Professionalism
Chapter 2
38
Chapter Purpose
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Discuss the purposes and functions of professionalism in social
work
Discuss the significance of professionalism for effective social work
practice
Complete a preliminary assessment of proficiency in the social
work skills and identify those skills that require additional practice
Discuss the relevance of professional knowledge and self-efficacy,
critical thinking and lifelong learning, self-understanding, selfcontrol, cultural competence and acceptance of others, and social
support for ethical and effective social work practice
Prepare a family genogram
Prepare an eco-map
Prepare a critical events time line
Complete a personality assessment and discuss its implications
Complete an initial assessment of readiness for the social work
profession
Social Work
…As a Professional Career in Ontario
40
Social Work Labor Statistics -Ontario
Employment in 2004
22,100
Male
Female
Part-Time
Full-Time
Self-Employed
Employees
Usual Place of work
Work at Home
No fixed work address
19%
80%
86%
13%
3%
96%
92%
2%
4%
Main Industries of Employment -Ontario
Social Assistance
41%
Hospitals
10%
Nursing and Residential Care Facilities 10%
Ambulatory Health Care Services
9%
All Other Industries
27%
http://www.ontariojobfutures.ca/profile4152.html
What is professionalism?

Mirriam-Webster
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
exhibiting a courteous, conscientious, and
generally businesslike manner in the workplace
Social Work Dictionary

the degree to which an individual possess and
uses the knowledge, skills, and qualifications of
the profession and adheres to its values and
ethics when serving the client
Why care about professionalism?
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Network
 Grievances often center around professionalism
Employee
 Swore to a Code of Ethics; builds confidence
Employer
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Prevents social worker burnout and promotes
mutual respect
Client

Client is satisfied
What is professional integrity?
1. Morally good/right conduct

according to accepted professional guidelines/codes of
ethics
2. ‘Standing for something’

Practitioners are committed to sets of professional
ideals/principles, which may go beyond extant
professional norms.
3. A capacity/moral competence

