The Medieval Period (10661485) I. The Reign of William the Conqueror A. Centralized England's power – He appointed representatives to collect taxes, organize the military, and supervise legal matters I. The Reign of William the Conqueror B. Domesday Book (1086) An inventory of nearly every piece of property in England (land, cattle, buildings, etc.). First time in European history that people would be taxed based upon what they owned. "Doomsday Book" implies that all would be judged upon worth and without bias and suggests a comparison between the king's judgment of people's financial worth and God's final judgment of people’s moral worth. II. The Feudal System A. King owned all the land in the kingdom B. Division: One fourth of the land was given to the church; One fourth kept for the king; the remaining land was distributed to nobles in exchange for payment or military services (knights) II. The Feudal System (cont’d) C. Nobles gave bits of land to lesser nobles, who gave bits to followers, servants, etc. At the bottom of the social ladder were… the conquered Anglo-Saxons, most of whom were serfs--peasants bound to land they could not own but who worked for the lord in exchange for protection and land to grow food (most of which was paid to the lord as a tax). III. Monarchy after William l. Reformed the judicial system, established system of juries, formed basis for English common law. Henry I (11001135) – Known for social reform Henry II (1154-1189) 2. Appointed Thomas a Becket as archbishop of Canterbury III. Monarchy after William (cont’d) C. Richard I (1189-1I99) "Richard the Lion-Hearted" spent most of his ten-year reign fighting in Crusades and in France; during his absences, his brother John (villain of many Robin Hood legends) plotted against him. D. King John (1199-1216) Forced to sign the Magna Carta (l215), which began the limitations of the monarchy and granted more power to the barons (early step toward democracy) III. Monarchy after William (cont’d) E. Edward I (1272-1307) Established the Model Parliament of 1295 (House of Commons and House of Lords) IV. Decline of Feudalism A. Growth of commoners’ power led to growth of towns and increase in trade. B. Wool… became the greatest and most important industry. C. Mills… established opportunities for serfs to escape feudal system. IV. Decline of Feudalism (cont’d) D. Guilds - Organizations (unions) formed to control the flow and price of goods and to set up rules for advancing from apprentice to master craftsman. E. Towns became artistic and cultural centers: churches, fairs, markets, etc. F. Education… began to lose church affiliation; universities became centers of learning (Oxford, 1248) IV. Decline of Feudalism (cont’d) G. Black Death (bubonic plague) (1348-49) – Reduced the nation's population by one third, causing a labor shortage and more leverage for the lower classes against their overlords. V. Religious Changes A. Crusades (1095-1270) - Series of wars waged by European Christians against the Muslims, with Jerusalem and the Holy Land as the prize. Contact with the Middle East civilization brought extensive diversity to England's architecture, crafts, mathematics, astronomy and various facets of more sophisticated culture. B. Medieval Church fostered a cultural unity- It offered one system of belief that transcended the national cultures of Europe V. Religious Changes (cont’d) C. Thomas a Becket - Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by King Henry II, a close friend. When Becket took the pope's side of issues more often than Henry hoped, Becket was murdered in his own cathedral by four of Henry's knights upon order of Henry. Public outrage led to devotion and sainthood. D. Corruption led to religious reformers - John Wycliffe produced first complete translation of Bible into English VI. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) A. Born in London between 1340 and 1344; son of a successful wine and leather merchant. B. As a boy, he worked as a page for Prince Lionel, son of Edward III. C. Spoke French (the language of the court), Latin (the language of the church), and Italian (the language of many artists and poets) and translated literary works in all three languages. VI. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) D. He rose quickly from his position as page to "esquire" (or "squire"), candidate for knighthood, but he continued to have a high understanding of and interest in the common people. E. He had a remarkable and vast career serving as… soldier, diplomat, civil servant, courtier to three kings, translator , and poet. His experiences gave him the opportunity to observe people and study their characteristics. VI. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) F. He survived being taken prisoner by the French. G. He wrote numerous poems and tales, but The Canterbury Tales is known to be his masterpiece. H. While French was being widely spoken amongst the educated, Chaucer spoke and wrote in Middle English, making English more respectable in the world of literature. VI. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) I. Observed and experienced the various classes of social order, giving him great insight as a writer. He was a storyteller, a satirist, a reformer, and a celebrator of life. J. Known as… "the father of English literature“ Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Characterization – The methods a writer uses to present the personality of a character; how the author develops the characters in a work of literature. Writers use both DIRECT and INDIRECT Characterization Direct Characterization – When the writer tells the reader exactly what kind of person the character is (if the person is disgusting and has despicable habits, if they are especially kind or noble, etc.) Indirect Characterization – When the writer makes the reader figure out what kind of person the character is. The reader may see the character in action, hear the character speak, and hear others talk about him or her, but the reader must make his/her own generalizations about the character (whether the character is good or bad, trustworthy or sneaky, cruel or kind, etc.) Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Three Levels or TYPES of Characterization: Physical Characterization – The actual physical description that the author portrays of the character’s appearance. What the character looks like, is wearing, the age of the character, etc. Social Characterization – The character’s behavior and attitude toward other characters (kind, cruel, greedy, generous, etc.) Psychological Characterization – The character’s thoughts and feelings (angry, happy, sad, lonely, etc.) Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Chaucer Examples of Characterization “High on his horse he sat, / upon his head a Flemish beaver hat / and on his feet daintily buckled boots.” PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION “In all the parish not a dame dared stir / Towards the altar steps in front of her, / And if indeed they did, so wrath was she / As to be quite put out of charity” SOCIAL CHARACTERIZATION Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Chaucer Examples of Characterization “For though a widow mightn’t have a shoe, / So pleasant was his holy howd’ye-do / He got his farthing from her just the same.” SOCIAL CHARACTERIZATION “As for her sympathies and tender feelings, / She was so charitably solicitous / She used to weep if she but saw a mouse / Caught in a trap…” PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Satire – The act of ridiculing human vices and follies; the word comes from the Greek word satura meaning “medley” or a mixture of things. Mockery – Subject of laughter, scorn, or ridicule Parody – Mocking imitation of a known person, literary work, movie, or event Mock-Heroic – Imitation of the literary epic and its style by exaggeration and distortion and by elevating the trivial to a level higher than it deserves Sarcasm – Using praise to personally mock someone; the word comes from the Greek word sarkazein meaning “to tear flesh” Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Verbal Irony – A double meaning; saying one thing and meaning another Understatement – Implying the opposite by saying less than you mean to say Overstatement – Exaggeration by saying more than you mean to say Bathos – Going quickly from the sublime or serious to the ridiculous or to over sentimentalize Literary Devices Used by Chaucer Framing (Frame Story) – When an author uses a structure of a story within a story; a frame story leads a reader from one larger or “outer” story into a smaller story or series of smaller stories. Examples: The Book of One Thousand and One (Arabian) Nights – The main narrator tells a series of fairy tales to the Sultan over a time period of several nights. The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio – A group of people staying in the country to wait out the plague tell a series of several stories to pass the time (this is the piece off of which Chaucer bases his Canterbury Tales) Frankenstein by Mary Shelley—Three narrators within the novel each provide a different perspective on events of the plot. Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer – The pilgrims traveling to Canterbury all take turns telling stories along the way.