Traditional Medicine & Herbal
Technology
COUNTRY PAPER
(INDIA)
Dr. P. Pushpangadan, Director
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226 001
Traditional Medicine
• The tradition of health management/ treating ailments
practiced by traditional
communities or medicinal
practices prevalent before the emergence of modern
medicine (18th/19th century) are generally termed as
Traditional Medicine
• Traditional medicine has almost now dissappeared in
developing countries but still a living tradition in Third
World Nations.
• The biodiversity-rich Third World nations have an
associated medicinal knowledge systems using the
various medicinal plants of the region.
Traditional Medicine in India
The Traditonal Medicine in India function through two
streams:
1. Folk stream: Comprising mostly the oral traditions practiced by
the rural villagers. The carriers of these traditons are millions of
housewives, thousands of traditional birth attendants, bone setters,
village practitioners skilled in acupressure, eye treatments,
treatment of snake bites, and traditional village physicians/herbal
healers, the ‘vaidyas’ or the tribal physicians. These streams of
inherited traditions are together known as ‘local health
traditions’(LHT). LHT represent an autonomous, community –
supported living tradition. It is still alive and runs parallel and the
great service the LHT render to the primary health care needs of
the indian rural mass often goes unnotied due to the dominance of
the western medicine
Traditional Medicine in India (Contd)
2. Classical stream –Organized systems
(1) This comprises of the codified and organized medicinal
wisdom with sophisticated theoretical foundations and
philosophical explanations expressed in several classical
texts like Charaka Samhita, Susrutha Samhita, Bhela
Samhita, and hundreds of other treatises (including some in
the regional language) covering all branches of medicine
and surgery. Systems like Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Amchi
or Tibetan are expressions of these classical streams.
Local Health Traditions (LHT)
The folklore medicine or LHT is again at two levels:
Rural village based: This involves home remedies practiced at almost
every home, mostly by the mothers and grand mothers – to
specialized individuals, healers or family traditions treating single
or general ailment. This system is mostly oral in tradition except in
certain cases mostly in Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat where some
written tradition maintained through hand written transcripts in
local languages, some of which are now been available in printed
form. Such village folklore medicine or LHT involve the use of
about 5000 plant species with about 25,000 or more formulations
for treating a variety of human ailments.
Folk-medicine carriers of village-based health traditions in India
Traditional Carrier
Subjects
Nos.
Housewives and
elders
Home remedies, Food and
nutrition
Millions
Traditional birth
attendants
Normal deliveries
7 lakhs
Herbal healers
Common ailments
3 lakhs
Bone-setters
Visha Vaidhyas (Snake,
Scorpion, Dog)
Specialists
Orthopedics
60,000
Natural poisons
60,000
*Nethra
*Skin
*Respiratory
*Dental
*Arthritis
*Mental Diseases
*Liver
*GIT
*Wounds
*Fistula Piles
*1000 in each
area
Source – Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bangalore
Local Health Traditions (Contd.)
2. Tribal based: This is practiced by the tribal communities who inhabit in and
around the forests. This tradition is currently fast eroding due to the change
of life style of the tribal people. India has over 67.8 million tribal people
belonging to 550 communities of 227 ethnic groups as per the classification
made by anthropologists on linguistic basis. They inhabit in about 5000forested villages or lead a nomadic life in the forest. Each tribal community
has a distinct social and cultural identity of its own and speaks a common
dialect. There are about 116 different dialects and 227 subsidiary dialects
spoken by tribals in India. According to a recent study conducted by the
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India, under the “All
India Coordinated Project on Ethnobiology” (AICRPE- 1992-1998;
Pushpangadan 1994), over 10000 wild plants are reported to be used by
tribals for meeting their primary health care, food and material requirements
(Figure 1). About 8000 wild plant species are used by the Indian tribes for a
variety of medicinal purposes, which cover about 1,75,000 specific
preparations/applications (Pushpangadan 2002); of these 2000 species are
found to be new claims and worthy of scientific scrutiny.
