Preparing for the School Crisis Response
A workshop presented by
Stephen E. Brock
Lee Huff
Doug Siembieda
CASP Crisis Intervention Specialty Group
Workshop Outline
• Introduction
• Personal Development
– Self Education Strategies
– Care for the Caregiver
• Team Development
–
–
–
–
–
Institutionalizing the crisis response
Levels of Response
Mutual Aid
Specific Roles & Responsibilities
Planning Checklist
• Responding to Crisis
– Procedural Checklist
Introduction:
Crisis Event Prerequisites
• For an event to be a crisis it must be
perceived as…
– Extremely negative
• Involves actual and/or threatened death and/or
physical injury.
– Uncontrollable/Unpredictable
• Cannot be stopped, mitigated, or predicted.
– Depersonalizing
• Is not sensitive to status, wealth, power, or position.
– Sudden and unexpected
• Occurs without warning.
Introduction:
Crisis Event Classifications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acts of war (e.g., terrorism)
Violent deaths (e.g., fatal illness, homicide,
suicide)
Criminal acts (e.g., robbery, child abuse,
kidnapping)
Unexpected natural deaths (e.g., heart
attack, cancer)
Industrial accidents/disasters (e.g., chemical
spills)
Natural disasters (e.g., earthquake, tornado)
Severe illnesses (e.g., cancer)
Accidental injuries (e.g., car accident, burns)
Introduction:
Variables That Affect Traumatic Potential
•
Type of disaster
•
•
Natural disasters are typically less traumatic than are
man-made disasters or human caused crises.
Source of physical threat/injury
•
•
Physical threat or injuries due to accidents/illness are
less traumatic than are threats and/or injury due to
assaultive violence.
Presence of fatalities
•
•
Crises resulting in non-fatal trauma to significant
others are less traumatic than are events that result in
sudden and unexpected death.
In addition, events that involve sudden and
unexpected death will be complicated by grief
reactions.
Introduction:
Phases of a Crisis Event
1. Baseline
– Normal school
functioning
2. Pre-impact
– The period before
an anticipated crisis
3. Impact
– When the crisis
occurs
4. Recoil
– Immediately after the crisis
5. Post-impact
– Days to weeks after the crisis
6. Recovery/Reconstruction
– Months or years after the
crisis
Introduction:
Phases of a Crisis Event
Baseline
Recovery
Crisis
Post-impact
Pre-impact
Impact
Recoil
Introduction:
School Crisis Team Activities
• Crisis Prevention
– Reduce the incidence of crisis events.
• Crisis Preparedness
– Ensure response readiness for crises that are not, or
cannot be, prevented.
• Crisis Response
– After a crisis event minimize crisis damage and restore
equilibrium.
• Crisis Recovery
– Repair crisis damage and return to baseline (or precrisis) operation/functioning.
Introduction:
SCT activities during the different phases of a crisis.
P ha se
Ac ti vit y
P re ven ti on
P re par e dnes s
R e spons e
R e cove ry
B a se li ne
P rei mp a ct
Im pac t
R e co il
P os tim pac t
R e cove ry
Introduction:
Key Terms and Definitions
• Situational Crisis Event
An extremely negative, sudden, and unexpected event
that generates apparently unsolveable problems for
crisis victims.
• Crisis State
The acute distress generated by having a problem that
is (at least initially) judged by the person-in-crisis as
not having a solution.
• Psychological Triage
Sorting and classification of individuals according to
the degree to which they are judged to have been
traumatized by a crisis event.
Introduction:
Key Terms and Definitions
• Crisis Intervention
The immediate helping response offered by a caregiver to the
person-in-crisis.
• Crisis Response
The immediate helping response offered by a crisis response
team to a school following a crisis event.
• Levels of Crisis Response
– School-site level.
– School-district level.
– Community mutual aid level.
• Mutual Aid
“Agreements between traditionally unassociated agencies that
allow for the sharing of resources during emergency situations.”
Crisis Preparedness:
Personal Development
• Self Education
– Obtain background knowledge
• Care for the Caregiver
– Warning signs
– Caring for others
– Caring for oneself
Obtaining Background
Knowledge
• School Crisis Response Books &
Readings
• Internet Resources
• Training Programs
• Crisis Response Evaluations
School Crisis Resource CD
•
This compilation of resources should be
valuable in school crisis prevention,
preparedness, response, and intervention
activities.
•
Includes the foundation papers that provide the
empirical basis for much of the workshop.
•
Also includes a variety of materials that are
available from NASP, FEMA, CA OES, NIMH,
U.S. Department of Education, and other
valuable resources.
Best Practices in School Crisis
Prevention and Intervention
Edited by
Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP
Philip J. Lazarus, Ph.D., NCSP
Shane R. Jimerson, Ph.D., NCSP
To order on line go to
www.nasponline.org/bestsellers
To order via phone call
(301) 657-0270, ext. 225
Preparing for Crises in the Schools:
A Manual for Building School Crisis Response Teams
(2nd Edition)
Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP ;Jonathan Sandoval, Ph.D.; &
Sharon Lewis, Ph.D., NCSP
Table of Contents
Crisis Theory
Getting Started
Developing and Implementing a Crisis
Response Policy
Components of a Crisis Preparedness
Plan
Components of a Crisis Response
Psychological Triage and Referral
Crisis Intervention
Media Relations
Security and Safety Procedures
Working with Potentially Violent Students
Emergency Medical and Health
Procedures
Evaluating and Debriefing the Crisis Response
References
Appendices
Index
Online Ordering: http://www.wiley.com/cda/product/0,,0471384232,00.html
Training Resources
• NOVA
– 202-232-6682
– http://www.try-nova.org/
• Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training
– LivingWorks Education, Inc.
