1.Which
country has
the largest
percentage of
people of
European
heritage in its
people?
2. What
factors helped
influence the
ethnic variety
in Latin
America?
11/18
Define and illustrate :
Indigenous, dialect, patois,
urbanization, megacity
Cultural
Geography of
Latin America
Population Patterns
Latin America makes up 9% of the
world’s population
very ethnically diverse
Native Americans
Europeans
Africans
Asian
Mixed races
Blending of Peoples
Native Americans—first to settle Latin
America
Early culture hearths
traditional cultures still preserved and
many Native Americans still live in
Mexico, Central America, Ecuador, Peru
& Bolivia
Europeans
Africans
Asians
Language
dialects—forms of a language unique to
a particular place or group
many countries have different dialects of
the same language
millions still speak Native American
languages
many Latin Americans are bilingual
others speak one of many forms of
patois—dialects that blend elements of
indigenous, European, African & Asian
languages
11/19
What effect do Latin American migration
patterns have on the United States and on
Latin American cities?
Since living conditions in many overcrowded
cities of Latin America are poor, why do
you think most people stay there rather than
returning to the country?
Where Latin Americans Live
High rate of population growth presents a
unique challenge to Latin America
because most of the population live on
only 1/3 of the region’s land because of
varied climates and landscapes
Most people live along the coasts &
inland plateaus
South America’s populated rim
Coastal regions have better climate,
fertile land & access to transportation
Few live in inland areas, the Patagonia, &
the eastern coast near the Amazon
Migration—major force shaping
population patterns in Latin America
Latin Americans emigrated to the United
States for better economic opportunities
Many Asians are emigrated to Latin
America
Internal migration into cities is causing
rapid urbanization
Favela (la Rocinha)
Mexico City:
Megacity:
Primate City:
40% of population below
poverty line
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
History and Government
3 Native American Empires shaped the early
history of Latin America
Inca
lived in the Andes mountain ranges of South
America
stretched from Ecuador to central Chile;
capital—Cuzco, in Peru
central government with an emperor
used precise cut stones to build temples &
fortresses; ex: Machu Pichu
cut terraces for farming; built irrigation
systems
domesticated alpacas & llamas
used a quipu—system of financial
record keeping that used a series of
knotted cords of various colors &
lengths to represent trade transactions
Maya
Pyramid-shaped temples
Glyphs
Accurate calendars
Abandon cities
Aztec
Chinampas
Xocoatl (chocolate):
food of the gods
Highly structured class
system
Empires to Nations
European colonies began shortly after
Columbus’ voyages
Colonies were sources of wealth for
home countries
mining of silver & gold
coffee, bananas & sugar cane
plantations
farms & cattle ranches
Cities and towns were built as trade
centers to send goods back to Europe
Native Americans were forced to work
on plantations & ranches until disease &
hardship dwindled their numbers
African slaves were then brought over
Move Toward Independence
Began in the late 1700s because
resentment against European rule was
building
Wealthy European colonists wanted
self-rule
Revolutions in the US and France
inspired them
Haiti—first to gain independence from
France
Mexico—first Spanish ruled colony to
gain independence
Venezuela—Simon Bolivar led
independence movement
Argentina—Jose de San Martin
Brazil—only one to gain independence
peacefully
Caribbean Islands—last to achieve
independence (except Haiti)
many still under foreign control
Ex: Martinique--France; Cayman
Islands—Great Britain; Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands—US
Dictatorships
Political & economic instability spread
after wars for independence
Power remained in the hands of a few—
like in early Native American civilizations
and European nations
wealthy landowners, army officers, clergy
Written constitutions were ignored, revolts
started
Military control was necessary
Gave rise to caudillos or dictators; corrupt
politics
Movement for Change
As influence of the United States increased in
Latin America, political, social & economic
change occurred
ex: Panama—after independence in 1903,
signed a treaty with the US creating the
Panama Canal Zone
new industries formed, railroads were built,
and trade expanded
wealth increased in Latin America and created
middle & working classes in cities
gap between the rich & poor continued to grow
though and created more unrest
Revolution in Cuba—Fidel Castro
overthrew the government and
established a Communist state that
remains intact today
Rest of Latin America—military
dictatorships gave way to democratically
elected governments
still political instability in some countries
still trying to end corrupt politics
throughout Latin America
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