Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing Adapted from a presentation by Enda P Guinan Language Centre NUI Maynooth Using others’ ideas • All of us use others’ ideas to build on, challenge or disagree with • The writer must make it clear which ideas and words are his/hers, which belong to others • References add weight to your argument • Strict conventions exist on quoting others’ ideas or words Incorporating the ideas of others • To weave the information you’ve gathered into your own writing you can: 1. Quote directly 2. Paraphrase 3. Summarize The Methods • Direct quoting involves adding the exact words, inside quotation marks, to your text • Paraphrasing, or indirect quoting, involves rewriting the ideas in your own words • Summarizing involves succinctly giving a synopsis of the main ideas in your own words When to quote directly • Good writers only quote directly when the way a sentence or passage is worded is significant: According to Barton, “Five times out of ten, a student writer is better off paraphrasing or summarizing than quoting directly.” • Don’t quote “plain” passages directly: Jordon writes, “There were five chemists present during the experiment.” Stand alone quotations • Do not include a quotation in your document that “stands alone.” Use the ICE method: Introduce Cite Explain • An “introduction” can be simple: Barton writes, • Then the citation: “The ICE method is easy to remember.” • And the explanation, or justification for the quotation: Most students can remember what the letters in ICE stand for even years afterwards. • Use quotations to support your points, not make them. Block quotes • If the quotation is longer than three lines, it must be set apart in a block quote (indented, single-spaced, italicized with NO quotation marks) • Professors usually don’t appreciate lots of block quotes and assume that the student used them out of sheer laziness • Use long quotations sparingly – you are better off paraphrasing Incorporating direct quotations • To incorporate direct quotations into your text use introductory phrases According to… A study by […] has shown that… Numerous studies […] indicate that… In a now-famous study, [X] noted that… Sample introductory phrases • • • • • Smith Smith Smith Smith Smith points out… reports… notes… observes… concludes… • • • • • Smith recognises… According to Smith… To quote Smith… As Smith has indicated… Smith defines … as… Be sure the direct quote does not interrupt the flow of your sentence Warning • Essays that use extensive direct quotations tend • • to lack voice, continuity, or authority. If you offer quotations every few lines, your ideas become subordinate to other people’s ideas and voices. Your ideas are lost and the piece will not indicate that YOU have done any thinking or synthesizing. Therefore, you are generally better off paraphrasing and summarizing material and using direct quotations sparingly. Paraphrasing • Good writers paraphrase passages or material • that wouldn’t be useful to quote directly. Original Passage: “If the nation is to obtain the maximum benefit from its investments in information technology, a labor pool capable of using it appropriately is necessary.” • Paraphrase: Interestingly, the Committee notes that the U.S. won’t benefit from revolutionary new technologies unless the labor force is better trained. Paraphrasing Guidelines • Do not alter the author’s original message • Do not eliminate any significant background • • information Do not misrepresent the author’s intentions Do not copy the original wording too closely Don’t just change a few words or shuffle things around; read the passage several times and completely rewrite it. Paraphrasing Tips Change vocabulary Change word category Synthesis Change vocabulary • Substitute verbs or nouns with the same meaning Shaw examines the difficulties that… = Shaw investigates the difficulties that… The finding was made in 2001… = In 2001 the discovery was made … Change word category • Change nouns into verbs, verbs into adjectives, etc. The reports were completed in April… = The completion of the reports in April ensured that the students had time to revise before their examination Synthesis • Integrate the ideas several sources, combining two or more viewpoints. • Santiago operates with the “salad bowl” metaphor, the belief that America is a rich nation precisely because of its distinctive ethnic groups. Hayakawa operates with a “melting pot” metaphor, the belief that in coming to America foreigners should relinquish what makes them separate in order to blend into the American mainstream. Summarizing • Condensing a writer’s ideas into a much shorter piece with your words • Summaries allow you to sort through the information in the source and report only what you consider to be essential. • Example: Culture Shock ‘Culture shock’ is the state of being confused when in contact with a different and unfamiliar civilization. ‘Shock’ suggests something that is negative: this may be true, especially at first. Typically, a person going to study in another country for the first time may miss family and friends and, consequently, feel homesick. The person may have sleeping difficulties and, in extreme cases, may become depressed or ill. (67 words) Summary: • Culture shock is the confusion caused by contact with an alien society. Initially, reactions may be negative. • (17 words) Referring to your sources • Ideas are the ‘property’ of the person who first produced them • Copying these ideas without acknowledging the creator is stealing plagiarism • Possibly the most serious academic ‘crime’ Acknowledging your sources • There are conventions for indicating the source of the quotations and ideas you’ve used in your writing • 1. The bibliography (aka references, works cited) at the end of the paper • 2. Parenthetical citations that follow an individual quotation or reference in your text • Your essays will require BOTH What is a parenthetical citation or reference? • An acknowledgement, at the point of usage, that you are making use of another writer’s ideas or data in your writing. The author comically stated that "Maybe man would not overrun the planet, but his pet poodles and Siamese cats might" (Westin 6). As Donner (47) points out, low inflation does not always lead to low interest rates. Why use them? • To avoid the charge of plagiarism • To lend more authority to your writing; it shows you are familiar with other research on the topic • To allow the reader to find the original source Which of these need references? • A mention of facts or figures from another • • • • • writer An idea of your own Some data you have found from your own research A theory suggested by another researcher A quotation from a work by any author Something that is agreed to be common knowledge Putting a quotation into your essay • Every quote must refer to the source • Different techniques or styles exist - MLA, APA, Chicago – make sure you know which style is required for your paper Parenthetical citation when the author is not mentioned in your text •For MLA style put the following in parentheses after the quote or paraphrase Author’s surname only Page number of reference “Infectious disease is no longer the major cause of human deaths in Australia” (Morgan 261). Parenthetical citation when the author is mentioned in your text • Immediately after author’s name - in parentheses Page number Postgate (245) believes that flush toilets are quite unhygienic. As Postgate (245) says, “flush toilets are quite unhygienic devices.” Direct Quote Conventions • Use three dots … to show you have removed material from a quote Original: “The most useful way of making a world survey is to identify families of languages, preferably using criteria such as those worked out by myself in 1933, showing relationships by origin and development” (Brook 98). Quote : “The most useful way of making a world survey is to identify families of languages … showing relationships by origin and development” (Brook 98). Single quotations marks Single quotation marks are used when you’re referring to a quote within a quote. In those instances, single quotation marks are placed around the innermost direct quote. "John F. Kennedy said, 'Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.'" A final reminder • Whether you chose to quote directly or to paraphrase, remember this: • Whenever you put a quotation - direct or • indirect - into a paragraph, the sentence in which it occurs must still remain grammatically correct. Make sure the sentence reads coherently and smoothly with the quotation. Finis!