– 1-403-309-0242
– [email protected]
• Nonviolent Crisis Intervention
– National Crisis Prevention Institute
– 1-800-588-8976
– http://www.crisisprevention.com
The Importance of Local Experts
Beth Doll, reflecting on the response to the Columbine High School
Tragedy, in Littleton Colorado, stated:
While our thanks go out to the national leaders and experts
who came to Littleton to help, it was the local ‘insiders’ who
led the community’s response who were most valued by the
Columbine students, staff, and their families. Many of these
leaders had participated in national training on crisis
intervention in the recent past. They were insider experts,
familiar and trusted faces, who knew the history of the school
and the community, were part of a shared culture and shared
the loss. We especially appreciated the fact that these local
leaders were here, in the community, and prepared to
intervene. (pp. 66,97)
Doll, B. (1999). Reflections from Littleton. The School Psychologist, 53, 66, 97.
Anticipated or Experienced
Reactions to Crisis Intervention
Discuss the kind of reactions to crisis
intervention that you have had, or
anticipate that you might have following
such work.
Warning Signs of an Overextended
Crisis Intervenor
 Excessive worry about crisis victims.
 Intense irritability.
 Obsessive thinking.
 Constant replays of the incident.
 Unfounded anger.
 Loss of interest in own work.
 Chronic feelings of fatigue.
 Doing to much for crisis victims.
 Maintaining an unnecessary degree of follow-up.
Adapted from Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (pp. 257-258), by J. T. Mitchell and G. S. Everly (1996), Ellicott City, MD:
Chevron.
Warning Signs of an Overextended
Crisis Intervenor







Attempts to work independently.
Frequent and unexplained loss of emotional control.
Sleeplessness, agitation, and restlessness.
Excessive withdrawal.
Excessive volunteering for crisis intervention.
Feeling upset/jealous when others do an intervention.
Believe that no one else could provide an intervention.
Adapted from Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (pp. 257-258), by J. T. Mitchell and G. S. Everly (1996), Ellicott City, MD:
Chevron.
Care for the Caregiver

Exercise.

Rest.

Avoid drugs and alcohol.

Maintain a normal schedule.

Spend time with other intervenors.

Help your fellow crisis intervenors.

Do things that feel good.

Realize those around you are stressed.

Eat well-balanced and regular meals.
Adapted from Critical Incident Stress Management: The Basic Course Workbook (p. 77), by J. T. Mitchell and G. S. Everly
(1996), Ellicott City, MD: International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.
Care for the Caregiver
Discuss the elements of your personal
self care plan.
Team Development
• Institutionalizing Crisis Response
– Governing Board Policy
• Levels of Response
–
–
–
–
No Response
School Level Response
District Level Response
Mutual Aid Response
• Specific Roles & Responsibilities of the Crisis
Response Team According to the Standardized
Emergency Management System
• Planning Checklist
Crisis Response Policy
The governing board recognizes the need to provide support to students
and staff in the event of a crisis. A crisis is defined as a sudden,
unexpected, and accidental event. These events will have an emergency
quality to them and will have the potential to impact the entire school
community. Examples of such "situational crises" include physical illness
and injury, unexpected/untimely deaths, being the victim of a crime, natural
and man-made disasters, and war and related acts.
These events may cause entry into a "crisis state." This is a temporary
state of distress, characterized chiefly by the inability to cope with the
situation using customary methods of problem solving, and by the potential
for a radically positive or negative outcome. This crisis state is more than
simple stress and not necessarily a sign of mental illness. The crisis state
is a normal reaction to abnormal circumstances.
It is the intent of the governing board that the administration shall develop
procedures to identify and assist students and staff who enter into a "crisis
state" as the result of a "situational crisis."
It is the policy of the governing board that the district have a plan in place
for the provision of immediate crisis response and crisis intervention, as
well as for follow-up support.
Crisis Response Rules
Crisis Preparedness
1. At least annually, school administration will review Administrative
Guidelines for Crisis Intervention with site staff.
2. A current copy of the Planning Check List (from Administrative Guidelines
for Crisis Intervention) must be on file in the superintendent's office by
October 1 of each school year.
3. Annually, district administration will select a sample of school sites that
will have their crisis preparedness evaluated through a readiness check or
drill. Supervision and evaluation of this drill will be facilitated by districtlevel administration.
Crisis Response
4. Once a crisis situation has stabilized, school administration must make
efforts to determine facts surrounding the crisis. Assess degree of impact
on the school and begin to determine the level of response required.
5. The superintendent's office must be notified immediately following a crisis
that occurs at school. District Crisis Response Team assistance (if
needed) is requested through the district office.
6. Implement procedures for crisis intervention as specified in Administrative
Guidelines for Crisis Intervention.
Comprehensive Safety Plan Policy
• The Governing Board recognizes that students and staff have the right to a
safe and secure campus where they are free from physical and
psychological harm. The Board is fully committed to maximizing school
safety and to creating a positive learning environment that teaches
strategies for violence prevention and emphasizes high expectations for
student conduct, responsible behavior and respect for others.
• The Superintendent or designee shall oversee the development of a
comprehensive districtwide safety plan that identifies major safety
concerns as well as the district’s goals and priorities for safe schools. The
plan shall include violence prevention strategies and actions to be taken in
the event of a crisis or emergency.