This can be described as a process of ‘continuous
reflexive sense-making’, which may even involve reevaluating and giving up previously held ideals and
principles.
1. a. Professional conduct (codes of ethics)
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Integrity comprises honesty, truthfulness, and
sincerity, and is an essential value in the practice of
social work. (BASW 2002)
Social workers are continually aware of the
profession's mission, values, ethical principles, and
ethical standards and practice in a manner consistent
with them.
Social workers act honestly and responsibly and
promote ethical practices on the part of the
organizations with which they are affiliated. (NASW
1996)
1.b. Professional conduct (hearings )
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GSCC conduct committee suspended social
worker from register for advertising herself as an
escort.
This event ‘Brought the profession into disrepute
and damaged public confidence in social care
services’.
‘Social workers have a duty to act appropriately
and professionally both inside and outside work’
‘… essential that service users can trust them’
(GSCC June 2006)
Key elements of integrity in professional life
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A commitment to a set of values.
An awareness that the values are inter-related
and form a coherent whole.
A capacity to make sense of professional values
and their relationship to our own personally-held
values.
The ability to give a coherent account of beliefs
and actions.
Strength of purpose and ability to act on the
values.
Student Activity
The following scenario deals with professional
integrity as it relates to protection of client identity
Did the student intern act in the right way?
What might you have done?
49
Student-Intern: Professionalism
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Student E writes,
“My new neighbor started talking to me about his
ex-wife who just happens to be a client of mine at
the community health centre I am interning at.
I didn’t really know what to say and so I just
listened to him and didn’t let on that I knew her. I
also didn’t tell him my name, nor that I was a social
work student interning at the health centre.
I am wondering if my actions were professional and
justified.
I would like to think that I have my profession
backing me up and that I am protecting my client”
Professional Knowledge and SelfEfficacy
Social workers continually strive to
increase their professional knowledge and
skills and to apply them in practice.
Social workers should aspire to contribute
to the knowledge base of the profession.
51
Professional Knowledge
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Many different kinds of knowledge in social work
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Psycho-social knowledge:
 Explanatory knowledge, model, or theory for understanding
affective, cognitive, and behavioural observations of clients
and groups.
Interactive knowledge:
 Explanatory knowledge, model, or theory for understanding
transactions.
Contextual knowledge:
 Explanatory knowledge, model, or theory for understanding
structural and environmental factors.
Organizational knowledge:
 Explanatory knowledge, model, or theory for understanding
organizational behaviour and how to influence change.
Class Activity
Read the following case scenario
What kind of psycho-social knowledge
would allow you to better understand the
client and her situation?
53
Psycho-social Knowledge
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A social worker is employed in a shelter for
battered women. The client, a woman, aged
thirty-four years, has three children, ages six,
eight, and ten years, and is physically abused
repeatedly by her husband.
Although the police have been involved, no
charges have been laid.
The woman has sought refuge in the shelter
times in the past, but has always made a
decision to return to her husband. She has
never held a paying job and has a grade 10
education.
Psycho-social Knowledge
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Psycho-social knowledge may involve recognizing the
impact of the client’s cultural expectations about
traditional female behaviour in a marriage on her selfidentity, self-esteem, and her fears about permanently
leaving the relationship.
Knowledge of family dynamics is also relevant, such as
the emotional impact on the children and the reactivation
of the woman’s experience of violence in her family of
origin.
Formal support networks might include financial
maintenance, subsidized housing, vocational training and
education, and provisions for day care.
Social Work Students: Required Curriculum
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Values and ethics
Diversity
Populations-at-risk and social and economic Justice
Human behavior and the social environment
Social welfare policy and services
Social work practice
Research
Field practicum
Class Activity
Assess selected aspects of critical thinking
and learning as they apply to you
Rate the degree to which you agree or
disagree with the following statements
1=Strongly Agree
2=Agree
3=Disagree
4=Strongly Disagree
57
Evidence-Based Social Work Questionnaire
1. I rarely make judgments based solely upon intuition or emotion
2. I almost always think before I speak or act
3. I almost never express opinions as if they were facts
4. I always identify the assumptions underlying an argument
5. I carefully consider the source of information in determining validity
6. I rarely reach conclusions without considering the evidence
7. I regularly think in terms of probabilities
8. I rarely think in terms of absolutes
9. I always question the validity of arguments and conclusions
10. I rarely assume that something is valid or true
11. I regularly identify my own biases and preferences
12. I regularly think about issues of reliability
13. I routinely identify my own logical fallacies
14. I rarely say that something is true unless I have supporting evidence
15. I regularly use a thinking process routine to reach decisions
Evidence-Based Social Work Questionnaire
16. I regularly read professional journals in my field
17. I genuinely enjoy learning
18. I always do more than the minimum requirements in courses,
seminars or workshops
19. I regularly pursue opportunities to advance my knowledge and
expertise
20. I never become defensive when someone offers feedback that could
improve skill
21. I like to study
22. I know my personal learning style
23. I am actively involved in learning experiences
24. I take personal responsibility for my own learning
25. I view examinations as a way to learn
26. I know how to conduct a professional literature review
27. I sometimes contact national and international experts in my learning
efforts
28. I have a list of learning goals
29. I have specific plans to advance my learning
30. I enjoy teaching others
Professional Knowledge: Content Areas
1. Human development and behavior in the environment (14%)
2. Issues of diversity (7%)
3. Assessment in social work practice (20%)
4. Direct and indirect practice (21%)
5. Communication (10%)
6. Professional relationships (5%)
7. Professional values and ethics (13%)
8. Supervision in social work (2%)
9. Practice evaluation and the utilization of research (2%)
10.Service delivery (5%)
11.Social work administration (1%)
Critical Thinking…
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“The propensity and skill to use reflective
skepticism when engaged in some specific
activity” (McPeck, 1990)

Involves the careful examination and
evaluation of beliefs and actions” (Gibbs &
Gambrill, 1996)