Indian System of Medicines
The promotive, preventive, corrective and curative approach in health care and
the medicinal plants possessing such properties are indeed the strength of the
Indian Systems of medicine (ISM). The ancient masters of Ayurveda and
Siddha had organized, codified and synthesized the medical wisdom with
sophisticated theoretical foundation and philosophical explanations. They
adopted the fundamental doctrines of “Darshana” philosophy, particularly the
‘Nyaya’, ‘Sankhya’ and ‘Vaiseshika’, which encompassed all sciences –
physical, chemical, biological and spiritual. While ‘Darshana’ philosophers
discussed and debated their theories, Ayurvedic masters put them to practical
test and applied them successfully to interpret the laws governing the material
objects of the universe and the dynamics of biological evolution. The modern
physicists and biologists are now demonstrating the precision and exactness of
many such cosmological theories and other rationale and hypothetical
assumptions intuitively discovered and developed by the ancient Indian sages.
It is quite logical to say that a serious and in-depth study and research on the
vast treasure - trove of Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine, particularly
their theoretical bases and philosophical explanations may open up new
exciting avenues of knowledge in understanding diseases and health.
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Rasayana
Rasayana (Rejuvenation Therapy) is a speciality of Ayurveda,
which mainly deals with the preservation and promotion of
health. It promotes longevity and prevents or delays the aging
process. Rasayana promotes rsistance against infections and
other causative factors for the disease by maintaining the
equilibrium of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. The Rasayana, if
administered at an early age, also helps the body metabolism in
such a way that he genetic predisposition for a particular disease
is avoided and the intensity of the symptoms of a particular
disease is greatly reduced.
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Panchakarma
Panchakarma (Purification Therapy) deals mainly with the
removal of toxins and waste materials from the body to purify the
biological system from gross channels to eradicate the disease
completely. It is helpful in the prevention of disease and
preservation and promotion of health, as well as the management
of psychosomatic, neurological, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular
and many other chronic, degenerative diseases and iatrogenic
conditions. Panchakaram plays a vital role in Ayurvedic
therapeutics and occupies an important place in the Ayurvedic
system of medicine. This five-fold purification theraphy, a
classical form of treatment in Ayurveda, includes Vamana
(emesis), Virechana (Purgation), Asthapana (Decoction enema),
Anuvasana (Oily enema) and Nasya (Nasal Insufflation).
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Pizhichil
In this therapeutic measure, warm medicated oil is poured all over the body
followed by massage, in seven positions in a systematic manner for the
treatment of diseases of the nervous system like paralysis, sciatica,
osteoarthiritis, musculo-skeletal, neuro-muscular and degenerative diseases.
Pizhichil is very useful as a health restorative measure for elderly persons
when it is regularly used once a year or so. This treament cleanses the minute
channels in the body of morbid substances.
Shirobasti
This is an oil treatment applied to the head in which a leather belt is tied to ht
clean shaven scalp. The junction of scalp and leather beld is sealed with paste
prepared from wheatflour or black gram. Medicated oil is then poured into it
and kept for the stipulated time. This is recommended for headaches, myopial
conditions, insomnia, psychiatriac illnesses, epilepsy, hair fal, etc. It improves
the functioning of the sensory systems and removes exhaustion.
Indian System of Medicines (Contd)
Shirodhara
This therapeutic measure is carried out by pouring oil or medicated
liquids on the forehead for treating headaches, vertigo, insomnia,
anxiety, etc. It is also useful in many psychosomatic disorders and
hypertension.
Ksharasutra
This Alkaline Thread threpy is a popular herbal treatment for ano-rectal
diseases likes fistula-in-Ano and haemorrhoids (piles) under the
speciality of Shalyatandra are prepared from plants like Arka and Snuhi
by using their milk or herbal alkaline material and typing a the site. The
advantage of this therapy is that the patients may remain mobile during
the treatment. It can also be carried out on patients for whom modern
surgery is contra-indicated.
THE AYURVEDIC THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY
1. Determine PRAKRUTI (Constitution) by -history taking
-Observations
2. NIDANA (Diagnosis)
• Nature, degree and extent of imbalance of Tridoshas. Library of
5800 clinical signs and symptoms in Ayurvedic texts
3. Chronobiology: Impact of season, time and environment on
Tridoshas.
4. SWASTHAVRUTA: Life style modification
5. AHARA: Dietary modifications
6. PANCHAKARMA: Purification of the body
7. AUSHADHI: "Designer Medicine" unique for the particular
patient prepared from a Pharmacopoeia utilising 1200 plants, 100
minerals and 100 animal products in numerous formulations.