• The Governing Board also recognizes the need to provide support to
students in the event of a crisis. A crisis is defined as a traumatic event
that affects the health, safety, or social-emotional well being of students. It
is further the intent of the Governing Board that the Administration shall
develop and maintain procedures to assist students, staff, and families in
these instances. It is the policy of the Governing Board that the district
have a plan in place for the provision of group crisis intervention and crisis
management, as well as for follow-up support, and to provide training for
administration and staff, as appropriate.
Comprehensive Safety Plan Policy
• Each principal or designee shall ensure the development of a site-level
plan, in accordance with law, tailored to the specific concerns of each
school. The plan shall take into account the school’s staff, available
resources and building design, as well as other factors.
• The school safety plan shall be reviewed and updated annually by March
1 of each year.
• The superintendent or designee shall approve the comprehensive district
wide and/or school safety plan(s) in order to ensure compliance with state
law, board policies and administrative regulations.
• Legal Reference:
– Education Code
– 231.5
35291.5
– 32260-32262 3594-3594.9
– 35147
35294.0-35294.15
– 35183
48900-48926
– 35291
48950
Huntington Beach Union High School District, BP 0450
Summary of Crisis Response Options
• No Response
The event is not traumatic or crisis reactions can be managed
by traditional school resources.
• Site-Level Response
The event is traumatic, however, student crisis reactions can
be managed by school site-level crisis intervention services.
• District-Level Response The event is traumatic and the
severity of crisis reactions may overwhelm school site-level
crisis intervention services.
• Mutual-Aid Response
The event is traumatic and the severity of crisis reactions not
only overwhelms school site-level crisis intervention services,
but also district-level resources.
SCT membership and the Standardized
Emergency Management System (SEMS)
• SCT membership can be defined by making use of the
SEMS and the organizational structure of the Incident
Command System (ICS).
• SEMS is traditionally used to centralize, organize, and
coordinate the emergency response to a critical incident, but
can also be used to structure other SCT activities (i.e.,
prevention, preparedness, and recovery).
• This is the same system used by most emergency
responders (e.g., fire departments, law enforcement,
emergency medical technicians, disaster responders).
• Thus, use of SEMS helps to ensure that the SCT and other
emergency responders are speaking the same language.
SEMS and the ICS
•
According to Lockyer & Eastin
(2000):
–
“The ICS provides overall direction and
set priorities for an emergency. In
operation, the ICS has five functions:
management, planning/intelligence,
operations, logistics, and
finance/administration” (p. 12).
–
“Under each of these functions, schools
should pre-assign specific individuals,
based on their job roles and
responsibilities, to assist in the
management of school site operations”
(p. 12).
http://www.cde.ca.gov/spbranch/safety/crisismgnt/crisisresponse.pdf
SCT Membership:
Five Elements of the ICS
1. Emergency Operations Center Director/Incident
Commander (the managers)
–
The EOCD/IC may designate “Officers” to assist in the
management of the crisis response.
•
•
•
•
Public Information Officer: Responsible for keeping the public
informed about crisis activities.
Safety Officer: Responsible for establishing safety and secure
environment
Liaison Officer: Responsible for coordinating with crisis
response agencies from outside of the school district.
The nature of the critical incident determines who will be
the Incident Commander. Until this individual arrives at
school a school administrator (typically the principal) is
in charge.
SCT Membership:
Five Elements of the ICS
2. Plans/Intelligence Section (the thinkers)
–
–
–
–
•
Gathers and assesses information.
Document needs and status.
Writes SCT evaluations.
Requires a flexible and reliable communication
system.
Individuals filling this role “must be able to use
communication equipment, gather information in a
timely manner and weigh it for significance” (Lockyer &
Eastin, 2000, p. 12).
SCT Membership:
Five Elements of the ICS
3. Operations Section (the doers)
–
Security and Safety Coordinator
•
•
•
•
•
–
Student Care Coordinator
•
•
–
Crisis Intervention (CI) Specialist
Shelter, Food, Water and Supplies (SFW&S) Specialist
Emergency Medical Coordinator
•
•
–
Search, Rescue, and Accounting (SRA) Specialist
Student Assembly and Release (SAR) Specialist
Facility and Grounds (F&G) Specialist
Crowd Management (CM) Specialist
Traffic Safety (TS) Specialist
First Aid Specialist
Morgue Specialist
Translation Coordinator
SCT Membership:
Five Elements of the ICS
4. Logistics Section (the getters)
–
Obtain resources to support the all ICS functions.
•
•
•
•
•
Supplies and Equipment Coordinator
Facilities Coordinator
Staff & Community Volunteer Assign. (SCVA) Coord.
Communications Coordinator
All school staff can assist in this function.
SCT Membership:
Five Elements of the ICS
5. Administration & Finance Section (the payers)
–
–
–
•
Developing a budget
Authorizing purchases.
Track costs (including personnel costs) associated
with the SCT.
“Individuals responsible for purchasing, paying bills and
balancing books are best suited to this function, which
involves planning, purchasing emergency supplies and
tracking costs following an emergency” (Lockyer &
Eastin, 2000, p. 13).
SEMS and the SCT
E m e rgen c y Ope ra ti on s C e nt e r D ire c tor /
S choo l Inc iden t Co mm ande r
C ri sis M anage m en t Te am
P u b lic In fo rm at io n O ffic er
S a fet y O ffic e r
Li a iso n O ffi ce r
(Th in k er s )
In te ll ig e nce
S ec ti on
(Doer s)
Ope ra ti ons
S ec ti on
S ecu rit y and
S af et y
St uden t C ar e
(Ge tt er s )
L ogi sti cs
S ec ti on
F ac iliti es
S upp li es and
E quip me nt
E m e rgen c y M ed ica l
St a ff & Co mm un it y
Vo lun tee r A ss ign m en t
T ran sl a ti on
Co mm un ica ti on s
(Pay e rs )
Fi nance
S ec ti on
The Five SEMS Incident Command
Structure Roles and the SCT
• The specific responsibilities of SCT
members during the different phases of a
crisis.