UP TO HERE FOR THURS. SEPT 20TH/07
Good Critical Thinkers…
1. Distinguishing between verifiable facts and value
statements
2. Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant observations or
reasons
3. Determining the factual accuracy of a statement
4. Determining the credibility of a source
5. Identifying ambiguous statements
6. Identifying unstated assumptions
7. Detecting bias
8. Identifying logical fallacies
9. Recognizing logical inconsistencies in a line of
reasoning
10. Determining the overall strength of an argument or
conclusion
Stages of Critical Thinking Development
Unreflective
Master
Challenged
Critical
Thinking
Development
Stages
Advanced
Beginning
Practicing
(Paul & Elder, 2002; Elder & Paul, 1996)
Perry’s Model of Critical Thinking
Development
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Perry studied Harvard and Radcliffe students
in the 1950s and 1960s.
He studied the nature of late adolescent and
adult development and the role of higher
education in fostering intellectual and ethical
development in students.
Suggested that as students move from
adolescence into adulthood, they advance
from a simplistic, categorical view of
knowledge to a more complex, contextual
view of the world and themselves.
Dualism
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The world is viewed in absolute, right-andwrong terms. Individuals believe that right
answers exist to all questions and that
authorities have these answers. It is the
instructor’s job to provide these answers
and the students’ job to learn them.
Examples of Dualistic Thought
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Dualistic Thoughts of College Students:
 I’m lost in this class; the professor lacks a clue.
 Every lecture course, no matter how bad, has
taught me more than any seminar, no matter how
good. In a lecture, you get taught by an expert,
which means the information is credible.
 When I came here, I didn’t think any question
could have more than one answer.
These quotes illustrate that:

Students expect the instructor to provide the answer to
every question. In their minds, good teachers know the
answers; bad ones don’t.
Multiplicity

In some areas, knowledge is certain. In
most areas, nobody knows anything for
sure. In those areas where the authorities
have yet to find the answers, uncertainty is
viewed as temporary. In the meantime,
everyone’s opinions are just as valid as
everyone else’s.
Examples of Multiplistic Thought
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What it looks like:
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You know, it seems to me that there are two different kinds of
things we study—things where there are answers and things
where there aren’t any!
I like that there are many ways to solve or code a program.
Since the material tends to be subjective, it helps to see the
reasoning of another person sometimes.
If there are no right answers, I think my ideas are as good as
anyone’s and I do not see why I got a “C” on my midterm.
What this illustrates:

Students begin to realize that the instructor will not provide all
the answers to their questions. As they seek to discover the
solution on their own, they struggle with the realization that
there is generally more than one solution to a complex
problem. Since there are many ways to look at an issue, they
conclude that their view is as good as anybody else’s.
Relativism
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Students come to view knowledge as
contextual and relative in nature. Right and
wrong answers exist within a specific
context and are judged by how well one is
able to construct a well-reasoned point of
view.
Examples of Relativistic Thought
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What it looks like:
 I love our class discussions because they help me figure
out what I think about things.
 I always thought I knew what I thought about social
work, but after hearing others and thinking more, I
realize that there are so many ways of looking at the
same thing!
What this illustrates:
 Students realize that there is more than one solution to
a dilemma and that the solutions must be examined
based on evidence and sound thought processes.
Students also become aware of the strengths and
weaknesses in their lines of reasoning. They expect
instructors to help them see alternatives more clearly.
When exploring multiple theories or answers to a
problem, they begin thinking, “What principles
underlie each of them? Which is the most efficient?”
Commitment
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Students are able to test out and evaluate
various alternatives and commit to the most
well-reasoned theory, solution, or
interpretation. The commitment leads to the
development of a personalized set of
values, lifestyle, and identity.
Examples of Commitment Thought
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What it looks like:
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• As the president of the student social work committee I have
chosen to embrace and promote the value of diversity. I have
the opportunity and responsibility to maintain a climate that
affirms diversity of persons and diversity of views.
• For purposes of my thesis I have chosen to pursue the topic of
violence in inter-cultural relationships and the use of dialogue
as a means to promote peace. I believe that the creation of a
peaceful environment in which to function is vital to survival.
What this illustrates:

Students are capable of integrating personal experience with
the complex set of skills and knowledge they have mastered.
Students commit to a choice or viewpoint and become aware of
the consequences of that commitment. They also realize that
commitment is an ongoing, unfolding, evolving activity.
Argument

An attempt to establish the truth or validity
of an idea through a series of statements
and involves two parts
Logical Fallacies
 Arguments
that
are usually
psychologically
persuasive but
logically weak
(Pine, 1996)
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Types:
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Ad Hominem
Anecdotal Evidence
Appeal to Pity
Begging the Question
Biased Sample
Burden of Proof
False Dilemma
Personal Experience
Popular Belief
Red Herring
Same Cause
Slippery Slope
Straw Person
Wishful Thinking
Why study logical fallacies?

