CSE 331
Computer Organization and Design
Fall 2007
Week 1
Section 1: Mary Jane Irwin (www.cse.psu.edu/~mji)
Section 2: Krishna Narayanan
Course material on ANGEL: cms.psu.edu
[slides adapted from D. Patterson slides with additional credits to Y. Xie]
CSE331 W01.1
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Course Administration

Instr (Sec1):





348C IST Bldg
OH’s: Tues 2:30 – 3:45pm & Wed 9:15 – 10:30am
Instr (Sec2):


Krishna Narayanan ([email protected] )
348D IST Bldg
OH’s: TBD
TA:

Mary Jane Irwin ([email protected])
Evens Jean ([email protected] )
360E IST Bldg
OH’s: Tues, Thurs 2:30 – 4:00pm
Web: ANGEL, cms.psu.edu
 Lab: Accounts on CSE machines in 220 IST, Windows Lab
 Texts: Computer Organization and Design: The
Hardware/Software Interface,
3rd Edition Revised Printing, Patterson and Hennessy
VHDL Starter’s Guide, 2nd Edition, Yalamanchili

CSE331 W01.2
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Grading Information

Grade determinates

Exam #1
~20%
- Tuesday, October 2, 6:30 – 7:45pm, 113 Email
IST
instructor
 Exam #2
ASAP if ~20%
you have
- Thursday, November 8, 6:30 – 7:45, 113 IST
an exam conflict !

Final Exam
~25%
- Section 1 & 2: TBD


Homeworks/Programming Assignments
~25%

Quizzes (in-class & ANGEL)
~ 5%

Class attendance
~ 5%
CSE 331 is a “C required course” for both CmpSc and
CmpEng majors
CSE331 W01.4
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Grading Policies

Assignments will be submitted electronically through
ANGEL and must be submitted by 5:00pm on the due
date. No late assignments will be accepted.

Most programming assignments will follow the “pair
programming” paradigm

Duplicate assignments will receive duplicate grades of
zero. Second offenses will result in a final course grade
of F.

Grades will be posted on the ANGEL website

See TA about questions on the assignments; see instructors
about grading questions on the exams

Must submit email request for change of grade after discussions
with the TA or instructor

December 12 deadline for filing grade corrections; no requests
for grade changes/updates will be accepted after this date
CSE331 W01.5
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What is Pair Programming?

Two programmers work side-by-side at one computer
continuously collaborating on the same design,
algorithm, code, or test

The fourteen principles of pair programming

http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=332
833.332848&coll=portal&dl=ACM&idx=3
32833&part=periodical&WantType=peri
odical&title=Communications%20of%20
the%20ACM&CFID=891725&CFTOKE
N=22811657

Share everything

Play fair – take turns
“driving”, when not “driving”
don’t be a passive observer,
do be active and engaged

Don’t hit people – stay on task (so no reading email or surfing)

…

Take a nap (or a break from working together) every afternoon
Why do it?

Has been shown to improve productivity and the quality of
software
CSE331 W01.6
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Course Goals and Structure

Introduction to the major components of a computer
system, how they function together in executing a
program, how they are designed

MIPS assembler programming using the spim system

VHDL design simulation using Mentor Graphics ModelSim

Prerequisite: CSE 271 (INTRO TO DIGITAL SYSTEMS.
Introduction to logic design and digital systems, boolean
algebra, and introduction to combinatorial and
sequential circuit design and analysis)

If you are also taking CSE 472 you will learn yet
another assembly language (Motorola 68HC12)
CSE331 W01.7
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spim Assembler and Simulator


spim is a simulator that runs MIPS32 assembly
language programs

It provides a simple assembler, debugger and a simple set of
operating system services

It implements both a simple, terminal-style interface (spim)
and a visual windowing interface (xspim and PCSpim)
(Version 7.3) available as

xspim (or spim) for unix, linux, and Mac OS X
- Installed on the CSE unix/linux machines in the lab

PCSpim (or spim) for Windows (NT, 2000, XP)
- Installed on the CSE windows machines in 220 IST and/or can
be downloaded and installed on your own PC from
http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~larus/spim.html
CSE331 W01.8
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
vhdl Simulation

ModelSim is a hardware description language simulator
from Mentor Graphics

Simulation (gate-level and RTL-level) and integrated debug
environment
- Verilog and VHDL
- Intuitive GUI for post-simulation debug and analysis
http://www.model.com/products/products_se.asp
- ModelSim SE is installed on the windows machines in 220 IST

ModelSim PE Student Edition is available for free download
from
http://www.model.com/resources/student_edition/student_default.asp

If you are taking CSE 471 or 478 you will gain even
more experience with the Mentor Graphics tools
CSE331 W01.9
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
ModelSim Screen Shot
CSE331 W01.10
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What You Should Already Know

How to write, compile and run programs in a higher
level language (C, C++, Java, …)

How to represent and operate on positive and negative
numbers in binary form (two’s complement, sign
magnitude, etc.)