• We will now review those responsibilities
specific to crisis preparedness.
1. Crisis Management: Preparedness
• Delegation, supervision, and evaluation of all crisis
preparedness activities.
• Assign SCT membership and maintain 24/7 contact
information.
• Public Information Officer
– Foster media relationships, develop media policy, prepare press
release templates, plan for an emergency media center.
• Safety Officer
– Develop disaster safety resources (e.g., structural engineers, law
enforcement).
• Liaison Officer
– Foster relationships with emergency response personnel, and
identify and maintain emergence response listings (e.g., Red Cross,
FEMA).
2. Intelligence: Preparedness
• Acquire and maintain information gathering and
reporting materials.
–
–
–
–
–
Weather radios (battery operated)
Cell phones
Computers (with Internet access)
Two-way radios
Maps and floor plans
3. Operations: Preparedness
• Security and Safety
– Establish search, rescue, and student accounting procedures.
– Establish student assembly and release (to parents) procedures.
– Establish crowd and traffic management procedures.
• Student Care
– Develop the capacity to provide crisis intervention services.
– Develop the capacity to meet student basic needs (e.g., shelter,
water, food).
• Medical
– Develop the capacity to meet emergency medical needs.
• Translation
– Maintain a listing of translators who speak all languages
represented in the school community.
3. Operations Section Specialists
•
Search, Rescue, and Accounting Specialist:
–
•
Looks for, rescues, and accounts for students and staff.
Student Assembly and Release Specialist :
–
•
Oversees location where students assemble and supervises
parent/child reunification.
Facility and Grounds Specialist:
–
•
Along with the Safety Officer, ensures that school facilities and
grounds are safe.
Crowd Management Specialist:
–
•
Implements procedures designed to manage large crowds (e.g.,
parents looking for children).
Traffic Safety Specialist:
–
Manages all traffic including emergency response vehicles.
3. Operations Section Specialists
•
Crisis Intervention Specialist:
–
•
Addresses mental health needs.
Shelter, Food, Water, and Supplies Specialist:
–
•
Maintains and distributes basic needs facilities and supplies.
First Aid Specialist:
–
•
Maintains and distributes first aid supplies, oversees first aid
prior to emergency response personnel arrival, and works with
paramedics.
Morgue Specialist
–
Maintains facilities and supplies to be used to house the
deceased until they can be removed.
4. Logistics: Preparedness
• Supplies and Equipment
– Obtain and store all crisis response supplies and
equipment.
• Facilities
– Identify and designate crisis response facilities.
• Assignments
– Identify individuals to fill various crisis response roles.
• Communications
– Ensure reliable/redundant communications systems
(within, to, and from school and to and from all staff)
are available.
5. Finance: Preparedness
• Budget for and authorize all crisis preparedness
related expenditures
Primary Elements of a
Preparedness Protocol
• Identify specific individuals to fill specific
crisis response roles
• Complete the crisis response box.
District Level Planning Checklist
D ist rict C ris is Res po n se T eam Pl a n n in g C h e ck L ist
1.
D e si g na te an Emer g ency Ope
ra tio ns Ce nt er ( EOC ).
T he in ci d en t c omm an d p ost fro m wh ic h a ll d istri c t-lev el cr isis re sp on se ac tiv iti e s a re co ordi n ated .
L oc at ion :
1 a.
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
A lte rn ate loc a tion to b e u se d if the E O C i s n ot av ailab le .
iv. D e si g na te a D is tr ic t F ina n ce Sec ti o n C h ie f.
2.
D e si g na te an Emer g ency Ope
ra tio ns Ce nt er D irec to r.
R espo ns ibl e fo r au tho ri z in g inc ide nt re lat e d pu rc h ases , re co rd ke ep in g a nd ac co un tin g, an d c ri sis re spo nd er
h ou rs tim e k ee ping .
T he D ire ct o r wo ul d b e i n c ha rg e o f a ll d istri c t c ri sis re spo nse a ctiv itie s.
N AME :
1 a.
3.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t C ris is M ana g emen t Team .
D A TE A SS IGN ED :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the D ir e ctor ’s a bsen ce .
5.
E n su re th a t eac h sc h o o l has a
c ris is resp o nse b o x :
6.
C o n d uc t an an n ua l di st ric t- leve l c ris is resp o nse tab le to p d rill.
T hi s te am w ou ld assist the E OC D ir e ctor in al l cris is p re p ared ne ss an d r es p on se ac tiv it ies.
i.
D e si g na te a P u b lic I nf o rma tio n O ff ice r.
R espo ns ibl e fo r ke e ping th e p ub li c in fo rm ed ab ou t c ri sis re sp o nse a ctiv itie s.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
ii.
D e si g na te a Sa fe ty O ff ice r.
R espo ns ibl e fo r es tab li shi n g sa fet y a nd se cu re cr isis re sp on se en vi ron m e nt.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
iii.
D e si g na te a L ia iso n O ffi cer .
R espo ns ibl e fo r co o rd in at ing w ith cris is r e sp on se ag en ci e s fro m ou tside of th e sch oo l d is tri c t.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
4.
