APPLICATION AND
INTEGRATION OF
INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
IN
E- NEIGHBOURHOOD
A. Kaklauskas, G.Kaklauskas, M. Krutinis,
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius,
Lithuania, e-mail: [email protected]
Electronic Neighbourhood
• A neighbourhood (in British English) or neighborhood (in American
English) is a geographically localised community located within a
larger city or suburb. The residents of a given neighbourhood are
called neighbours (or neighbors), although this term may also be
used across much larger distances in rural areas. Traditionally, a
neighbourhood is small enough that the neighbours are all able to
know each other. However in practice, neighbours may not know
one another very well at all.
• Electronic neighbourhood is, in its simplest form, the conduct of
neighbourhood activities on the Internet. Today the term is used
rather freely to describe any situation or solution that has made the
migration from real world to the Internet.
Electronic Neighbourhood (2)
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IT is not only some fancy new technology that makes it possible to
rationalise work. IT is now the basis for societal development in the socalled ‘network society’. Urban development in the network society is based
on two aspects of the city: the digital city and the physical city. On one hand
the digital city is taking over functions that traditionally belonged to the
physical city. Several functions are being carried out by means of
information technology without any kind of physical artefacts. On the other
hand IT is becoming part of the infrastructure of the physical city in the form
of ‘intelligent’ artefacts and architecture that function as interfaces for digital
information. Similarly urban planning is experiencing a change of paradigms
in the form of new types of urban regeneration and urban planning:
conventional functional plans are being extended by extremely complex,
flexible models in which representative democracy is combined with
partnerships and active participation and rational thinking is combined with
reflective thinking on the part of all players in the city context. In this change
the involvement of users is intensified and the professionals are given new
roles, the result being not only better physical solutions but also a spin-off
benefit in the form of new networks between the various players who are
essential in the development of new solutions [5].
E-Voice
• The project E-VOICE [15] intends to concentrate on e-democracy/egovernment in order to try and renew the political information,
communication and interaction processes between elected
politicians, the administration and the citizens – including young
people - on a local and/or regional level at various locations in the
North Sea Region with the support of the 'new' media (internet, email, sms, i-mode, etc.) in combination with the 'old' media
(television, radio, (mobile) telephone, newspapers, etc). Some
possible examples are [15]:
• the organisational development of digital office hours – citizens get
the opportunity to
pose questions to mayor, aldermen and/or council members by email or by direct communication via the internet and web-tv;
• online townhall: e.g. experimental broadcasts of the yearly localcouncil budgetary meeting;
• digital debates and online panel discussions for citizens;
• electronic neighbourhood groups.
E-Kvarter
• The Electronic Neighbourhood project (the e-kvarter) is
part of major research into the impact of information
technology (IT) on urban development and urban
planning. IT is not only some fancy new technology that
makes it possible to rationalise work. IT is now the basis
for societal development in the so-called ‘network
society'. Urban development in the network society is
based on two aspects of the city: the digital city and the
physical city. On one hand the digital city is taking over
functions that traditionally belonged to the physical city.
On the other hand IT is becoming part of the
infrastructure of the physical city in the form of
‘intelligent' artefacts and architecture that function as
interfaces for digital information [9].
Functions of E-Neighbourhood
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Electronic neighbourhood involve a lot of functions. As example, the short description of Home
Monitoring, electronic version of the Neighbourhood Watch and Intelligent home is following.
BT Home Monitoring is a complete protection system for home that alerts inhabitants to potential
emergencies - wherever they are. Wireless sensors link to an Internet monitoring service. This
sends alerts via fixed line phone, text message and email to inhabitants and a list of nominated
contacts if there is a threat to home. BT Home Monitoring offers round the clock protection for
home and family. The following advantages BT Home Monitoring is giving for inhabitants [12]:
Home protection - place sensors around your home to detect intruders or the threat of fire (fire
detection requires smoke detectors - sold separately).
Personal protection - panic alarm function allows people inside your home to summon help in an
emergency.
Intruder deterrence - loud internal warning siren deters potential intruders.
Simple to install - designed for easy self-installation. No need for complex wiring, all components
pre-programmed for immediate use.
