Review for exam II
March 12, 2015
Format for exam
• 70 multiple choice
• 3 sets of discussion questions
Bring…/Don’t Bring…
• Bring…
– Scantron sheet
– Pencil, eraser, calculator
• Don’t Bring…
– Paper
– PDAs, Pocket PC’s, tablets,
– Programmable, high memory storage devices
We Covered:
• Burns Chs 4, 7, 8
• Schwalbe, Chs 3-7
We also covered
• Probabilistic PERT (formulas will be given
to you)
– Each task (activity) requires three time
estimates – Optimistic, Most likely, Pessimistic
• Crashing
Schwalbe, Chs. 3-8
• Ch 3—PM Process
Groups—a Case Study
• Ch 4--integration
• Ch 5—scope management
• Ch 6—time management
• Ch 7—cost management
For Schwalbe material
• Skim the chapter
– Look for definitions
and concepts
• Work the multiple
choice at the end
• Read the chapter
The Project Team
• Ideally, the PM should become involved at what
point in a project?
• What about the other project team members?
• Which is easier to develop? Skills or
• What have many organizations done about this?
• Create a learning laboratory for wanna be project
• Use a hierarchy of job classifications for aspiring project
Parkinson’s Law
• What is it??
PMBOK Guide 4 Edition
Project Integration Management
- Develop Project Charter
- Develop Project Management Plan
- Direct and Manage Project Execution
- Monitor and Control Project Work
- Perform Integrated Change Control
- Close Project or Phase
Project Scope Management
- Collect Requirements
- Define Scope
- Create WBS
- Verify Scope
- Control Scope
Project Time Management
- Define Activities
- Sequence Activities
- Estimate Activity Resources
- Estimate Activity Durations
- Develop Schedule
- Control Schedule
More Processes
Project Cost Management
- Estimate Costs
- Determine Budget
- Control Costs
Project Quality Management
- Plan Quality
- Perform Quality Assurance
- Perform Quality Control
Project Human Resource Management
- Develop Human Resource Plan
- Acquire Project Team
- Develop Project Team
- Manage Project Team
What are the processes that make
up the cost management
knowledge area?
• Estimate Costs
• Determine Budget
• Control Costs
What are the processes that make
up the quality management
knowledge area?
• Plan Quality
• Perform Quality Assurance
• Perform Quality Control
Human Resources Management
Develop HR plan
Acquire team
Develop team
Manage team
Team Development and
• Name the five states of team development
according to B.W. Tuckman
• Effective project teams have what
– Next slide
• Barriers to team effectiveness include what?
– Next slide
Characteristics of effective
project teams
• A clear understanding of the project
• Clear expectations of each person’s role and
• A results Orientation
• A High Degree of Cooperation and
• A High Level of Trust
Barriers to team effectiveness
• Unclear goals
• Unclear definition of
Roles and
• Lack of project
• Lack of Commitment
• Poor Communication
• Poor Leadership
• Turnover of project
team members
• Dysfunctional
The Core Team
• The project team is comprised of two
categories of team members--core and
• Core team members are with the project
from cradle to grave, albeit only part time
• Selection criteria: Commitment, shared
responsibility, flexible, task oriented, team
oriented, open-minded, work across
The Contracted Team
• Contracted team members are with the
project for only a short time, during which
they produce a specific deliverable and then
• What problems, do contracted team
members present to the PM?
– Window of availability, project orientation,
commitment to the project
Level Project Resources
• What is meant by resource leveling?
• Why do we need to level resources?
• What is meant by splitting activities?
Stretching activities?
• Can you split or stretch activities that are on
the critical path?
• Why or why not?
Schedule and Document Work
– How many tasks in a work package?
– How many cost accounts in a work package?
• What chart is recommended for scheduling
a work package?
– Organized by due date, and again by activity
• What is contingency?
• Which of the following is used to calculate
probabilities? CPM, PERT, Gantt, or Crashing
• A key tool used to track cost and schedule is…
• Costs or benefits that are easily measured in
dollars are called--TANGIBLE
Scope Management
Schwalbe Ch. 6: Time
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Resources
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Control Schedule
Schwalbe Ch. 7: Cost
• Estimate Costs
• Determine Budget
• Control Costs
Cost Management – Estimate Costs
• Cost estimation – our weakest link
• Three types of cost estimates
– Rough cut (35-72 months out), budgetary (24
months out)and definitive (1 month out)
– Could us MS project to do definitive cost
• There are many spreadsheet templates to
assist with cost estimation—more popular
than MS Project
Cost Management – Control Costs
• EVA – Earned Value Analysis
• EVM – Earned Value Management
• Won’t cover these on this exam…
Life Cycle Costing
• Does it make sense to spend more time on
development so that life cycle costs will be
Types of Costs
• Direct costs
– Direct labor costs –hourly rate * hours
• Indirect costs
– Overhead (administration, pension, health care costs
• Sunk costs
– Money that has already been spent; consider it gone
Cost Estimation Tools
• Analogous estimates
– Also called top-down estimates
– Bottom-up estimates
– Parametric modeling – COCOMO
– It helps when you have a past project…
Schwalbe Chapter 8: Quality
• Plan Quality
– The longer a defect remains, the _____it is to fix
• Perform Quality Assurance
– How can we test designs?
– Test all affected logic paths
• Perform Quality Control
– Use an off-side independent tester—beta testing
Planning Quality
What functionality?—based on requirements
What outputs?—also based on requirements
What performance?—also…
What reliability?—also…
What maintainability?--also…
Tools for Quality Control
Cause and effect diagrams (fishbone diag)
Statistical process control charts
Run charts
Scatter diagrams
Pareto charts
Types of testing as part of
Quality Assurance
• Design Walkthroughs
• Module (unit) testing
• Integration testing
– Regression testing
• System testing
• Beta testing
Quality and Cost
• They are related
• Consumer’s perspective: higher cost means
better quality
• Producer’s perspective: better quality
means lower cost
Less rework – less debugging
Less scrap
Less liability claims
Greater market share
Quality Costs
• Costs of conformance (good quality)
– Prevention (4% of revenues)
• Process innovation and improvement
– Appraisal
• Walkthroughs and testing
• Costs of nonconformance (bad quality)
– Internal External (up to 40% of revenues)
Close out the Project
Ensure all deliverables are installed/delivered
Get client acceptance of deliverables
Ensure documentation is in place
Get client sign-off on final
Conduct post-implementation
Celebrate success
Obtain Client Acceptance
• The client decides when the project is done
• PM must demonstrate that deliverables meet client
• Ceremonial Acceptance
– formal acceptance not required, such as plan and
conduct a conference
• Formal acceptance
– a written acceptance procedure that requires the project
team to demonstrate compliance
• Be able to crash a network as we did in
• You must know by now that adding
resources to a project that is behind might
only make it finish later, because of the
training and communication overhead
• You must know by now that most IT
projects need to be finished quicker
• You must know by now why frozen
requirements are usually desirable, but not
• Frozen requirements, like the proverbial
snowman, are a myth—both will melt when
enough heat is applied
• SOOO00oooo????

Review for exam II - Texas Tech University