D e si g na te in d ivid ua ls to fi ll Inc ide nt C omma n d Sys tem ro les
T hi s te am w il l in cl u de m emb er s o f t h e C ris is M an ag eme nt T e am an d de fi n es le a de rshi p ro le s a nd re sp on sib il itie s d urin g
th e respo ns e to a criti c al in ci d en t.
i.
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t Int ellig ence Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r co lle c tin g, do cum en tin g a nd ev alua tin g inf o rm atio n a bo ut th e c ri tic a l i n cide nt an d the district ’s c ri sis
re sp on se .
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the C hief ’s a bsen c e.
ii.
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t Ope ra tio ns Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r ev a lu at ing distric t fa ci lit y sa fe ty; se ar c h/re scu e a nd stud en t r e le as e ; em er g en cy m ed ic a l res p on se ; stud en t
ca re an d m e nt a l h ea lt h ; a nd if ne ce ssa ry m an ag em en t o f a m orgu e.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the C hief ’s a bsen c e.
iii.
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t L o g is tics Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r m a na ge m e nt an d a ll o ca tio n of di strict fa c il itie s; su pp lie s a nd eq uipm en t; sta ff an d v ol u ntee r a ssign m e nt;
an d di strict -w ide com m u nica tio ns .
N AME :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D at e L as t co nd uc ted :
District Level SCT Flowchart
E m e rgen c y Ope rati on s C e nt e r D ire ctor
P rim ary:
S ec o nd ary:
C ri sis M anage m en t Te am
P ub lic Inform ation O ffic er
S afet y O ffic e r:
Li a ison O ffi ce r:
(Th in k er s)
D istri ct In telli gence
S ec ti on C h ief
(Doer s)
D istri ct O per at ion s
S ec ti on C h ief
(Ge tter s)
D istri ct L og isti cs
S ec ti on C h ief
D istri ct S ec ur it y and
S afety C oord ina tor
Co mm un it y F aci liti es
Coo rd ina tor
D istri ct St uden t Ca re
Coo rd ina to r
D istri ct S upp li es &
E quip me nt Coo rd .
D istri ct Em ergency
M e dica l C oord ina to r
St aff & Vo lun tee r
A ssign. Coo rd ina to r
D istri ct Tr ans lati on
Coo rd ina to r
D ist. C om mun ic ati ons
Coo rd ina tor
(Pay e rs )
D istri ct Fi nan c e
S ec ti on C h ief
School Level Planning Checklist
S c ho o l Cr is is R esp on se T ea m Pl a nn ing C h eck L is t
1.
i.
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t F ina n ce Sec ti o n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r au tho ri z in g inc ide nt re lat e d pu rc h ases , re co rd ke ep in g a nd ac co un tin g, an d c ri sis re spo nd er
h ou rs tim e k ee ping .
D e si g na te an In ci d en t C o mman d P o s t (C P ).
T he in ci d en t c omm an d p ost fro m wh ic h a ll d istri c t-lev el cr isis re sp on se ac tiv iti e s a re co ordi n ated .
L oc at ion :
1 a.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
A lte rn ate loc a tion to b e u se d if the C P is n ot av aila bl e .
5.
2.
D e si g na te a Sc h o o l-S it e C rit ica l Inc ide nt C omma n de r (I C ).
N AME :
3.
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the C om an de r’ s a bs e nc e.
D e si g na te a Sc h o o l C ris is M ana g emen t Team .
i.
D e si g na te a P u b lic I nf o rma tio n O ff ice r.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
ii.
D e si g na te a Sa fe ty O ff ice r.
R espo ns ibl e fo r es tab li shi n g sa fet y a nd se cu re cr isis re sp on se en vi ron m e nt.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
iii .
D e si g na te a L ia iso n O ffi cer .
R espo ns ibl e fo r co o rd in at ing w ith cris is r e sp on se ag en ci e s fro m ou tside of th e sch oo l d is tri c t.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
D e si g na te in d ivid ua ls to fi ll Inc ide nt C omma n d Sys tem ro les
T hi s te am w il l in cl u de m emb er s o f t h e C ris is M an ag eme nt T e am an d de fi n es le a de rshi p ro le s a nd re sp on sib il itie s d urin g
th e respo ns e to a criti c al in ci d en t.
i.
D e si g na te a Sc h o o l I nt ellig ence Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r co lle c tin g, do cum en tin g a nd ev alua tin g inf o rm atio n a bo ut th e c ri tic a l i n cide nt an d the sc ho ol ’s
cris is res p on se .
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the C hief ’s a bsen c e.
ii.
D e si g na te a Sc h o o l Ope ra tio ns Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r ev a lu at ing sc ho ol fa c il ity sa fe ty; se a rc h/ rescu e a nd stu de nt re le a se ; e m e rg en cy m e dica l
re sp on se ; stud en t c ar e an d m e ntal he a lt h ; an d if n ec e ssar y m an ag em en t o f a m orgu e.
N AME :
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the C hief ’s a bsen c e.
iii.
D e si g na te a D is tr ic t L o g is tics Sec tio n C h ie f.
R espo ns ibl e fo r m a na ge m e nt an d a ll o ca tio n of sc ho ol fa c il itie s; sup plie s an d eq ui pm en t; staff a nd v ol u ntee r
assign m e nt ; an d sc ho ol -w ide com m u nc ia tio ns.
N AME :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
6.
D at e c o mp le ted :
D at e las t c h eck :
P rima ry loca ti o n:
D u p lic a te loca ti o n:
C o n d uc t an an n ua l sch o o l s it e c ris is resp o nse tab le to p d rill..
D at e L as t co nd uc ted :
R espo ns ibl e fo r ke e ping th e p ub li c in fo rm ed ab ou t c ri sis re sp o nse a ctiv itie s.