TREATMENT OF ANIMALS IN AYURVEDA
Some Ancient Treatise
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Agni Purana: treatment of cattle and horse
Garuna Purana: treatment of horse and elephants
Shalihotra Samhita: Treatment of diseases of horse
Matasya Purana: mentions older treatise by Pakapya
muni and Somaputra Budh for treating fishes
Shyama Shastra: Middle ages. Treatment of birds,
specially pigeons
Veterinary Physicians in Mahabharat
Dronacharya specially trained Nakula and Sahdev in
treatment of horses
Nakula is said to have authored a treatise on horses
Nala was an expert in treatment of horses and also called
Ashwavid
[Prachin Bharat Mein Vigyan aur Shilpa; S.N. Kapur, 1998]
MEDICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH IN
INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINES
Hospitals & Dispensaries of ISM & Homeopathy in India
Hospitals
3004 with 60666 beds
Dispensaries
23028
Medical education facilities in India
System
Colleges
Undergraduate
Post graduate
Ayurveda
198
55
Unani
39
5
Siddha
2
2
Homeopathy
166
17
Total
405
77
16845
821
Admission capacity
MEDICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH IN
INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINES (Contd.)
Number of Ayurveda colleges – Statewise
No
.
1.
Name of State
Andhra Pradesh
2.
Assam
3.
Bihar
4.
No. of College
No.
Name of State
4
12.
Karnataka
1
13.
Kerala
5
12
14.
Madhya Pradesh
9
Chhattisgarh
1
15.
Maharashtra
5.
Delhi
1
16.
Orissa
6
6.
Goa
1
17.
Punjab
11
7.
Gujarat
10
18.
Rajasthan
4
8.
Haryana
5
19.
Tamil Nadu
4
9.
1
20.
Uttaranchal
3
10.
Himachal
Pradesh
Jammu-Kashmir
1
21.
Uttar Pradesh
12
11.
Jharkhand
1
22
West Bengal
2
TOTAL
198
No. of College
47
57
MEDICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH IN
INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINES (Contd.)
Registered practitioners of ISM & Homeopathy in India
Ayurveda
Unani
Siddha
Naturopathy
Homeopathy
Total
427504
42445
16599
429
194147
681124
Acts administered in the ISM Sector
1.
Central Council of Medicine Act of 1973
2.
Central Council of Homeopathy Act 1973
3.
Drugs & Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the rules there under
4.
Medicinal & Toilet Preparation Act & Rules 1995-96.
MEDICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF
MEDICINES (Contd.)
Statutory Regulatory Bodies for ISM under Government of India
Central Council of Indian Medicine
Central Council of Homeopathy
(for regulating standards of Medical Education and registering practitioners)
Drug Technical Advisory Board (ASUDTAB) for advising on all aspects related to drug
standardization and quality control of Indian Systems of Medicine
Research Councils under Central Government
Engaged in clinical research activities on drugs of Indian Systems, survey on Medicinal
Plants, drug standardization, tribal and family welfare research carried out through units
setup in different parts of the country
Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha
Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine
Central Council for Research in Homeopathy
Central Council for Research in Yoga & Naturopathy
36 units
32 units
52 units
MEDICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF
MEDICINES (Contd.)
National Institutes set up by Department of
Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy, Government of India
For producing graduates and post-graduates of high quality for conducting
research and to provide quality medical care
National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur
National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore (under establishment)
National Institute of Homeopathy, Calcutta
National Institute of Naturopathy, Pune
Moraji Desai National Institute of Yoga, New Delhi
National Institute of Siddha, Chennai (under establishment)
Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth, New Delhi
Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine
Ghaziabad Pharmacopoeia Laboratory, Ghaziabad
PROBLEMS FACED BY THE TRADITIONAL
INDIAN SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE
The role of herbal medicine in effectively meeting the primary health care
needs of the rural people, particularly of the Third World countries is now
well appreciated. This has led to the widespread interest in placing herbal
medicine in a appropriate scientific framework, by assessing their safety,
efficacy and quality, according to modern standards. WHO guidelines for
assessment of herbals address the following:
1.
Pharmaceutical assessment (crude plant material, plant preparations,
finished products, stability).
2.
Safety assessment (toxicological studies, documentation of safety based
on experience).
3.
Assessment of efficacy and intended use (pharmacological activity,
evidence required to support indication).