Logic design

How to design of combinational and sequential components
(Boolean algebra, logic minimization, technology mapping,
decoders and multiplexors, latches and flipflops, registers,
mealy/moore finite state machines, state assignment and
minimization, etc.)

How to use a logic schematic capture and simulation tool
(e.g., LogicWorks)
CSE331 W01.11
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Schedul
e
 This week’s material

Course introduction, basics of a computer system,
introduction to SPIM
- Reading assignment – PH 1.1 through 1.3 and
A.9
 Next

week’s material
Introduction to MIPS assembler, adds/loads/stores
- Reading assignment - PH 2.1 through 2.4
 Entire
semester course schedule can be
accessed on ANGEL under the Lessons tab
CSE331 W01.12
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Quote for the Day
“I got the idea for the mouse while attending a
talk at a computer conference. The speaker
was so boring that I started daydreaming and
hit upon the idea.”
Doug Engelbart
CSE331 W01.13
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The Evolution of Computer Hardware

When was the first transistor invented?

CSE331 W01.15
Modern-day electronics began with the invention in
1947 of the transfer resistor - the bi-polar transistor by Bardeen et.al at Bell Laboratories
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The Evolution of Computer Hardware
 When
was the first IC (integrated circuit)
invented?

CSE331 W01.17
In 1958 the IC was “born” when Jack Kilby at
Texas Instruments successfully interconnected, by
hand, several transistors, resistors and capacitors
on a single substrate
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The Underlying Technologies
Year
Technology
Relative Perform/Unit Cost
1951
Vacuum Tube
1
1965
Transistor
35
1975
Integrated Circuit (IC)
900
1995
Very Large Scale IC (VLSI)
2,400,000
2005
Submicron VLSI
6,200,000,000
What if technology in the transportation
industry advanced at the same rate?
CSE331 W01.18
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The PowerPC 750
 Introduced
in
1999
 3.65M
 366
transistors
MHz clock
rate
 40
mm2 die size
 250nm
(0.25micron)
technology
CSE331 W01.19
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Technology Outlook
High Volume
Manufacturing
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
90
65
45
32
22
16
11
8
Integration
Capacity (BT)
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
Delay = CV/I
scaling
0.7
~0.7
>0.7
Delay scaling will slow down
>0.35
>0.5
>0.5
Energy scaling will slow down
Technology Node
(nm)
Energy/Logic Op
scaling
Bulk Planar CMOS
High Probability
Low Probability
Alternate, 3G etc
Low Probability
High Probability
Variability
ILD (K)
RC Delay
Metal Layers
CSE331 W01.20
Medium
High
~3
<3
1
1
1
6-7
7-8
8-9
Very High
Reduce slowly towards 2 to 2.5
1
1
1
1
1
0.5 to 1 layer per generation
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Impacts of Advancing Technology
 Processor

logic capacity:
increases about 30% per year

performance:
2x every 1.5 to 2 years
 Memory

DRAM capacity: 4x every 3 years, about 60% per
year

speed:
1.5x every 10 years

cost per bit:
decreases about 25% per year
 Disk

capacity:

speed:

cost per bit:
CSE331 W01.21
increases about 60% per year
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Growth Capacity of DRAM Chips
K = 1024 (210)
CSE331 W01.22
In recent years growth
rate has slowed to 2x
every 2 year
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Computer Organization and Design

This course is all about how computers work

But what do we mean by a computer?


Different types: embedded, laptop, desktop, server

Different uses: automobiles, graphics, finance, genomics,…

Different manufacturers: Intel, AMD, IBM, HP, Apple, IBM,
Sony, Sun …

Different underlying technologies and different costs !
Best way to learn:

Focus on a specific instance and learn how it works

While learning general principles and historical perspectives
CSE331 W01.23
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Embedded Computers in You Car
CSE331 W01.24
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Growth of Sales of Embedded Computers
CSE331 W01.25
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Why Learn This Stuff?