4.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
T hi s te am w ou ld assist the IC w it h a ll c ri sis pre pa re dn es s an d re spo nse a ctiv itie s. T h ese rol e s m a y b e fi lle d eithe r b y the
IC h im o r h er sel f, the re spe ctiv e distric t-l e ve l O ffic e r, an d /o r a pp ro priat e site-ba se d p er son ne l.
M e mbe rs of th e C risis Res p o n se T eam s h o u ld w o rk co o pe ra tive ly to c o mp le te th e
a n d mai nt ai n a cr isis res p o n se b ox :
T he C omm an d er w ou ld be in ch arge of al l sc ho ol cris is res p on se ac tiv it ies.
1 a.
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
D esign ate a n alte r na te to ser v e in the O ff ice r’ s ab se nc e.
D A TE A SS IGN E D :
School Level SCT Flowchart
S choo l Inc iden t Co mm ande r
P rim ary:
S ec o nd ary:
C ri sis M anage m en t Te am
P ub lic Inform ation O ffic er
S afet y O ffic e r:
Li a ison O ffi ce r:
(Th in k er s)
S choo l In telli gence
S ec ti on C h ief
(Doer s)
S choo l O per a tion s
S ec ti on C h ief
(Ge tter s)
S choo l L og isti cs
S ec ti on C h ief
S choo l S ec ur it y and
S afety C oord ina tor
S choo l F ac iliti es
Coo rd ina tor
S choo l St uden t Ca re
Coo rd ina to r
S choo l S upp li es &
E quip me nt Coo rd .
S choo l Em ergency
M e dica l C oord ina to r
S choo l & Vo lun tee r
A ssign. Coo rd ina to r
S choo l Tr ans lati on
Coo rd ina to r
S choo l Co mm un ica t.
Coo rd ina tor
(Pay e rs )
S choo l Fi nanc e
S ec ti on C h ief
Crisis Response Box Elements
E le m ent
C ri sis M a na ge m en t T ea m phon e n u mb er s
C ri sis R es pon se T ea m ro le d escr ip ti on s
M ed ia sta ging are a/re so u rce s
M ed ia m a na ge m en t p o lic y
C o m m un it y emer gen cy re so u rce s listi ng
E m erge n cy re sp o ns e p ers onn el st ag in g area
S tr u ct u ral e n g in eeri ng res ou rces
A eri al ph ot os o f th e cam pus
S ch o ol c om mun it y m a p
C a m p us lay ou t (w it h s ta ging area s indi cate d )
B lu ep rin ts of all sc ho o l bui ldin g s
C ri sis in ci d en t log
A M /F M ba ttery op erate d ra di o (e xtra b att erie s)
B at tery o p er ate d we ath er r ad io (extr a b atter ies)
B at tery o p er ate d lap to p (w ith a irp ort) locat io n
S it e stat us rep ort for m s
D a m a ge do cu me n tati on to ols (e .g., ca m era s)
K eys for all c am pus fac ilitie s
F ire a lar m tu rn -off p roce du re s
R es po ns ible T ea m M emb er
C ri tica l I nc id en t Co m ma nd er
C ri tica l I nc id en t Co m ma nd er
P ub lic In fo rma tio n Of fic er
P ub lic In fo rma tio n Of fic er
L iaiso n Of fic er
S af e ty O ffice r /L ia iso n O ffic er
S af e ty O ffici e r
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
In te llige n ce S ec tio n
O pe ra tio ns S ectio n (Se cu ri ty & Sa fe ty C oo rd ./F &G S p)
O pe ra tio ns S ectio n (Se cu ri ty & Sa fe ty C oo rd ./ F &G S p.)
NO TE: F & G Sp . = F a ciliti es a nd Gr ou nds S p ec ialist; S R A S P . = S ear ch , R es cue , & A cco un tin g S pecial ist; CM Sp . = C rowd M a nagem en t S pe cial ist;
SA R S p. = St u de nt A ssem bl y a nd R e le ase S p ec ialist; C I S p . = C risis In ter ve nti o n S p ecia list; T S S p. = Tr aff ic S afe ty S p ec ia list; SFW & S Sp . =
She lte r, Fo od , W a ter , & S up pl ies S pe cial ist; S CV A C o ord . = St aff & C o m mu nit y V olun te er Ass ig nm en t C o ord in a tor
Crisis Response Box Elements
E le m ent
Sp ri nkl er syste m tu rn -off p roce du re s
U ti lit y shu t-off va lve s/t oo ls
G a s lin e and u ti lit y la yo u t
C a b le te lev isio n s ate llite fee d shu t-off
Y el lo w c au ti on ta p e
S ea rch and r esc u e suppl ie s/e quip me n t
S tud en t ph ot os
P are n t Ce n ter loc ati on
E v acu at io n rou tes a nd a ssem bl y p roce du re s
E v acu at io ns sites
S tud en t d isp o sit io n/ rele ase for m s
S tud en t rele ase p roce du res
S tud en t atte ndan ce ros ter
T raffic m an a geme n t pl a n
S tud en t emer gen cy card s
Sp eci al n ee ds stud en t list in g (e .g ., m ed ic atio n s)
C ri sis C o d es est ab lish ed
L o ck do w n p roce du res
C ri sis in terve n tio n re so u rce list in g
C ri sis in terve n tio n p roce du res
R es po ns ible T ea m M emb er
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./F& G Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./F& G Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./F& G Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./F& G Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SRA Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SRA Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SRA Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./C M Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SAR Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SAR Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SAR Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SAR Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./SAR sp )
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Se cu rity & S afety C oo rd ./T S Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( S tud ent C ar e C oo rd ./ S FW& S Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Stud en t C a re C oo rd ./SFW & S S p. )
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Stud en t C a re C oo rd ./C I Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Stud en t C a re C oo rd ./C I Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Stud en t C a re C oo rd ./C I Sp .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Stud en t C a re C oo rd ./C I Sp .)