4.
Product information to consumers.
5.
Marketing
Flowering plants used in Traditional Systems of
Medicine in India
2
3
1
5
4
Modern Medicine 30 spp.
Siddha 800 spp.
Amchi 300 spp.
Ayurveda 900 spp.
Unani 700 spp.
Examples of some important plant derived drugs
Compound
Plant Species
Acetyl digoxin
Digitalis lanata
Ajmalicine
Catharanthus roseus, Rauwolfia sp.
Ajmmaline
Rauvolfia serpentina
Andrographolide
Andrographis paniculata
Artemissine
Artemisia annua
Asiaticoside
Centella asiatica
Berberine
Berberis spp.
Caffeine
Camellia sinensis
Caffeine
Camellia sinensis
Cocaine
Erythroxylum cocoa
Codeine
Papaver spp.
Codiene
Papaver somniferum
Colchicine
Colchicum autumnale, Gloriosa superba
Curcumin
Curcuma longa
Digitoxin, Digoxin, Digitoxigenin
Digitalis spp.
Emetine
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Ephedrine
Ephedra gerardiana
Ergometrine, Ergotamine, Ergotoxin
Claviceps purpurea on Rye plants
Glycyrrhizin, Glycyrrhizinic acid
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Hesperidin
Citrus spp. Mentha spp.
Contd..
Examples of some important plant derived drugs (Contd..)
Hyoscine
Duboisia spp.
Hyoscyamine
Datura spp, Hyscyamus spp.
L-Dopa
Mucuna pruriens
Menthol
Mentha spp.
Morphine
Papaver spp.
Papain
Carica papaya
Podophyliotoxin
Podophyllum emodi
Quinine, Quinidine
Cinchona spp.
Reserpine & Deserpidine
Rauvolfia serpentina,
Rutin
Eucalyptus spp, Fagopyrum spp, Sophora japonica
Scopolamin
Datura sp.
Sennosides A&B
Cassia angustifolia, C. acutifolia
Silymarin
Silybum marianum
Strychnine
Strychnos nux-vomica
Taxol
Taxus baccata
Thymol
Vinblastine, Vincristine
Xanthotoxin
Chemical Intermediates
Citral
Diosgenin
Phytosterols (Stigmasterol & Sitosterol)
Thymus vulgaris
Catharanthus roseus
Ammi majus, Heracleum candicans
Solasodine
Hypercin, Hyperforin
Solanum
Hypericum perforatum
Lemon grass
Dioscorea spp. Costus spp.
Soya & Calabar Beans
Institutions operating Central scheme for development of
Pharmacopoeial standards for ASU drugs by ISM, Govt. of India
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Agarkar Research Institute. Pune
A. K. Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh
B. H. U. Varanasi (CCRAS Unit)
B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education & Research
development Centre, Thalteji, Ahmedabad
Capt. Srinivasmurthi Drug. Res. Instt. For Ayurveda,
(CCRAS), Chennai
CCRAS, New Delhi
CCRUM, A. G. Colony, Hyderabad
Central Instt. Of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Lucknow
College of Pharmacy, New Delhi
Deptt. of Chemistry Univ. of Delhi
Deptt. of Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Jamia
Hamdard, New Delhi
Dr. Y. B. Tripathi, B.H.U. Varanasi
Drug Standardisation Unit, Rishikul Ayurvedic College,
Hardwar
Drug Testing lab. Joginder Nagar, Mandi (H. P.)
Drugs Standardisation Res. Project, Gujrat Ayurved
University, Jamnagar
Faculty of Pharmacy (CCRUM) Drug Standardisation
Unit Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
17. Govt. Ayurvedic & Unani Pharmacy Nanded
18. Indian Instt., of Chemical Technology (CSIR),
Hyderabad
19. Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow
20. Institute of Himalayan bio-resources technology,
Palampur (H. P).
21. Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Punjab Univ.,
Chandigarh
22. National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow
23. National Instt. of Pharmaceutical Education & Research,
Mohali
24. Pharmacognosy Research Unit (CCRAS), University of
Calcutta
25. Pharmacognosy Research Unit JNMPG&H, Pune
26. Regional Research Instt. of Unani Medicine (CCRUM),
Aligarh
27. Regional Research Instt. of Unani Medicine, Chennai
28. Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Bhubaneshwar
29. Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu
30. Shri Ayurveda Mahavidalaya Nagpur
31. Tropical Botanical Garden & Research Instt. Trivandrum
32. National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Acorus calamus Linn.
Albizia lebbeck Benth.
Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.
Optis teeta
Anogeissus latifolia Bedd
Arnebia nobilis Reichb.
Butea monospelma (Lamk.) Taub.
(syn.B.frondosa Roxb.)
Cinnamoum tamala
Coscinium fenestratum
Allium cepa(syn.Psychotria ipecacuanha
Stokes )
Crataeva magna (Lour) DC. (syn.
C.nurvala Buch.Ham)
Curcuma amada Roxb.
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.
Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.)
Verdoran (syn.E.littorale Blume.)
Euphorbia prostrata Linn.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.
Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.
Ficus lacor Buch. -Ham.
Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.
Hemldesmus indicus R.Br.
Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.
Leucas cephalotes spreng.
Mesua ferrea Linn.
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ,
Onosma bracteatum Wall.
Operculina turpethum Linn.
Pueraria tuberosa DC.
Rubia cordifolia Linn.
Streblus asper Lour.
Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.)
Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.
Wedelia calendulacea Less.
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education &
Research, Mohali, Punjab
1.
Abutilon indicum (Linn. ) Sweet
17.
Hypericum perforatum Linn. lnula racemosa
Hook. F .
2.
Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
3.
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
18.
Lawsonia inermis Linn.
4.
Berberis aristata DC.
19.
Momordica charantia Linn.
5.
Bergenia ligulata Engl.
20.
Nigella sativa Linn.
6.
Caesalpinia bonducella (Linn.) Roxb. (syn.
C.cristata Lim1.)
21.
Ocimum basilicum Linn.
22.
Ocimum grasissimum Linn.
7.
Canscora decussata Schult.
23.
Piper longum Linn.
8.
Catharanthus roseus G.Don.
24.
Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiem.
9.
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker
25.
Potentilla sundaica Kuntze
10. Cissus quadrangularis (Linn. ) Schr .
26.
Sida acuta Burm.
11. Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schr.
27.
Sida rhombifolia Linn.
12. Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois.
28.
Syrnplocos racemosa Roxb.
13. Cyperus rotundus Lim1.
29.
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex hook f.
& Thorns.
15. Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.
30.
Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.
16. Hibisus rosa-sinensis Linn.
31.
Tylophora indica Burm.f. & Merill
14. Embelia ribes Burm.F.
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to Tropical Botanical Garden & Research Institute,
Thiruvananthapuram
1.
Adhatoda beddomei C.B. Clarke
17.
Melia azedarach Linn.
2.
Allium cepa Linn.
18.
Murraya koenigii Spreng.
3.
Allium sativum Linn.
19.
Musa paradisiaca L.
4.
Alstonia scholaris (Linn. ) R.Br.
20.
Myristica fragrans Houtt.
5.
Argemone mexicana Linn.
21.
Myristica malabarica Lam.
6.
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.
(syn.
A.integra auct. non Merrill, A.integrifolia Hook.
non Linn.)
22.
Oroxylum indicum Vent.
23.
Premna integrifolia Linn.
24.
Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.
25.
Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f.
26.
Rhus parvif1ora Roxb.
27.
Santalum album Linn.
28.
Sesamum indicum Linn. (syn. S.orientale
Linn.)
12. Desmodium gangeticum DC.
29.
Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.
13. Elettaria cardamomum Maton
30.
Syzygium cuminii (Linn.) Skeels.
14. Gmelina arborea Linn.
31.
Tecomella undulata (G.Don.) Seem
15. Hedychium spicatum Linn.
32.
Uraria picta Desv.
7.
Azadirachta indica Juss.
8.
Cichorium intybus Linn.
9.
Cinnamomum camphora Nees ex Eberm
10. Cinnamomum tamala Nees
11. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn.
16. Mallotus philippensis Muell.-Arg
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Development Centre, Ahmedabad
1.
Aristolochia indica Linn.
17.
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (syn.M.prurita
Hook.)
2.
Boswellia serrata Roxb.
3.
Calotropis gigantea (Linn. ) Dryand.
18.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn.
4.
Capparis decidua Edgew.
19.
Plantago ovata Forsk.
5.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl.
20.
Plumbago indica Linn.