Real time response - alerts by fixed line phone, text message or email tell you if your home is
under threat (call charges apply).
Control and assurance - build a network of trusted friends and neighbours who'll also receive
alerts, an 'electronic neighbourhood watch'.
Remote monitoring - see the status of your home online any time, from anywhere.
Expands to fit any home - the starter kit suits a small to medium sized home. Add up to 28
sensors to suit your property.
Functions of E-Neighbourhood
(2)
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A new, electronic version of the Neighbourhood Watch concept was praised
by local authorities and community safety groups around the country for
successfully tackling crime and the fear of crime. The AlertBox, which is
about the size of a paperback book, uses a secure network of state-of-theart radio technology which allows neighbours to contact each other instantly
via electronic messages. The whole community can be warned of nuisance
callers or suspicious persons at the touch of a single button. The system
also allows neighbours to call each other in the event of an emergency,
such as fire or accident, while they wait for the emergency services.
The system is already being trialled by a number of local authorities,
including the London Borough of Barnet, as well as Rhondda Cynon Taf
Community Safety Partnership, which has provided AlertBoxes for a local
primary school, magistrates' courts and a doctor's surgery. Neighbourhood
Watch itself - is not an alterative to the emergency services but it does offer
a valuable back-up and peace of mind. Knowing that you just have to press
one button to alert your neighbours to a nuisance caller or to call for help, is
something that vulnerable people, such as the elderly or those who live
alone, will really value [13].
Web-based Expert and Decision
Support Systems in
Neighbourhood Activities
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Expert systems today generally serve to relieve a ‘human’ professional of some of the
difficult but clearly formulated tasks. The expert systems cultivated within cyberspace
universes for neighbourhood activities enable executives to incorporate relevant best
practices and benchmarking applications into the daily activities of the neighbourhood
residents. The description of a few experts systems is following.
Developing a contaminated site can be costly and time-consuming. There are literally
hundreds of decisions to take – investigation and remediation can be biological,
chemical, geophysical or hydrological, and new techniques are being developed all
the time. Norisc, a consortium of European research groups, companies and
regulators, has made the process much easier by creating a piece of expert system
to guide the user through this process. It draws on a huge quantity of data including
contamination profiles from different industries, EU and US legislation, and an
inventory of techniques with their costs and outcomes. Designed for use by
regulators, consultants and developers, the software supports evaluation of a site,
risk assessment and the choice of remediation method. It has been tested in four
European cities, showing that it can reduce the cost of redeveloping contaminated
sites by half, and the time taken to carry out a risk assessment by up to 80% [1].
Web-based Expert and Decision
Support Systems in
Neighbourhood Activities (2)
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OSCAR (Optimised Expert System for Conducting Environmental Assessment of
Urban Road Traffic) is a European project [2] that addresses the major problem of
road traffic congestion and the resulting air pollution in urban areas. The quality of life
of the citizen is expected to diminish in several ways as a result of the growth in
urban traffic, including increased journey times, deterioration in air quality and health
of vulnerable groups, and decreased economic efficiency of industry and business. In
terms of air quality it is recognised that limit values for NO2 and PM10 will be difficult
to meet in many European urban areas. Current environmental assessment models,
however, cannot adequately address complex traffic situations and micro-scale
dispersion patterns observed in urban streets [2].
TSG (Developing a Streetspace Reallocation Tool) was funded under the
EPSRC/DTLR FIT research programme to examine the feasibility of developing a
design tool and expert system, that will lead to higher quality and more innovative
streetscape designs. Aimed primarily at the designer and decision maker, the tool
would bring together a number of functionalities: (i) a GIS-based design tool with CAD
capabilities, incorporating broad and detailed knowledge/data relating to road
casualties, land uses etc; (ii) a formal approach to the assessment and balancing of
street user needs; (iii) a systematic approach to streetspace reallocation; (iv) detailed
information on elements of the street, and (v) examples of good practice drawn from
across Europe. The study identified potential markets for such a tool, with interest
heightened as a result of skill shortages, the recent sharp increase in guidance and
the need to take a more comprehensive approach to street design issues.
