Main Idea
The Ottoman
Ottoman Reform
and the European
•Started losing control of provinces in
•Muhammad Ali seized power in Egypt
in 1805. He stopped using Mamaluks
and enforced the conscription of
Egyptian peasants.
•Christian Serbia won independence in
1805. Greece won independence in 1829
with help of British, French and
•Sultan Selim III wanted to implement
European style political, economic and
military reforms.
•Janissaries opposed reforms because of
fear of losing economic privileges to new
military units.
•The ulama also opposed the
secularization of law and taxation.
Main Idea
Tanzimat Reform
•Mahmud II instituted Tanzimat
(reorganization) of legal , education,
and military systems.
•Muslims, Christians, and Jews granted
equal protection under the law.
•Removed religious elite and secularized
law, government, education. This only
applied to men. Women still subjected to
•Military sent to France for training.
Beards viewed as unhygienic . Turbans
banned but European hats interfered
with prayer, so the Fez was the
•French teachers taught the elite and
French became the preferred language of
the educated and in newspapers.
Main Idea
The Crimean War
•Russia wanted to expand southward
into Ottoman territory and gain access to
•War fought in Romania, the Black Sea
and Crimean peninsula.
•British and French navies helped
Ottomans defeat the Russians.
•Significant for: use of propaganda to get
public support for war in Britain and
France, marked transition to modern
warfare with use of breech loading rifles.
•Ottomans in debt to Europeans and
European granted extraterritoriality
(exemption from local laws) in Instanbul.
•Tobacco and Opium (taken by
Americans to China) only exports.
•Young Ottomans, political movement of
educated urban men inspired by
European ideas of nationalism and
modernist views of Islam.
Main Idea
The Russian Empire •Russia dominated by nobles and serfs,
no middle class.
•In 1700, only 3 percent of people lived in
cities. Agriculturally based, lack of
transportation and modernization.
•Like Ottomans, consisted of many
different ethnicities and languages.
•Nicholas I built first railroad in 1837.
Kept peasants in serfdom and imported
goods rather than industrialize.
Slavophiles wanted to unite all Slavs
(ethnic group) under Pan-Slavism.
•Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs in 1861.
Unlike the United States, which
emancipated the slaves around the same
time, Russia compensated the serfs.
Russia and Asia
Russia drove South and East establishing
a naval post on the Pacific Coast,
conquered the Kazaks, Turks, Uzbeks,
Armenia and started having conflicts
with Iran,China and Japan.
•Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky exemplified
Main Idea
The Qing Empire
•Similar problems as Ottomans but no
reform movements.
•Population doubled between 1650-1800
due to growth of agricultural base. Led
to environmental problems, famine and
peasant rebellions.
•Qing hated as foreign conquerors and
contacts with Europeans.
•1804 White Lotus Rebellion predicted
coming of the Buddha and riots
continued through 1800s.
•Unlike Ottomans, Qing considered
Europeans remote and only casually
interested in trade.
•Britain began importing Opium in 1700s
and Qing banned it in 1729. Britain
considered the ban on opium a threat to
their economy and a cause for war.
•The Opium War (1839-1842) was easily
won by the British because their naval
forces rendered the bannermen (no guns
fought with swords) obsolete. The Qing
Economic and
Social Disorder
The Opium War
and Its Aftermath
Main Idea
The Treaty of
Nanking 1842
•Ended the Canton system and opened
up five ports for trade. Hong Kong
became a British colony. British citizens
were granted extraterritoriality and
Britain granted most favored nation
The Taiping
•Social unrest and foreign intrusion
Rebellion 1850-1864 exploded in the bloodiest civil war in
history (20 million killed).
•Hong Xiuquan came from humble
Hakka origin and suffered a nervous
breakdown after failing civil
examinations. Christian missionaries
inspired him with their teachings and he
claimed to be the younger brother of
Jesus Christ whose mission was to expel
the Manchus and create “The Kingdom
of Heavenly Peace.” Attracted many
Hakka followers who denounced
Manchus as Satan. Qing troops arrived
but Taipings defeated them. Women
Main Idea
The Taiping
•Confucian elites freaked out over
Rebellion 1850-1864 foreign gods, totalitarianism and
walking, working, warring women.
•Rebel forces captured Nanking and
made it the capital of “The Kingdom of
Heavenly Peace” for ten years.
•Christian missionaries were horrified by
“The Kingdom’s” indulgence and
rumored homosexual practices.
• Britain and France joined the Qing’s
fight against the Taiping rebels.
European weaponry and money helped
end the rebellion.
•Spread of the plague from China into
San Francisco in part led to the antiChinese immigration act of 1882 in U.S.
•Empress Dowager Cixi, symbol of
and End of Qing
corruption, expelled foreigners.
• Qing treasury was empty, local
governors seized power in the provinces,
British heavily influenced the emperor.
Especially, last emperor Henry Pu Yi.
Main Idea
Japan 1850-1900
•U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry (not
the actor) shows up and demands the
Japanese open up their ports or else he’ll
blow them away.
•Japan opens up and decides they need
to reform themselves, this movement
will be called “The Meiji Restoration.”

Ch.20 Northern Eurasia 1500-1800