NO TE: F & G Sp . = Faciliti es a nd Gr ou nds Sp ec ialist; S R A SP . = Sear ch , R es cue , & A cco un tin g S pecial ist; CM Sp . = C rowd M anagem en t S pe cial ist;
SA R S p. = St u de nt A ssem bl y a nd R e lease Sp ec ialist; C I S p . = C risis In ter venti o n Sp ec ia list; T S S p. = Tr aff ic S afe ty S p ec ia list; SFW & S Sp . =
She lte r, Fo od , W ater , & S up pl ies S pecial ist; S CV A C o ord . = St aff & C o m mu nit y V olun te er Ass ig nm en t C o ord in a tor
Crisis Response Box Elements
E le m ent
F ir st aid suppl ie s list a nd l oc ati on
F ir st aid p roce du res
M or gu e p roce du res
T ran slato r listi ng
C ri sis in terve n tio n ce n ter /ser vice ro om s
C o m m an d po st /S ta ging area sign s
C are /S h elter res ou rce l ist in g (e .g ., w ate r, f oo d )
T each er R o ster/ A ssign me n ts
S ta ff R o ster/ A ssign me n ts/C ri sis d ut ies
S ta ff re so u rce s list in g /Cr isis du tie s
L ist of k ey pa re n t/c om mun it y v olun teer s
C ri sis R es pon se T ea m Id en tific ati on
C o m m un icat io n res ou rces listi ng /loc ati on s
S ta ff phon e t ree (w it h ce ll ph o n e num b ers)
P h on e l in e us e d es ig na ti on listi ng
O ff ice supp lies
F lash lig h ts (w ith e xtr a ba tterie s)
E m erge n cy re so u rce budg et in for m at io n
E m erge n cy p er so nn el sig n -in /s ig n -o u t sh eet
P u rch as e O rd er form s
F E MA form s
R es po ns ible T ea m M emb er
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Emer g en cy M ed ic a l C oo rd .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Emer g en cy M ed ic a l C oo rd .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Emer g en cy M ed ic a l C oo rd .)
Op er a tions S ec tion ( Tr a nslation C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( Fa c ilities C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( Fa c ilities C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( Fa c ilities C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S C V A C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S C V A C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S C V A C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S C V A C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S C V A C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( C o mm un ic at io ns C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( C o mm un ic at io n C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion ( C o mm un ic at io ns C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S upp lies & E qu ip me nt C oo rd .)
L o gis tics S ec tion (S upp lies & E qu ip me nt C oo rd .)
Fi nan ce S ec tion
Fi nan ce S ec tion
Fi nan ce S ec tion
Fi nan ce S ec tion
NO TE: F & G Sp . = Fa ciliti es and Gr ou nds Sp ecialist; S R A SP . = Sear ch , R es cue , & A cco un tin g S pe cial ist; CM Sp . = C rowd M a nagem en t S pecial ist; S A R Sp .
= St u den t As sem bl y a nd R e le ase S p ec ia list; C I Sp . = C risis In ter ve ntio n Sp ecialist; TS S p. = T raffi c S afe ty Spe ci a list; SF W & S Sp . = S he lter , F o od , W at er , &
Su pp lies Sp ecialist; S CV A C o ord . = St aff & C o m mu nit y V olun te er Ass ig nm en t C o ord in a tor
Responding to Crisis
Cr isi s In te rve n tio n C h ec kli st
__ __1 .
M itiga te cr isi s d a m a g e a nd m in im ize cr isi s e xpo s u re
C risis in ter ve ntio n beg in s w ith a n effec tiv e em erg enc y cr isis ma nagem en t a nd re sp ons e.
__ __2 .
D eter m in e cr is is fac ts.
Us e th e cr isis in ter ve nt ion f ac t sh ee t.
__ __3 .
A ssess d e g re e o f im p a ct o n the s ch ool.
H ow ma ny s tu de nt s w ill be affe ct ed a nd to w ha t d egr ee?
C a n site res ourc es ma na ge the cri sis o r w ill dis tric t- le ve l as sistan ce b e neede d?
__ __4 .
N ot ify th e cri sis in terv en ti on team a nd op e n th e cris is int erve nt ion ce nt er.
T h is te am wor ks c oo pera tiv e ly w ith m em bers of th e C ri sis M a na gem en t T ea m .
_ __ _ (a)
_ __ _ (b )
_ __ _ (c)
__ __5 .
S et u p a sig n-in/ s ign -o ut sy s tem
S et u p a m essa ge b oar d
G iv e each cr isis team m emb er an ID bad ge s o t ha t t h e ind ivi d ual is ea sil y i de n tifi ed .
If n o t a lre ad y done , no tify d istr ict o ff ice o f th e cr is is situ at ion .
D istrict cr isis res po nse te am ass ista nc e is req ues te d thro ug h t he distr ic t off ice .
__ __6 .
__ __7 .
__ __8 .
N ot ify oth er sc hoo l s ite s th at c ou ld b e af fect ed b y th e cr is is.
C ont act th e fam ily(i es) o f th e cr isi s v ic tim (s ).