It is important to develop logical fallacy detection skills
in your own writing, as well as others’.
Think of this as “intellectual kung-fu: the art of intellectual
self defense.” (Logical Fallacies Handlist)
Ad Hominem
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Attempts to discredit an argument or position by
drawing attention to characteristics of the person
who is making the argument or who holds the
position.
Example: "People who are psychotic act in a
bizarre manner. This person acts in a bizarre
manner. Therefore: This person is psychotic."
Alternate example: "If this client is competent to
stand trial, she will certainly know the answers to at
least 80% of the questions on this standardized
test. She knows the answers to 87% of the test
questions. Therefore she is competent to stand
trial."
Begging the Question
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This fallacy, one of the fallacies of circularity, takes
the form of arguments or other statements that
simply assume or re-state their own truth rather
than providing relevant evidence and logical
arguments.
Examples:
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"Has your social work department stopped teaching that
ineffective approach to therapy yet?" (The question
assumes--and a "yes" or "no" response to the question
affirms--that the approach is ineffective.)
"It must be acknowledged that [whatever psychological
test battery I use] is the only legitimate test battery."
Red Herring

Drawing attention away from the issue at hand by
focusing on an irrelevant issue as a substitute for
making a case.
Example: You can’t trust Jim to do a good job as
student body president; he doesn’t dress with an
up-to-date sense of style.
Example: I don’t support the President’s foreign
policy; look at the disastrous way he has taken
care of our domestic economy.
Straw Person
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
The straw person, or straw man, or straw
woman fallacy takes the form
mischaracterizing someone else's position
in a way that makes it weaker, false, or
ridiculous.
Example: "Those who believe in behavior
modification obviously want to try to control
everyone by subjecting them to rewards and
punishments."
Slippery Slope

To greatly exaggerate the supposedly inevitable
future consequences of an action by suggesting
one small step will initiate a process that will
necessarily lead the way to a much bigger result.

Example: If you restrict my right to say whatever I
want anywhere I want however I want this is the
beginning of totalitarianism in America.
Example: If we let one homosexual couple live on
our street before you know it our neighborhood
will start to become like Greenwich Village in New
York or the Castro District in San Francisco.
Self-Understanding and Self-Control
At a minimum, social workers must
understand how their personal
beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies
might influence or interfere with their
professional social work activities
82
Rescuing Pattern
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May be evident when a social worker tends to view
clients as victims in need of rescue or salvation
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i.e. …there was a tendency for the caseworker to 'rescue'
victims from abusive situations rather than assist them to
disclose their concerns in their own way and to make their
own choices.
Stay away from "going overboard" in your role. You
must not go beyond what is professionally appropriate
while trying to help clients.
Rescuing may give a temporary relief from your own
feelings of helplessness and anger, but it does not lead
to positive outcomes for the clients.
Clients will best be served by facilitating the
development of empowerment.
This may mean that you allow clients to flounder at
times.
The Family: Context for Development of Self
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Genogram
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Contain basic data found in family trees such as the
name, gender, date of birth, and date of death of each
individual.
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A graphic representation of one’s family tree or pedigree,
providing a picture of the parties involved and a chronology of
significant events or themes
Additional data may include education, occupation, major life
events, chronic illnesses, social behaviors, nature of family
relationships, emotional relationships, and social relationships.
Some genograms also include information on disorders
running in the family such as alcoholism, depression,
diseases, alliances, and living situations.
Genograms can vary significantly because there is no
limitation as to what type of data can be included.

