in at least one spatial
dimension affects the energy levels and the density of states…
Quantum
Well
e1 e2
Energy
Based on Bimberg (1999)
Quantum
Wire
e3
e4
Energy
Quantum
Dot
r0D(E)
r1D(E)
r3D(E)
r2D(E)
Bulk
e1,1
e1,2
e1,3
Energy
Energy
As Science was developing in
the West, what was happening
in the Islamic World?
MADRASAH
University in Islamic World
• First: in Buhara 937, Faracek,
• 1067 Bağdat: Nizamiye
medreseleri,
• 13th century Selçuk: Konya,
Sivas, Kayseri,whole anatolia,
• Ottoman: 1331 İznik,Bursa,
Edirne, İstanbul
Madrasah:Curriculum
• Ulum-u Nakliye: fıkıh,
hadis, kelam, tefsir
• Ulum-u Akliye:
matematik, astronomi,
University in the West
•
•
•
•
•
1088 Bologna,
1160 Paris,
1167 Oxford,
1200-1215 Montpellier, Padua, Orleans, Cambridge
North : Prag(1347), Karakov(1364), Viyana(1365),
Heidelberg(1385), Kopenhag (1475), Uppsala(1477)
• No similar development towards east...Byzantium ?
University:Curriculum
• Trivium: (Rhetoric,
Logic, Gramer);
• Quadrivium:
(ArithmeticsGeometry, Physics,
Astronomy , Music)
Madrasah in Turkestan
• Great men of science at the beginning:
• Farabi(870-950),
• İbn-i Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037).
Something goes wrong!
İMAM GAZALİ
(1058-1111)
• His book: “Tehafüt-ül Felasife: Felsefenin
Tutarsızlığı”,Philosophy is not useful,
• Everything is in Quran.
• No need to do any research.
İBN-İ RÜŞD (AVERROES)
(1126-1198)
• His book: “Tehafüt-ül Tehafüt:
Tutarsızlığın Tutarsızlığı”. In Spain,
Averroes critisizes Gazali; “Using your
mind, you can reach the truth and the
religous belief.”
• West, prospers along İbn-i Rüşd’s
philosophy.
• But Madrasah goes along with İmam
Gazali.
Should we include İBN-İ RÜŞD
ideas?
• Question comes from
the great conqurer.
The Result of the Discussion
• Everybody says “Gazali”,
including his own teacher
(Hocazade Efendi), except
Alaaddin from Tus, who
favors İbn-i Rüşd.
• Ottoman Madrasah keeps
teaching only Gazali.
AND THE RESULT...
LÜTFİ from TOKAT
• A teacher at madrasah, during the reign of
Beyazıt II, is quoted saying: “Those who
do not know geometry, can not judge
correctly”
• He is judged, in a tribunal under the
presidency of “Sheikh ul-Islam ” and,
• He is hanged Dec. 24,1494 at “At
Meydanı”.
EBU SUUD EFENDİ
• Sheikh ul-Islam between 1545 –1574,
• He is instrumental in Sultan Süleyman’s
receiving the title of Kanuni.
• He is trying to establish the state’s justice
systemin a scientific manner.
MEHMED from BİRGİ
• In the same period, Mehmed Efendi from
Birgi, is in favor of returning to the basics
of islam.
• He divides the sciences into two groups.
• “Useful” which is the teachings of islam.
• “Harmful”all positive sciences and
logos(kelam).
• All madrasahs are under Sheikh ul-Islam.
TAKİYUDDİN
OBSERVATORY
• Müneccimbaşı Takiyyüddin (B: 1526 Egypt) convinces
Murat III, to build an observatory on the hills of Tophane
in1577.
• A student of Birgili, Sheikh ul-Islam Kadızade, using the
appearence of a comet, and epidemy of plague starting at
1578, convinces the Sultan that this is a result of watching
the skys.
• Observatory is demolished on 22 Ocak 1580.
• A real start of going backwards.
RESULT
• This starts our dark ages that includes: 16th
17th centuries and the first half of 18th
century.
MILITARY DEFEATS
• Russian navy destroys Ottoman navy in
Çeşme in 1770.
• The attack is being expected from the Black
Sea, nobody checks the map of Piri Reis.
AWAKENING
• After only the defeats of this order, the reason is
found as the lack of knowledge. This brought the
need for new establishments.
• The first educational institute established is
Mühendishane–i Bahri–i Hümayun in1773,
which is the base of today’s İstanbul Technical
University.
• The curriculum in this navy school was basically the
natural sciences.
DARÜLFÜNUN I
in the Ottoman Empire
• Reform and reorganization (İslahat ve
Tanzimat) starts.
• Darülfünun is established on July 23,
1846.
• But it failed due to lack of interest on the
part of students.
DARÜLFÜNUN II
• "Darülfünun-u Osmani" is established on
February 20, 1870.
• But this time it was the inedaquacy of the
teaching staff and books that caused the
closure in 1872.