D eter m in e w h a t inf o rma tion is to b e s h are d w ith
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
(a)
(b )
(c)
(d )
St u den ts
P are nts/ C om m u nity
St af f
Me dia
R e m em ber to kee p in m in d par en tal rig ht s t o conf id en tia lit y .
__ __9 .
D eter m in e ho w th e info rma tion is to b e s h ar ed .
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
__ __10 .
__ __11 .
(a)
(b )
(c)
(d )
(e)
Ma ke re ferra l f or ms a vailable to s taff
De sig nate wh o w ill m ain tain the re ferr al li s t and wh ere it w ill b e kept
De sig nate i n terv iew /cou ns elin g loca tio ns
D ist rib ute a s um m ar y of r efer rals to su p por t st af f
E stablish a p roced ure f or self-refe rra l
Id e n tify h igh- ris k stud e n ts a nd p lan in terv en tio n s.
_ __ _ (a)
_ __ _ (b )
__ __13 .
__ __14 .
W ritt en b u lletin s and /or letter s
A ss em blies
P h one c alls
P are nt/C om m u nit y m eetin gs
Cl as sroo m p res en tatio ns/ d iscu ssi o ns
If a c ri m e h as o cc u rre d, is ol ate v ict im s/w itne sses un til law e n fo rce m e n t in terv iew s
are c omp lete d.
In itia te th e p syc holog ic al tr ia g e a nd referr al p ro ces s.
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
__ __12 .
(a)
(b )
(c)
(d )
(e)
De sig nate wh o w ill m ain tain the h igh -risk li s t and w here it w ill b e ke pt.
Dec ide u po n int er ven tio n s (i.e., in d ividu al , sma ll g ro up , class ro om ).
H old a staf f m ee ting.
C ompu ter s, at te nd a n ce re gi st ers an d lo ckers .
Fo llow in g a s tu d en t's d ea th , d el e te the nam e from c om pu te rs an d a tten da nce r eg isters .
B e sure th at no o ne c al ls rep ort in g th e stud en t abse nt .
__ __15 .
D eb rie fing h e ld a t th e end o f ea ch d a y.
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
__ __ 16.
__ __ 17.
__ __ 18.
(a)
(b )
(c)
(d)
(e )
R ev iew th e int er ven tio n p ro ces s
P lan f o llow -u p ac tio ns
R ev iew th e status of the refer rals
P rov ide mu tual s up po rt
P rioriti ze ne ed s
S c h e dul e a mo rn ing p lan ning sess ion .
P la n m em o ria ls .
D eb rie f an d ev alu a te t h e cr isi s re spo n se.
N ote. A dapted f rom “A H andbook for C ri sis Inte r vent i on,” by the L os A nge l es Un ifi ed S chool D is t ri ct, 1994, ( Ava i lab l e fro m L os Ange les U nif ied S choo l D i str ic t, D istr ic t Ps ycholo g i cal S er vice s , 6520 Ne w cas t le A ve.,
C ris is I nte r vent i on, ”by S .E. B rock, S . L ew is, P . Sl auson, &
S . Y und,1995,pp.22-23,
( Ava i lab l efr o m L odi U nif i ed S chool D is tr ict, S pec i al S er vice s /SEL PA ,1305 E .V i ne S t., L odi, CA 95240)
Re seda,
C A 91335 - 6230),
and f r om “A dm i nis trat ive G uid e line s for
Responding to Crisis
1. Mitigate crisis damage and minimize crisis
exposure
•
Crisis intervention begins with an effective emergency crisis
management and response.
2. Determine crisis facts.
•
Use the crisis intervention fact sheet.
3. Assess degree of impact on the school.
•
•
How many students will be affected and to what degree?
Can site resources manage the crisis or will district-level
assistance be needed?
Responding to Crisis
4. Notify the crisis intervention team and open
the crisis intervention center.
•
This team works cooperatively with members of the Crisis
Management Team.
a) Set up a sign-in/sign-out system
b) Set up a message board
c) Give each crisis team member an ID badge so that the individual is
easily identified.
5. If not already done, notify district office of the
crisis situation.
•
District crisis response team assistance is requested through
the district office.
Responding to Crisis
6. Notify other school sites that could be
affected by the crisis.
7. Contact the family(ies) of the crisis victim(s).
8. Determine what information is to be shared
with
•
•
•
•
•
Students
Parents/Community
Staff
Media
Remember to keep in mind parental rights to confidentiality.
Responding to Crisis
9. Determine how the information is to be
shared.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Written bulletins and/or letters
Assemblies
Phone calls
Parent/Community meetings
Classroom presentations/discussions
10.
If a crime has occurred, isolate
victims/witnesses until law enforcement
interviews are completed.
Responding to Crisis
11. Initiate the psychological triage and referral
process.
•
•
•
•
•
Make referral forms available to staff
Designate who will maintain the referral list and where it
will be kept
Designate interview/counseling locations
Distribute a summary of referrals to support staff
Establish a procedure for self-referral
12. Identify high-risk students and plan
interventions.
•
•
Designate who will maintain the high-risk list and where it
will be kept.
Decide upon interventions (i.e., individual, small group,
classroom).
13. Hold a staff meeting.
Responding to Crisis
13. Computers, attendance registers and lockers.
•
•
•
14.
•
•
•
•
•
Following a student's death, delete the name from
computers and attendance registers.
Be sure that no one calls reporting the student absent.
Debriefing held at the end of each day.
Review the intervention process
Plan follow-up actions
Review the status of the referrals
Provide mutual support
Prioritize needs
15. Schedule a morning planning session.
16. Plan memorials.
17. Debrief and evaluate the crisis response.
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Preparing for the School Crisis Response