Family relationships may be
used to describe the
emotional bond between
people involved in a union,
but the emotional
relationship component is
used to describe the
emotional bond between any
two individuals in the
genogram (family tree).
Interpretation
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Daniel was born in 1974 and Hélène died in 1981. Raphaël was
born in 1978 and died in 2003 at the age of 25.
André has been married twice. His first marriage to Hélène ended
in 1981 due to her untimely death. His first marriage date is not
specified in this genogram. In 1983, he married his second wife,
Lisa.
André is currently separated from Lisa, and living alone.
Lisa was married to someone before marrying André. She gave
birth to triplets with one male stillbirth. Lisa and her first husband
became foster parents to a child. The couple eventually got
divorced.
Mike is André and Lisa's son. Mike has many half-siblings: Daniel,
Anne, Benoit, Estelle, Jean-Claude and Lisa's two surviving
children.
On the other end, Max and Nicole had identical twins in 1973.
Later, Nicole had a miscarriage and a stillbirth. The couple adopted
Daniel.
Interpretation: Emotional Relationships
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André was physically abused by his father. This violent
behavior was passed on, and André later emotionally
abused his own son Daniel. Daniel had a fused relationship
with his mother. He now has a close relationship
(friendship) with Jean and his younger brother JeanClaude.
Hélène was very close (intimacy) to her mother in-law.
Lisa and her first husband are estranged (cutoff). Lisa
neglected her son Mike, and now Mike is violent towards
his girlfriend.
Anne is focused (obsessed) on her younger brother Benoit.
Jean-Claude is indifferent (apathetic) to his half-brother
Mike.
This genogram clearly illustrates that this family has many
issues to deal with!
Ecological Assessment

Eco-map
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The graphic nature highlights social strengths and social
deficiencies and helps identify areas of conflict and
compatibility
Paper-and-pencil assessment tool used to assess specific
troubles and plan intervention for clients.
Drawing of the client or client family in its social environment.
Helps both the social worker and the client achieve a
holistic or ecological view of the client’s family life and
the nature of the family’s relationships with groups,
associations, organizations, and other families and
individuals.
Social Environment
Commonly Used Symbols in an Ecomap
Female
Male
Person, sex & age unknown
Commonly Used Symbols in an Ecomap
A stressful, conflictladen relationship
++++++++
A tenuous, uncertain
relationship
---------
A positive relationship
or resource
_________
The direction of the
giving & receiving

exchange or a relationship or resource
Timelines

Types of timelines
A. a. Critical Events Timeline
 Outlines significant or meaningful experiences in a
person’s life
B. b. Issue (or Problem) Timeline
 Trace the origin and development of a particular
issue or problem
C. c. Relationship Timeline
 A graphic temporal representation of key moments
in a personal family, or professional relationship
D. d. Successes Timeline
 Records dates of accomplishments,
achievements, and other successful experiences
Lynn Chase: Critical Events Timeline
35 years ago
Lynn Shaugnessy is born
Age 5-12
Unhappy childhood
Father often away
Lynne is a good student
Age 12
Boy calls Lynn “fat”; very upsetting
Age 13
Maternal uncle makes sexual approach
Age 15
Feels intense shame during confession to priest
Age 18
First dates; first sexual experiences as high school senior
Age 19
Drinks heavily; parties often; has multiple sex partners
Meets Richard
Age 20
Marries Richard; stops heavy drinking
Age 22
Robert is born
Age 26
Cyst is discovered and removed; Lynn unable to have more
children
Age 34
In July, Lynn goes to work at Fox manufacturing and begins
to experience headaches, weight loss, irritability, starts
smoking
Age 35
In January, Lynn makes her first visit to the agency
Personality
“Characteristic pattern of thinking,
feeling and acting.”
Theoretical Approaches
a. Type – focus on distinct and categorized types
b. Trait –focus on specific dimensions of individual personality
c. Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic –focus on unconscious motivations
d. Behavioral –focus on individuals overt behavior
e. Social learning/social cognitive -focus on influence of environment
f. Humanistic - focus on inner capacity for growth
Class Activity
I see myself as someone who…
1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neither disagree nor agree
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree
99
1. ...Is talkative
2. ...Tends to find fault with others
3. ...Does a thorough job
4. ...Is depressed, blue
5. ...Is original, comes up with new ideas
6. ...Is reserved
7. ...Is helpful and unselfish with others
8. ...Can be somewhat careless
9. ...Is relaxed, handles stress well
10. ...Is curious about many different things
11. ...Is full of energy
12. ...Starts quarrels with others
13. ...Is a reliable worker
14. ...Can be tense
15. ...Is ingenious, a deep thinker
16. ...Generates a lot of enthusiasm
17. ...Has a forgiving nature
18. ...Tends to be disorganized
19. ...Worries a lot
20. ...Has an active imagination
21. ...Tends to be quiet
22. ...Is generally trusting
23. ...Tends to be lazy
24. ...Is emotionally stable, not easily upset
25. ...Is inventive
26. ...Has an assertive personality
27. ...Can be cold and aloof
28. ...Perseveres until the task is finished
29. ...Can be moody
30. ...Values artistic, aesthetic experiences
31. ...Is sometimes shy, inhibited
32. ...Is considerate and kind to almost everyone
33. ...Does things efficiently
34. ...Remains calm in tense situations
35. ...Prefers work that is routine
36. ...Is outgoing, sociable
37. ...Is sometimes rude to others
39. ...Gets nervous easily
40. ...Likes to reflect, play with ideas
41. ...Has few artistic interests
42. ...Likes to cooperate with others
43. ...Is easily distracted
44. ...Is sophisticated in art, music, or literature
45. ...Has high self-esteem
46. ...Is very religious
47. ...Is politically liberal
48. ...Is often on bad terms with others
The “Big 5”