DARÜLFÜNUN III
• Darülfünun-u Sultani is established at
Galatasaray in 1874, with Literature, Law,
and Science Departments.
• The lectures were in Turkish and French.
• There is no information about this
institution after 1881.
DARÜLFÜNUN IV
• Darülfunun-u Şahane (İmparatorluk
Üniversitesi) is established September 1
1900 with departments of religion,
mathematics and literature.
• Under heavy scuritiny of the the Empire, it
was not successful.
DARÜLFÜNUN V
• Meşrutiyet (constitutional Monarchy) is declared.
• İstanbul Darülfünun is then established on April
20, 1912, with departments of Law, Medicine,
Literature and Religion.
• But, it had the form of a madrasah, rather than a
modern University..
TURKISH ENLIGHTMENT
ATATÜRK
Dünyada herşey için, hayat için
başarı için en gerçek yol gösterici
bilimdir, fendir. Bilim ve fenin
dışında yol gösterici aramak
gaflettir,cahilliktir, doğru yoldan
sapmaktır.
Bilim ve fen nerede ise oradan
alacağız ve her millet ferdinin
kafasına koyacağız.
Akıl ve bilimi rehber alınız
Ben, manevî miras olarak hiçbir ayet,
hiçbir dogma, hiçbir donmuş ve
kalıplaşmış kural bırakmıyorum. Benim
manevî mirasım bilim ve akıldır.
Benden sonra, beni benimsemek
isteyenler, bu temel eksen üzerinde akıl
ve bilimin rehberliğini kabul ederlerse
manevî mirasçılarım olurlar.
ÖĞRETMENLER
Hiçbir zaman
hatırlarınızdan
çıkmasın ki,
Cumhuriyet, sizden
fikri hür, vicdanı
hür, irfanı hür
nesiller ister.
25.8.1924
1933 University Reform
Atatürk’s notes on Prof. Albert Malche report(29.05.1932)
• Students should know foreign languages,
• President of the University should be concerned with scientific
matters. An administrator is needed for administrative business.
• The weakest point in Darülfünun is the education that is not
cultivating research skills in students.,
• Library should be improved.
İSTANBUL UNIVERSITY
• 1933 Law No. 2252 abolishes
Darülfünun and establishes a new
İstanbul University.
• Istanbul University is thus the first
university of the young Republic
which opened on August 1, 1933.
• As the Republic celebrates the 10th
anniversity, academic year starts in
the new university on
November1,1933.
• Prof. Albert Malche
was asked to recruit
new faculty
members from
Europe.
Einstein’s Letter
• At September 17, 1933 letter from Einstein
to Prime Minister Ismet Inonu pleaded for
Turkey to invite "fourty experienced
specialists and prominent scholars... to
settle and practice in your country."
Andreas Bertholan Schwarz
(1886-1953)
He was a professor of Roman and Civil Law at the University of
Leipzig. He then transferred to the University of Zurich and in 1929
moved to the University of Freiburg from which he was dismissed in
1933. He immigrated to Turkey in 1934 and was appointed as
professor in the same field at the Law Faculty of the University of
Istanbul where he remained until 1950 when he became guest
professor at the University of Freiburg. Schwarz died in Freiburg in
1953. By advising parliamentary commissions and submitting several
memoranda for the required changes, he played a significant role in
modernizing Turkey’s civil laws during the 1930s,which brought a
deep-rooted progress. He trained an entire generation of Turkish legal
scholars.
Ernst Eduard Hirsch
(1902-1985)
• came to Turkey in 1933 after being dismissed
from the University of Frankfurt am Main and
declining an offer from the University of
Amsterdam, which probably saved him from
Nazi persecution when Germany invaded
Holland.
Fritz Neumark
was born in 1900 in Hanover, Germany.Among
the four émigrés he was perhaps the most important
contributor to the modernization of Turkey’s public
sector. He was dismissed from the University of
Frankfurt on September 1, 1933 and left Frankfurt on
September 22 of the same year. He went to
Switzerland and in the presence of the Turkish
Ambassador Cemal Hüsnü in Geneva signed a
renewable five-year contract (October 15, 1933 to
October 15, 1938) to teach social hygiene and
statistics.
We owe a lot to these scholars...
Modern Turkish Universities
• Are products of the new Republic, not a
continuation of old Darül-fünun.
I hope I have shown that
• events do not happen in an arbitrary
manner, but that they reflect a certain
underlying order...
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?...
• A civilization in
Turkey that does not
rely on science cannot
compete with the
representatives of
modern civilization...
What should we do?
• Educating yourself is your own responsibility.
• We should work hard and with love, to educate
ourselves in our fields of specialization,
• We should take our education seriously, trying
to be world class scholars,
• We should enlighten ourselves, by not
graduating solely as technicians.
• We should support our universities.
Everybody should be science-literate....
Scientific thinking...
Social Sciences are also very
important....
• Enlightened graduates.
OYP is important!
• GOOD LUCK!
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