You want to call yourself a “computer scientist/engineer”

You want to build HW/SW people use (so you need to
deliver performance at low cost)

You need to make a purchasing decision or offer “expert”
advice

Both hardware and software affect performance

The algorithm (CSE 465) determines number of source-level
statements

The language/compiler/architecture (CSE 428/421/331&431)
determine the number of machine-level instructions
- (Chapter 2 and 3)

The processor/memory (CSE 331&431) determine how fast
machine-level instructions are executed
CSE331 W01.26
- (Chapter 5, 6, and 7)
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
What is a Computer?


Components:

processor (datapath, control)

input (mouse, keyboard)

output (display, printer)

memory (cache (SRAM), main memory (DRAM), disk drive,
CD/DVD)

network
Our primary focus: the processor (datapath and
control)

Implemented using millions of transistors

Impossible to understand by looking at each transistor

We need abstraction!
CSE331 W01.27
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Major Components of a Computer
CSE331 W01.28
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Head’s Up

This week’s material

Course introduction
- Reading assignment – PH 1.1 through 1.3 and A.9


Reminders

Make sure your CSE account is operational; change your
password to something you can remember and that is secure
(must be 12 or more alphanumeric characters of three types)

Question/comments about the system go to
[email protected] ; questions about the programming
assignments go to the course TA

Check out the course homepage at ANGEL!
Next week’s material

Introduction to MIPS assembler
- Reading assignment - PH 2.1 through 3.3, 3.4, and 3.7
CSE331 W01.29
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Quote for the Day
“We all make mistakes … Our designs have to
work flawlessly despite us.”
Bob Colwell
The Pentium Chronicles
CSE331 W01.31
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Below the Program

High-level language program (in C)
swap (int v[], int k)
(int temp;
temp = v[k];
v[k] = v[k+1];
v[k+1] = temp;
)

Assembly language program (for MIPS)
swap:

sll
add
lw
lw
sw
sw
jr
$2, $5, 2
$2, $4, $2
$15, 0($2)
$16, 4($2)
$16, 0($2)
$15, 4($2)
$31
Machine (object) code (for MIPS)
one-to-many
C compiler
one-to-one
assembler
000000 00000 00101 0001000010000000
000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000
. . .
CSE331 W01.33
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Advantages of Higher-Level Languages ?

Higher-level languages






Allow the programmer to think in a more natural language and
for their intended use (Fortran for scientific computation,
Cobol for business programming, Lisp for symbol
manipulation, Java for web programming, …)
Improve programmer productivity – more understandable
code that is easier to debug and validate
Improve program maintainability
Allow programs to be independent of the computer on which
they are developed (compilers and assemblers can translate
high-level language programs to the binary instructions of any
machine)
Emergence of optimizing compilers that produce very efficient
assembly code optimized for the target machine
As a result, very little programming is done today at
the assembler level
CSE331 W01.35
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Machine Organization

Capabilities and performance characteristics of the
principal Functional Units (FUs)


e.g., register file, ALU, multiplexors, memories, ...
The ways those FUs are
interconnected

e.g., buses

Logic and means by which
information flow between FUs
is controlled

The machine’s Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

Register Transfer Level (RTL) machine description
CSE331 W01.36
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
ISA Sales
CSE331 W01.37
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Major Components of a Computer
Devices
Processor
Network
Control
Datapath
CSE331 W01.38
Memory
Input
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Below the Program

High-level language program (in C)
swap (int v[], int k)
. . .
 Assembly language program
swap:
sll
$2, $5, 2
add
$2, $4, $2
lw
$15, 0($2)
lw
$16, 4($2)
sw
$16, 0($2)
sw
$15, 4($2)
jr
$31

