W3C Video on the Web Workshop
12-13 December 2007, San Jose, California
Video on the Semantic Sensor Web
Amit Sheth with Cory Henson,
Prateek Jain, Josh Pschorr and Terry Rapoch
LexisNexis Ohio Eminent Scholar
Kno.e.sis Center, Wright State University
http://knoesis.wright.edu
Outline
1. Background on the Sensor Web
2. Introducing the Semantic Sensor Web
3. Prototyping the Semantic Sensor Web
Background on the Sensor Web
Sensor Web Enablement
Open Geospatial Consortium
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Consortium of 330+ companies, government agencies,
and academic institutes
Open Standards development by consensus process
Interoperability Programs provide end-to-end
implementation and testing before spec approval
Standard encodings, e.g.
– GeographyML, SensorML, Observations &
Measurements, TransducerML, etc.
Standard Web Service interfaces, e.g.
– Web Map Service
– Web Feature Service
– Web Coverage Service
– Catalog Service
– Sensor Web Enablement Services (Sensor
Observation Service, Sensor Alert Service, Sensor
Process Service, etc.)
OGC Mission
To lead in the
development,
promotion and
harmonization of
open spatial
standards
http://www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb
Sensor Web Enablement
Constellations of heterogeneous sensors
Vast set of users and applications
Satellite
Airborne
Sensor Web Enablement
Weather
Surveillance
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Chemical
Detectors
Biological
Detectors
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Sea State
Distributed self-describing sensors and
related servicesNetwork Services
Link sensors to network and networkcentric services
Common XML encodings, information
models, and metadata for sensors and
observations
Access observation data for value added
processing and decision support
applications
Users on exploitation workstations, web
browsers, and mobile devices
http://www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb
SWE Languages and Encodings
Sensor and Processing
Description Language
Information Model
for Observations and
Sensing
Observations &
Measurements
(O&M)
GeographyML
(GML)
SensorML
(SML)
TransducerML
(TML)
Common Model for
Geography Systems
and Features
Sam Bacharach, “GML by OGC to AIXM 5 UGM,” OGC, Feb. 27, 2007.
Multiplexed, Real
Time Streaming
Protocol
SWE Components – Web Services
Access Sensor
Description and
Data
Command and Task
Sensor Systems
SOS
Discover Services,
Sensors, Providers,
Data
SPS
SAS
Catalog
Service
Clients
Accessible from various
types of clients from
PDAs and Cell Phones
to high end
Workstations
Sam Bacharach, “GML by OGC to AIXM 5 UGM,” OGC, Feb. 27, 2007.
Dispatch Sensor
Alerts to registered
Users
Introducing the Semantic Sensor Web
Semantic Sensor Web
What is the Semantic Sensor Web?
• Adding semantic annotations to existing standard Sensor Web
languages in order to provide semantic descriptions and enhanced
access to sensor data
• This is accomplished with model-references to ontology concepts
that provide more expressive concept descriptions
• By using model-references to link SML annotated sensor data with
concepts within an OWL-Time ontology we attain a representation
of temporal semantics on sensor data
Model Reference
XLink
• Used for describing links between resources in XML documents.
• Several important attributes within XLink include:
– type: describes the element type of the link (i.e., simple, extended)
– role: semantic attribute that describes the meaning of resources within
the context of a link
– href: locator attribute that supplies the URI needed to find a remote
resource
Other Model Reference Languages
• SAWSDL: Defines mechanisms to add semantic annotations to
WSDL and XML-Schema components (W3C Recommendation)
• SA-REST: Defines mechanisms to add semantic annotations to
REST-based Web services.
W3C, XML Linking Language, http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink
Model Reference (SensorML)
Instant
Interval
OWL-Time Ontology
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Semantic Query
Semantic Temporal Query
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Model-references from SML to OWL-Time ontology concepts provides the
ability to perform semantic temporal queries
Supported semantic query operators include:
– contains: user-specified interval falls wholly within a sensor reading
interval (also called inside)
– within: sensor reading interval falls wholly within the user-specified
interval (inverse of contains or inside)
– overlaps: user-specified interval overlaps the sensor reading interval
Example SPARQL query defining the temporal operator ‘within’
Prototyping the Semantic Sensor Web
Architecture
Data Collection
YouTube
Extraction & Metadata Creation
Video
Conversion
Query
UI
SML
(Xindice)
SML Interface
Google Maps
OWL-Time
(Jena)
OWL-Time
Interface
JSP
Converted
Videos
AVI
Filtering
& OCR
Time & Date
information
SML
Annotation
Generation
Storage
OWL-Time
Annotation
Generation
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Temporal Data Extraction
Channel Minimal Suppression 1
8-neighbor median for ‘bad’ pixels
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Temporal Minimal Suppression 2
Binarization via adaptive threshold 1
Tesseract OCR engine
Regular Expression parsing
SensorML output
1.
2.
https://research.microsoft.com/~xshua/publications/pdf/2002_ISCAS_TimeStampOCR.pdf
http://www.informedia.cs.cmu.edu/documents/vocr_ieee98.pdf
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Prototype Application
http://knoesis.wright.edu/library/demos/ssw/prototype.htm
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Conclusion
Future Work
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Incorporation of spatial ontology in order to include spatial analytics and
query (perhaps with OGC GML Ontology or ontology developed by W3C
Geospatial Incubator Group - GeoXG)
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Thematic query with keyword search through YouTube API and model
reference to domain ontology
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Extension of SPARQL with enhanced spatiotemporal analytics and query
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Integration of framework with emergent applications, including video on
mobile devices running Android OS
W3C, XML Linking Language, http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink
References
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Kno.e.sis project on Semantic Sensor Web:
http://knoesis.wright.edu/projects/sensorweb/
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Open Geospatial Consortium, Sensor Web Enablement WG,
http://www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb
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W3C, Time Ontology in OWL, http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-time/
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W3C, Geospatial Incubator Group, http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/geo/
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Amit Sheth et al., SA-REST: Semantically Interoperable and Easier-to-Use Services and
Mashups, IEEE Internet Computing, November/December 2007 (Vol.11, No.6) pp.9194. DOI: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MIC.2007.133
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W3C, Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema,
http://www.w3.org/TR/sawsdl/
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W3C, XML Linking Language, http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/
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Google Code, Tesseract, http://code.google.com/p/tesseract-ocr/
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Video on the Semantic Sensor Web