Expert System support in the
Social Services field
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Svensson [17] concludes the success of expert system support in the social
services field was much helped by three factors:
1) The regulation, especially its volume, complexity and completeness;
Svensson [17] foresees a trend towards computerizable legislation also in
other fields so as to make it possible to roll out the practical successes of
expert systems also to these fields.
2) The changing professional status of the general assistance worker;
Svensson [17] believes the expert systems have empowered a previously
deskilled group with declining status.
3) An increased scrutiny and an increasingly rigorous control structure,
rendering municipalities financially responsible for faulty decisions.
Svensson [17] clearly illustrate the complex issue of introducing automated
tools into the administration. While reasons of economy, equality before the
law and openness can be advanced to support the use, there are still a
number of issues that speak against it. Especially notable is the shift from
theoretical/principal to pragmatic argumentation. This means trust is an
important issue. In the Dutch social services, it seems trust in the ICT tools
at a certain point in time exceeded trust in the “manual” system.
Expert System support in the
Social Services field
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Svensson [17] concludes the success of expert system support in the social
services field was much helped by three factors:
1) The regulation, especially its volume, complexity and completeness;
Svensson [17] foresees a trend towards computerizable legislation also in
other fields so as to make it possible to roll out the practical successes of
expert systems also to these fields.
2) The changing professional status of the general assistance worker;
Svensson [17] believes the expert systems have empowered a previously
deskilled group with declining status.
3) An increased scrutiny and an increasingly rigorous control structure,
rendering municipalities financially responsible for faulty decisions.
Svensson [17] clearly illustrate the complex issue of introducing automated
tools into the administration. While reasons of economy, equality before the
law and openness can be advanced to support the use, there are still a
number of issues that speak against it. Especially notable is the shift from
theoretical/principal to pragmatic argumentation. This means trust is an
important issue. In the Dutch social services, it seems trust in the ICT tools
at a certain point in time exceeded trust in the “manual” system.
TRAde Control and Expert System
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TRACES (TRAde Control and Expert System) is the first pan-European egovernment application in the field of food safety. It consists in a single
central database to track the movement of animals and certain types of
products. The new system will benefit all authorities and economic
operators concerned by the animal trade by, among other things [18]:
Improving the amount and quality of information – as well as the exchange
of information between national and EU authorities – in order to trace
animal movements.
Providing a system of electronic veterinary certificates enabling trade
operators to enter the relevant information online.
Managing lists of establishments in non-EU countries that are authorised
to export products of animal origin to the EU, while also managing rejected
consignments at EU borders.
Enabling improved controls on public and animal health and on animal
welfare.
Centralising risk assessments of potential disease outbreaks.
Model for teledemocracy
The five elements of the Dutch "model for teledemocracy" are described as follows [20]:
• STEP 1: INFORMATION. Starting point: a concrete proposal, probably by local or
national government, about a certain topic, like building a new highway or cutting
down a forest or whatever. Plus independent background information on this topic,
including pro's and con's as uttered by all parties involved, like governments and
action groups and individual citizens. For this part of the information, the editors are
responsible. They provide also links to all existing sources of information available on
the Internet on the topic, being supplied by the parties involved. For the content of
these sources, the editors are not responsible. The objective editorial information
should be provided by independent information-brokers. People like universityprofessors, judges or journalists. This could even be a new profession, the
"referendarists", people not being tied to government or to commerce and analyzing
local and regional problems and their possible solutions. They would formulate the
referendum questions and construct the voting options.
• STEP 2: DEBATING. Mailing lists and news groups about the current topic. Everyone
concerned can join the debate. Possibility to bring up new alternatives for the current
proposal. Also - possibility to bring up new topics for new teledemo-debates/votings.
Before a topic is accepted, the one who proposed it must raise a basic amount of
people supporting the proposal, in order to prevent a flood of voting-demands that
can not be handled.
Model for teledemocracy (2)
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STEP 3: INDIVIDUAL VOTING-ADVICE. The current topic is cut into several subquestions or sub-aspects by the editorial team, which the voter answers off-line or online, stating his view on the importance and ranking of these sub-aspects. The
answers are clustered by fuzzy logic or expert system and turned into an individual
voting-advice, getting back on screen on-line, consisting of detailed sentences, each
representing a cluster. Basically it is an overview of voters' values on the subject. It is
his/her importance ranking of the underlying issues at stake, like being more
concerned about preventing environmental damage or being more concerned about
cutting costs. Including an advice as on how to vote regarding the proposal at stake
(which may be ignored of course).