6.
Cassia fistula Linn.
21.
Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
7.
Cassia occidentalis Linn.
22.
Punica granatum Linn.
8.
Cinchona officinalis Linn.f.
23.
Randia dumetorum Lam.
9.
Cissampelos pareira Linn.
24.
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.
10.
Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon
25.
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde
11.
Commiphora
myrrha
Engl.syn.C.mukul Engl.
26.
Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.
27.
Solanum indicum Linn.
(Nees)
12.
Commiphora wightii Bhandari
28.
Solanum torvum Swartz.
13.
Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.) Wall.
29.
Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers.
14.
Leptadenia reticulata Linn.
30.
Terminalia arjuna Wight & Am.
15.
Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & Am. I
31.
Terminalia bellerica Roxb
16.
Moringa oleifera Lam.
(syn.M.pterygosperma Gaertn.)
32.
Terminalia chebula Retz..
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
List of plants allocated to Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu
1.
Achillea millefolium Linn.
17.
Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm.
2.
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Ex Holmes
18.
Crocus sativus Linn.
3.
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.
19.
Cuminum cyminum Linn.
4.
Aesculus hippocastanum Linn.
20.
Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
5.
Ammi majus Linn. ,
21.
Digitalis purpurea Linn.
6.
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.
22.
Ferula foetida Regel
7.
Anethum sowa Kurz.
23.
Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke
8.
Angelica archangelica Lilm.
24.
Fumaria parviflora Lam.
9.
Angelica glauca Edgew.
25.
Gloriosa superba Linn.
10.
Apium graveolens Linn.
26.
Mentha arvensis Linn.
11.
Argyreia nervosa (Burm F .) Bojer svn.A.
speciosa Sweet
27.
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
28.
Psoralea corylifolia Linn.
12.
Artemisia annua Linn.
29.
Saussurea lappa Spreng.
13.
Cannabis sativa Linn.
30.
Taxus baccata Linn.
14.
Carum carvi (Linn.) DC.
31.
Valeriana Wallichi DC.
15.
Coptis teeta Wall.
32.
Vetiveria zizanioides Linn.
33.
Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH ON AYURVEDIC DRUGS
 Improved formulations and reduced number of Ayurvedic drugs
 Use of GMP procedures and QC
 Certified shelf life and improved dosage form
 Validated indications and contraindications
 Deletion of obsolete or toxic formulations
 Use of Ayurvedic drugs in modern clinical practice
 Inclusion in essential list of drugs
 Adjunct to existing drugs
 Treatment of diseases where modern drugs not available or unsatisfactory
 Development of suitable formulations, standardized extracts or active
constituents
 IPR protection wherever feasible
 Inclusion in Pharmacopoeias.
 New indications for Ayurvedic drugs
 Development of new drugs for Ayurvedic practice
 Utilizing leads from other countries
 Study of unscreened flora, specially endemic or threatened species
 Studies on Ayurvedic drugs for veterinary use
AYURVEDIC PROTOCOLS FOR DRUG EVALUATION
(Yogyamapi Aoushdam Evam Pariksheta)
A. Pharmacognostical Study
1. Nama
2. Rupam
3. Desa jatam
4. Ritu grhitam
5. Grhitam
6. Nihitam
Name of the Drug
Botanical features
Habitat
Season of collection
Species and part used
Way of storage and prevention
Distribution of Medicinal Plants across the biogeographic zones/provinces of India
Sl.No.
Bio-Geographic Zone
Biogeographic Provinces
Estimated No. of Med. Plant
spp.
1.
2.
Trans-Himalayan
The Himalayan
2A- North-West Himalaya
2B- West Himalaya
2C- Central Himalaya
2D-East Himalaya
3A-Kutch
3B Thar
4A- Punjab
4B-Gujarat-Rajwar
5A-Malabar Coast
5B-Western Ghats Mountains
700
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Desert
Semi-Arid
Western Ghats
Deccan Peninsula
Gangetic Plain
North-East India
Islands
Coasts
Source FRLHT, Bangalore
6A-Deccan Plateau South
6B- Central Plateau
6C-Eastern Plateau
6D- Chhota Nagpur
6E- Central High land
7A- Upper Gangetic Plain
7-B Lower Gangetic Plain
8A-Brahmaputra Valley
8B-Assam Hills
9 A - Andaman Islands
9 B - Nicobar Islands
9 C - Lakshadweep Islands
10-A West Coast
1,700
500
1000
2000
3000
1000
2000
1000
500
The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Indian Medicinal plants
1.