(for MIPS)
Machine (object) code (for MIPS)
000000
000000
100011
100011
101011
101011
000000
CSE331 W01.40
00000
00100
00010
00010
00010
00010
11111
00101
00010
01111
10000
10000
01111
00000
C compiler
assembler
0001000010000000
0001000000100000
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Input Device Inputs Object Code
000000
000000
100011
100011
101011
101011
000000
00000
00100
00010
00010
00010
00010
11111
00101
00010
01111
10000
10000
01111
00000
0001000010000000
0001000000100000
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
Devices
Processor
Network
Control
Datapath
CSE331 W01.41
Memory
Input
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Object Code Stored in Memory
Memory
Processor
Control
Datapath
CSE331 W01.42
000000
000000
100011
100011
101011
101011
000000
00000
00100
00010
00010
00010
00010
11111
00101
00010
01111
10000
10000
01111
00000
0001000010000000
0001000000100000
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
Devices
Network
Input
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Processor Fetches an Instruction
Processor fetches an instruction from memory
Memory
Processor
Control
Datapath
CSE331 W01.43
000000
000000
100011
100011
101011
101011
000000
00000
00100
00010
00010
00010
00010
11111
00101
00010
01111
10000
10000
01111
00000
0001000010000000
0001000000100000
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
Devices
Network
Input
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Control Decodes the Instruction
Control decodes the instruction to determine
what to execute
Devices
Processor
Network
Control
000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000
Memory
Input
Datapath
Output
CSE331 W01.44
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Datapath Executes the Instruction
Datapath executes the instruction as directed
by control
Devices
Processor
Network
Control
000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000
Memory
Input
Datapath
contents Reg #4 ADD contents Reg #2
results put in Reg #2
CSE331 W01.45
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
What Happens Next?
Processor fetches the next instruction from memory
Memory
Processor
Control
Datapath
000000
000000
100011
100011
101011
101011
000000
00000
00100
00010
00010
00010
00010
11111
00101
00010
01111
10000
10000
01111
00000
0001000010000000
0001000000100000
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000000000
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
Devices
Network
Input
Output
Fetch
Exec
CSE331 W01.47
Decode
How does it know which
location in memory to fetch
from next?
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Processor Organization


Control needs to have circuitry to

Decide which is the next instruction and input it from memory

Decode the instruction

Issue signals that control the way information flows between
datapath components

Control what operations the datapath’s functional units
perform
Datapath needs to have circuitry to

Execute instructions - functional units (e.g., adder) and
storage locations (e.g., register file)

Interconnect the functional units so that the instructions can
be executed as required

Load data from and store data to memory
What location does it load from and store to?
CSE331 W01.49
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Output Data Stored in Memory
At program completion the data to be output
resides in memory
Processor
Memory
Devices
Network
Control
Input
Datapath
CSE331 W01.50
00000100010100000000000000000000
00000000010011110000000000000100
00000011111000000000000000001000
Output
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Output Device Outputs Data
Devices
Processor
Network
Control
Datapath
Memory
Input
Output
00000100010100000000000000000000
00000000010011110000000000000100
00000011111000000000000000001000
CSE331 W01.51
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)
software
instruction set architecture
hardware
The interface description separating the
software and hardware
CSE331 W01.52
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
The MIPS ISA

Instruction Categories

Load/Store

Computational

Jump and Branch

Floating Point
Registers
R0 - R31
- coprocessor


Memory Management
PC
HI

Special
LO
3 Instruction Formats: all 32 bits wide
OP
rs
rt
OP
rs
rt
OP
CSE331 W01.53
rd
sa
funct
immediate
jump target
Q: How many already familiar with MIPS ISA?
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
How Do the Pieces Fit Together?
Applications
Operating
System CSE 411
CSE 421
Compiler
Firmware
Instruction Set
Architecture
Memory
system
Processor
I/O system network
CSE 458
CSE 331 & 431
Datapath & Control
Digital Design CSE 271 & 471
CSE 447 & 477Circuit Design

Coordination of many levels of abstraction

Under a rapidly changing set of forces

Design, measurement, and evaluation
CSE331 W01.55
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
Review and Reminder

Next week’s material

Introduction to MIPS assembler
- Reading assignment - PH 2.1 through 2.4

Homework 1 due on Tuesday, Sept. 4 by 5:00 PM
- Submit on ANGEL – individual programming this time !

Other reminders

Install PCSpim on your laptop

Keep track of course updates on ANGEL

Make sure your CSE account is operational; change your
password to something you can remember and that is secure
(must be at least 12 alphanumeric characters of 3 types)

Question/comments about the lab hardware/system go to
[email protected] ; questions about the programming
assignments go to the course TA
CSE331 W01.56
Irwin Fall 07 PSU
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CSE 331. Computer Organization