STEP 4: COLLECTIVE VOTING-ADVICE. All individual voting-advices of all voters
are clustered into graphics, showing how many and what kind of people agree with or
oppose the current topic and why. For example: a majority of voters in age-group 3545 years and zip-code 1000-1200 is againt the proposal because they think
environment is going to be damaged in the current proposal. This step is
accomplished using pseudo-identities from which the personal information is stripped
away, leaving only the essential general data such as postal code and age-group.
This procedure allows for use in governmental decison-making without violating
indivual privacy, that is, without revealing individual voting behaviour.
STEP 5. VOTING. Voter is granted permission to the Web-page, c.q. authenticated to
vote on the current topic, by his/her passport-data. The city he lives in gives him a
public key for voting-rights. A permanent voting-key is made out of this data, using the
pseudo-identity idea developed by DigiCash among others. This process garantees
that the the voting-system knows that the voter is permitted to vote but that the
system does not know what the voter votes.
Public Participation GIS and Webbased Community Decision
Support
• Public participation GIS and Web-based community decision
support is described in this section from attitude of different
worldwide known researchers and practicians.
• Kingston (Kingston, 2003) demonstrates the potential for linking
GIS-based spatial microsimulation decision support systems
(SDSS) to Virtual Decision-Making Environments (VDMEs) to allow
local policy makers as well as the general public to explore local
policy problems and become more involved in the public
participation processes. Kingston (Kingston, 2003) addresses some
technical aspects of the linkage of spatial microsimulation modelling
frameworks to VDMEs. It also deals with the wider implications that
such a linkage may have to local governance procedures. It will
therefore be of interest to local government policy makers and
practitioners as well as to researchers interested in the prospects of
policy simulation models for the enhancement of local democracy.
MicroMaPPAS
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Kingston (Kingston, 2003) described MicroMaPPAS (Micro-simulation
Modelling and Predictive Policy Analysis System), which is an SDSS under
development for Leeds City Council. The innovative feature of this system is
the use of spatial microsimulation techniques for the enhancement of local
policy decision making. Kingston (Kingston, 2003) presented examples of
how MicroMaPPAS can be used for the impact assessment of local policies.
It is shown how policy makers can use the system to gain insights on the
socio-economic polarisation within the city in order to make informed policy
decisions. The “public” that is involved in using this system is primarily the
officers of the local council. Nevertheless, Kingston (Kingston, 2003) also
argues the case for the extension of the system enabling local community
groups to use the tool as a mechanism for obtaining National and European
funding for community regeneration projects. It also allows for public
feedback to elected officials on the design of policies to ameliorate local
socio-economic problems. In particular, it is argued, given that
MicroMaPPAS is being developed in JAVA, that it can be put on the Internet
and linked to VDMEs. It is suggested that systems such as MicroMaPPAS
can be used to inform the general public about the potential of local policies
and to enhance, in this way.
Open Digital Administration
• Open Digital Administration is used for consolidates information
(about citizens, companies, projects, regulations, procedures,
guidance etc. including a range of diverse information: e-mail, video
and other data files), consolidates solutions (a parent case handling
solution with optional specialised subsystems (i.e. dealing with
building permits, Geographical Information Systems etc.)),
consolidates user interface and user access (implying one common
user interface for all general solutions) and integrates administrative
and knowledge processes used both in the public and the private
sector.
• The idea behind this consolidation is to make one basic system or
set of principles, which suits the needs of both employees, other
authorities, citizens, companies and organisations. The means of
user access will differ (normally Lotus Notes or Internet browses),
the authorisation for information will differ (what am I allowed to see)
and the solutions will differ (case handling, self-service, education
etc.), but it is based at the same kernel.
The benefits of the Open Digital
Administration
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For citizens, companies and networkers: better, cheaper and higher quality information; self
service ("One-Stop-Shopping" most services as seen from the users can be found in one place.