Aquilaria malaccensis
9.
Pinus gerardiana
2.
Butea monosperma var. lutea
10.
Pterocarpus indicus
3.
Chloroxylon swietenia
11.
Pterocarpus santalinus
4.
Commiphora wightii
12.
Santalum album
5.
Euodia lunuankenda
13.
Saraca asoca
6.
Hydnocarpus macrocarpa
14.
Tabernaemontana gamblei
7.
Mangifera indica
15.
Tabernaemontana heyneana
8.
Ochreinauclea missionis
16.
Taxus wallichiana
IUCN RED LIST CRITERIA
IUCN Red List criteria (1995) include the following:
Extinct (Ex): A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that its last individual has died.
Extinct in the Wild (EW): A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity
or as a naturalized population well outside the past range.
Critically Endangered (CR): A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of
extinction in the wild in the immediate future (80% decline in the last 10 years, 100km2 of area of occupancy or 10
sq. km in fragmented area: estimated 250 mature individuals or subpopulation of not more than 50 individuals).
Endangered (EN): A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critical, but is facing a very high risk of extinction in the
wild in the near future (50% decline in the last 10 years; estimated <5000 km2 of area of occupancy or 500 km2 in
fragmented areas; estimated 2500 individuals or subpopulation of 250 mature individuals.
Vulnerable (VU): A taxon is vulnerable when it is not Critical or Endangered but is facing a very high risk of
extinction in the wild, in the medium term future. (50% decline in the last 20 years; estimated <20000 km2 of
occupancy or <2000 km2 in fragmented population, estimated 10,000 individuals or subpopulation of 1000 mature
individuals).
Conservation Dependent (CD): A taxon is under taxon-specific or habitat specific conservation programme which
directly affects the taxon in question. The cessation of this program would result in the taxon qualifying for one of
the threatened categories.
Data Deficient (DD): A taxon is data deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct or indirect
assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status.
Low Risk (LR): A taxon is Low Risk when it has been evaluated and does not qualify for any of the categories,
Critically Endangered, Endangered Vulnerable, Conservation Dependent or Data Deficient.
Not Evaluated (NE): A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been assessed against the criteria.
Source: IUCN 1995, IUCN Red List Categories, Prepared by species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Development of Standards of Medicinal Plants and
Preparation of Monographs
Species Name
No. of Accessions
Species Name
No.of Accessions
Achillea spp.
17
Solanum spp.
17
Andrographis paniculata
20
Tagetes spp.
56
Cassia spp.
22
Trichosanthes spp.
11
Catharanthus roseus
11
Trigonella foenum-graecum
37
Datura spp.
26
Withania somnifera
19
Digitalis spp.
16
Aconitum balfourii
1
Matricaria spp.
11
Costus speciosus
1
Mucuna spp.
117
Eremostachys superba
1
Ocimum spp.
187
Picrorhiza kurrooa
1
Papaver somniferum
288
Rheum australe
3
Plantago spp.
19
Saussurea costus
4
Psoralea corylifolia
50
Misc.Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
307
Salvia spp.
11
Total
1253
Germplasm status of field gene bank at NRCM & AP
Sl.
No.
Plants
No. of accession
1.
Aloe spp. (Aloe)
53
2.
Asparagus spp. (Satavari.)
50
3.
Cassia angustifolia (Sannsa)
5
4.
Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed musli)
56
5.
Commiphora wightii (Guggal)
67
6.
Ocimum spp. (Tulsi)
41
7.
Plantago ovata (Isabgol)
12
8.
Phyllanthus spp. (Bhui amla)
12
9.
Tinospora cordifolia (Gilo)
38
10.
Tribulus terrestris (Gokhru)
6
11.
Withania somnifera (Aswagandha)
11
Total
351
Improved varieties of medicinal plants developed in India by various institutions
Sl. No.
Variety/Cultivar
Crop(Plant species)
Institute where developed
Parts used
1.
Jawahar Isabgol
Plantago ovata
JNKVV, Jabalpur
Seeds, husk
2.
Gujarat Isabgol-1
“
“
3.
G.I.-2
“
“
4.