Modern personality research argues for 5 basic
personality traits (OCEAN)
Openness: whether a person is open to new
experiences
 Conscientiousness: whether a person is disciplined
and responsible
 Extroversion: whether a person is sociable, outgoing
and affectionate
 Agreeableness: whether a person is cooperative,
trusting, and helpful
 Neuroticism: whether a person is unstable and prone
to insecurity

Overview of the Big “5”
Cultural
Competence
Cultural Competence and Acceptance of Others

Culture

“A learned worldview or paradigm shared by a
population or group and transmitted socially
that influences values, beliefs, customs, and
behaviors, and is reflected in the language,
dress, food, materials, and social institutions of
a group” (Burchum, 2002)
Cultural Competence

The process by which individuals and
systems respond respectfully and effectively
to people of all cultures, languages, classes,
races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, and
other diversity factors in a manner that
recognizes, affirms, and values the worth of
individuals, families, and communities and
protects and preserves the dignity of each
(NASW, 2001)
“Cultural Jeopardy”
How to play:

A definition will be presented and you must
determine the appropriate word from the list.
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
A belief that racial
differences produce
an inherent
superiority of a
particular race.
Race
Discrimination
Culture
Racism
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
The ability to be
open to learning
about and
accepting of
different cultural
groups.
Race
Discrimination
Culture
Cultural Sensitivity
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
A generalization of
characteristics that
is applied to all
members of a
cultural group.
Race
Discrimination
Culture
Stereotype
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
“The prejudgment and
negative treatment of
people based on
identifiable
characteristics such as
race, gender, religion, or
ethnicity” (Barker, 1995)
Internalized Oppression
Discrimination
Culture
Discrimination
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
The recognition and
acknowledgement that
society is pluralistic. In
addition to the dominant
cultural, there exists many
other cultures based around
ethnicity, sexual orientation,
geography, religion, gender,
and class.
Internalized Oppression
Discrimination
Heterosexism
Culture
Multiculturalism
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
Internalized Oppression
“An opinion about an
individual, group, or
phenomenon that is
developed without
proof or systematic
evidence” (Barker,
1995)
Discrimination
Heterosexism
Culture
Prejudice
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
The belief in the
inherent superiority
of one sex (gender)
over the other and
thereby the right to
dominance.
Race
Internalized Oppression
Discrimination
Heterosexism
Culture
Sexism
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
A body of learned
beliefs, traditions,
principles, and guides
for behavior that are
shared among
members of a
particular group.
Discrimination
Culture
Culture
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
“Tendency to consider one’s
own group, usually national
or ethnic, superior to other
groups using one’s own
group or groups as the
frame of reference against
which other groups are
judged” (Wolman, 1973)
Race
Discrimination
Culture
Ethnocentrism
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Racism
As a biological concept, it
defines groups of people
based on a set of
genetically transmitted
characteristics.
Race
Discrimination
Culture
race
Prejudice
Ethnocentrism
Stereotype
Sexism
Multiculturalism
Cultural Sensitivity
Ethnicity
Sharing a strong
sense of identity
with a particular
religious, racial, or
national group.
Racism
Race
Discrimination
Culture
Ethnicity
Social Support

Recognizing the importance of the social
world for your clients’ well being, as well as
for your own
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