Electronic mail and forms gives far quicker means of communication and the digital architecture
makes it possible to simplify the forms making them easier and quicker to fill out. The dynamic
form guides the user through an optimal process (best practice). Forms gives the user direct and
secure access to own cases by digital signature) and new democratic means of expression (the
direct access, through e-mail, to the political representatives will be already in place. In the future
it will be possible to establish electronic debate forums where the citizens can get in a dialogue
with each other and the politicians about specific subjects, for example local area planning).
For administrations and citizens, companies and networkers: better real time overview for both
citizens, public and private users at the same time (regulations, information about persons and
projects etc.); better case handling (deadlines, work flow. Exactly because it will be possible to
send electronic documents from one case worker to another and to build in automatic alarms,
which alerts the employee when a deadline is getting near, the work process becomes easier and
faster. The simplified forms results in fewer errors and hereby quicker processing); closer contact
with the citizen (electronic mail, forms and direct access to own cases); better means of
education/reduction/lifelong learning through flexible tele-education; better overview of bottlenecks
and critical paths in the whole administration (usually the goal is to link together different forms
from several organisations. Today many applications to one organisation demand support
documents from one or more third party organisation and therefore the total service time is not
only measured through one application but a series of applications for one and the same "citizencase". The relationship of those forms is deciding the total service time for a citizen’s application
for a service).
Above measures will lead to a number of important changes in the relationship between citizen
and civil servants.
Info-kiosks for e-Services
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The main concept behind the introduction of the e-kiosk network is to offer
essential e-public and business services to customers in a highly accessible
and user-friendly way. Citizens will be able to use the e-kiosk network for a
whole range of services, including taking care of banking business, payment
of electricity, water bills, online bus reservation and ticketing, registration of
births and deaths, payment of house tax and other fees/charges, sending
and reading e-mail, online shopping, sending SMS messages to GSM/WAP
phones worldwide and doing business with government offices. With special
regard to the latter, the e-kiosk network also will be able to include a reader
for the electronic identification card, making business with government
offices. In the furthers future it is hoped that the e-kiosk network will also
have the facility for people to make travel arrangements, including the
printing out of tickets upon payment.
The e-kiosk network also can provide local services grouped into themes.
These can be related to local businesses, local service providers, local and
national government offices. Use of the e-kiosk network can be mostly free
of charge, with only sending e-mail and surfing the Web subject to any fees.
Intelligent Transport Systems
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Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are capable of opening up new ways of
achieving sustainable mobility in our communications and information
society. ITS include Travel and Traffic Management Systems (pre-trip travel
information, route driver information, route guidance, ride matching and
reservation, traveller services information, traffic control, incident
management, travel demand management, emissions testing and
mitigation), Public Transportation Operations Systems (public transportation
management, route transit information, personalised public transit, public
travel security), Electronic Payment Systems, Commercial Vehicles
Operations Systems (commercial vehicle electronic clearance, automated
roadside safety inspection, onboard safety monitoring, commercial vehicle
administration process, hazardous materials incident response, freight
mobility), Emergency Management Systems (emergency notification and
personal security, emergency vehicle management), Advanced Vehicle
Control and Safety Systems (longitudinal collision avoidance, lateral
collision avoidance, intersection collision avoidance, vision enhancement for
collision avoidance, safety readiness, pre-crash restraint deployment), etc.
Intelligent Transport Systems (2)
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ITS can contribute to reduce the number of accidents, their severity, and the
time taken for the emergency services to provide rescue response. The
most significant applications include speed management (warning, driver
feedback, control) and driver and vehicle monitoring. Many applications will
increase the safety of vulnerable road users, particularly children, elderly
people, and the disabled. Some examples include:
Adaptive speed control.
Incident detection and warning systems.
Faster emergency response times.
Camera systems for speed and traffic signal enforcement.
Automatic traffic control for pedestrians and cyclists.
Weather and microclimate monitoring.
Anticollision system.
Enhanced vision systems.
Congestion is a major problem for all groups of users is a major goal of ITS
programs.
Integration of e-Neighbourhood
Intelligent and Institutional
Systems
• The knowledge systems would be more useful if it drove
decision support systems. Computational and analytical
models could be applied to the information in the
knowledge base so as to support decision-making.