Niharika
“
“
5.
Sona
6.
ALFT-2
7.
Shweta
8.
Shyama
9.
Sampada
“
10.
Sanchita
11.
Cassia angustifolia
“
“
Papaver
somniferum
“
“
GAU-RC, Mehsana
“
“
CIMAP, Lucknow
“
“
GAU, Anand
CIMAP, Lucknow
“
“
“
“
“
“
Leaves, pods
“
“
Latex, seeds
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
Straw
“
Shubhra
“
“
“
“
“
“
12.
Sujata
“
“
“
“
Seeds
13.
Kirtiman
“
“
NDUAT, Faizabad
14.
Trishna
“
“
NBPGR, New Delhi
“
“
15.
Rajhans
“
“
RAU, Udaipur
“
“
16.
NBRI-3
“
“
NBRI, Lucknow
“
“
17.
Jawahar Afim-16
“
“
JNKVV, Mandsaur
“
“
18.
Udaipur opium
“
“
RU, Udaipur
“
“
19.
Aela
20.
Aekla
“
“
21.
IC-66
“
“
22.
NP-41
H. muticus
Hyoscyamus niger
CIMAP, Lucknow
“
“
Latex, seeds
Biomass
“
NBPGR, New Delhi
“
CIMAP, Lucknow
“
Contd…
Improved varieties of medicinal plants developed in India by various institutions
Sl. No.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
Variety/Cultivar
HMT-1
Hansa
Jhelum
Nirmal
Dhawal
Asha
S-3
S-2-58
FB (C) – I
Arka-Upkar
RS-1
Jawahar Asgandh
Poshita
RRL (Purple)
RRL (Green)
SL-831
RRL-20-2
RRL-SL-6
Glaxo
IIHR 2n-11
Arka-Sanjivani
Arka-Mahima
EC-113465
Source: Sharma, J.R. (2001)
Crop (Plant species)
“
“
Chysanthemum
cinerariefolium
“
“
Catharanthus roseus
“
“
Artemisia annua
Dioscorea floribunda
D. composita
D. floribunda
“
“
Rauvolfia serpentina
Withania somnifera
“
“
Datura metel
“
“
Asparagus officinalis
Solanum khasianum
“
“
S. viarum
“
“
“
“
“
“
S. lanciniatum
Institute where developed
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
NBPGR, New Delhi
IIHR, Bangalore
“
“
JNKVV, Indore
JNKVV, Mandsaur
CIMAP, Lucknow
RRL, Jammu
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
Glaxo, India
IIHR, Bangalore
“
“
“
“
YSPHU, Solan
(Contd.)
Parts used
“
Flowers
“
Roots, leaves
“
“
Biomass
Rhizome
“
“
“
“
Roots
“
Biomass
“
Spears
Biomass berries
“
Berries
“
“
“
“
Table 22. Improved Varieties of Medicinal Plants Developed by ICAR and SAUs
Sl. Crop
No.
Variety
Developed by
Year of
Release
1
Cassia angustifolia (Senna)
Anand Late Selection
Anand
1989
2
D. 76
Solan
1991
H47-3
Solan
1991
Haryana Mulhatti-1
Hisar
1989
HMI-80-1
Indore
-
Anand
1998
Jawahar Opium 539
Mandsur
1997
Jawahar Opium 540
Mandsur
1998
Chetak Aphim
Udaipur
1994
Trisna
Delhi
11
Digitalis lanata (Foxglove)
Glaucium flavum (Yellow Horned
Poppy)
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice)
Hyoscyamus muticus (Egyptian
Henbane)
Lepidium sativum (Cress)
Papaver somniferum (Opium
Poppy)
Papaver somniferum (Opium
Poppy)
Papaver somniferum (Opium
Poppy)
Papaver somniferum (Opium
Poppy)
Piper longum (Long Pepper)
Viswam
Trichur
1996
12
Plantago ovata (Isabgol)
Haryana Isabgol-5
Hisar
1989
13
Plantago ovata (Isabgol)
Jawahar Isabgol-4
Mandsur
1996
14
Solanum laciniatum
NH 88-12
Solan
1991
Jawahar Asgand-20
Mandsur
1989
Jawahar Asgand-134
Mandsur
1998
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
16
Withania somnifera (Aswagandha)
Withania somnifera (Aswagandha)
-
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