Some modules could be applied to the knowledge base
so as to make recommendations. Also decision support
systems can facilitate the analysis, retrieval, and
dissemination of explicit knowledge. This explicit
knowledge consists of all documents, accounting
records, and data stored in computer memories. Explicit
knowledge refers to codified knowledge that is
transmittable in formal, systematic language and is
easily transferred by using Information Technology.
Inteligent DSS and Expert DSS
• For example, the integrated expert and decision support systems
have been called intelligent DSS (IDSS), knowledge-based
management support systems (KMMS), expert DSS (EDSS), expert
support systems (ESS) and knowledge-based DSS. Various forms
of this integration have been examined and a variety of system
architectures have been proposed. Moreover, based on a broad
classification of current types of information systems, Mentzas
(1994) identified some of the essential features for intelligent
decision making support. According to King (1990) the ES
component in earlier systems was used to develop a domain
specific knowledge base with the DSS serving as an "information
resource", providing factual data and models for the analysis of the
problem at hand. Research attempts have enhanced the role of the
expert system component to an intelligent frontend to the DSS.
These two dimensions generate four basic architectures, named
(somewhat arbitrarily as) "loosely coupled systems", "merged
subsystems", "intelligent interfaces" and "expert command
languages".
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[1] http://www.norisc.com/
[2] http://www.re-urban.com/links.htm
[3] http://www.wmin.ac.uk/transport/tsgreprt.htm
[4] Weiland, U.; Hübner, M. (1990),"Das Projekt EXCEPT,"Experten-System for Computer-Aided Environmental Planning Tasks. IWBS Report 114. Hg.,"IBM,
Wissenschaftliches Zentrum, Institut für Wissensbasierte Systeme. Stuttgart".
[5] http://www.karch.dk/udgivelser/publikationer/content/88/rudiger_uk.pdf
[6] The Electronic Neighbourhood, urban regeneration in the Outer Nørrebro South district:
http://www.hut.fi/events/ecaade/E2001presentations/15_05_holmgren.pdf
[7] Jepson W. & Chan R.: Urban Simulation: an Innovative Tool for Interactive Planning and Consensus Building (www.multigen.com)
[8] Planning and Urban Design, paper 2, CASA (http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/urbanplan.pdf)
[9] http://www.karch.dk/udgivelser/publikationer/showArticle.asp?intArticleID=68&strLanguage=UK
[10] http://www.hut.fi/events/ecaade/E2001presentations/15_05_holmgren.pdf
[11] http://www.sics.se/~mahmoud/ICities/Annex%20I.pdf
[12] http://www.bt.com/homemonitoring/index.jsp
[13] Electronic Neighbourhood Watch' - tackling fear of crime
http://www.alertbox.co.uk/media.htm#A06
[14] http://www.intelligenthometechnologies.com/
[15] http://www.vibamt.dk/Interreghome.nsf/0/bf86de719a39c87ec1256d050035f1db?OpenDocument
[16] http://www.homerdixon.com/download/conversation_paul_martin.pdf
[17] The Use of Legal Expert Systems in Administrative Decision Making
http://www.idea-group.com/downloads/excerpts/193070819xBookEx.pdf
[18] http://europa.eu.int/ida/servlets/Doc?id=1822
[19] C. Niculae, S. French. Bringing understanding in societal decision making: explaining and communicating analyses?
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/108069484/ABSTRACT
[20] Citizen participation in politics and the new systems of communication. http://home.snafu.de/mjm/CP/cp.html
[21] http://www.free-definition.com/Neighbourhood.html
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[22] Randall, T.A., Churchill, C.J., and Baetz, B.W., "A GIS-based Decision Support System for Neighbourhood Greening", Environment and Planning B: Planning and
Design, 2003, Vol. 30, p. 541-563. http://www.pion.co.uk/ep/epb/abstracts/b30/b12970.html
[23] http://www.emma-expertsystem.com/
[24] http://upo.com.cn/eupo/index_02.asp?classid=3&Nclassid=8&articleid=80
[25] http://www.ess.co.at/WATERWARE/
[26] http://www.ess.co.at/HITERM/final.html
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