AO Foundation
Education
History of the AO
1958−2008
Kevin Newman
St Peter‘s Hospital, Chertsey, Surrey, UK
1944 The inspiration for AO
Maurice Müller
Bern, Switzerland (1918−2009)
met a former soldier who had
received a femoral nailing by
Gerhard Küntscher
Kiel, Germany (1900−1972)
military surgeon
2
1950 The early years
Maurice Müller
resident of Liestal, Switzerland
(1918−2009)
was on a fellowship in Holland with
Cornelis Pieter van Nes
Leiden, Netherlands (1897−1972)
who advised him to visit Robert Danis
in
Bruxelles
3
1950 Compression plating
Robert Danis
Bruxelles, Belgium (1880−1962)
“Théorie et Pratique de l’Osteosynthèse”
coapteur plate for rigid fixation
Compression for “per primam” healing
Absence of callus “soudure autogène”
4
1951 First results of ORIF
Maurice Müller
Fribourg, Switzerland
• 75 patients
• stable fixation
• early mobilization
• no complications
5
1952 Old army friendships
Robert Schneider
6
Maurice Müller
1954 Documenting trauma
Lorenz Böhler
Wien, Austria (1885−1973)
241,000 trauma x-rays
Accident Hospital
7
1956 Five friends, eight more
Müller
Patry
Brussatis
Baumann
Willenegger
Allgöwer
Guggenbühl
Ott
Schneider
Hunziker
Bandi
Schär
Stähli
8
1958 AO founded in Biel (Bienne)
November 6, 1958, Hotel Elite
Biel (Bienne), Switzerland
9
1958 AO Founders
Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen
10
Maurice Müller
Martin Allgöwer
Walter Bandi
Robert Schneider
Hans Willenegger
Zürich
Chur
Interlaken
Grosshöchstetten
Liestal
1918−2009
1917−2007
1912−1997
1912−1990
1910−1998
1958 Hex-head screw
Maurice Müller
Zürich, Switzerland
(1918−2009)
Robert Mathys
Bettlach, Switzerland (1921−2000)
11
1959 AO Principles
Hans Willenegger
Maurice Müller
Martin Allgöwer
Robert Mathys
1
2
3
4
12
Documentation of all patients
Development of implants and instruments
Research of fracture healing and tissue cultures
Teaching of osteosynthesis techniques
1959 AO Laboratory Davos
Martin Allgöwer
Davos, Switzerland (1917−2007)
AO Laboratory
for Experimental
Surgery
Forschungsinstitut
Obere Strasse
13
1959 AO Documentation
Maurice Müller
Davos, Switzerland
(1918−2009)
14
1960 1st AO Course in Davos
Participants:
56
7
2
3
1
Maurice Müller teaches femoral nailing in the AO Lab.
15
1960 AO in Davos
16
1960 AO Faculty in Davos
Robert
Schneider
Walter
Ott
Walter
Schär
Walter
Bandi
Martin
Allgöwer
Fritz
Brussatis
Willy
Hunziker
August
Guggenbühl
René
Patry
Ernst
Baumannn
(Fischer)
17
(Keller)
Hans
Willenegger
Maurice
Müller
Walter
Stähli
(Bloch)
1961 AO TK founded
Maurice Müller
St Gallen, Switzerland
(1918−2009)
Robert Mathys
Bettlach, Switzerland
(1921−2000)
18
1961 AO Round hole plate
Maurice Müller
St Gallen, Switzerland
19
1961 AO Compression device
Maurice Müller
St Gallen, Switzerland
20
1961 2nd AO Course in Davos
John Charnley and Martin Allgöwer in the AO Davos Lab.
21
1963 AO Principles of ORIF
Maurice Müller
Martin Allgöwer
Hans Willenegger
Robert Schneider
1 Atraumatic surgical technique
2 Anatomical reduction of fracture
3 Stable internal fixation
4 Early active pain free mobilization
22
1963 AO Plating
23
1963 AO Instrument boxes
Attendance at an
official AO Course
was mandatory for
purchasing the
six official AO Instrument
boxes.
24
1963 Teaching nurses
25
1963 AO Tubular plates
Maurice Müller
Bern, Switzerland
1/2 tubular
1/3 tubular
1/4 tubular
26
1963 Primary bone healing
Hans Willenegger
Liestal
(1910−1998)
Robert Schenk
Basel
(1923−2011)
27
Fritz Straumann
Waldenburg
(1921−1988)
1965 AO Nailing
Maurice Müller
Bern, Switzerland
28
1968 High-energy fractures
Martin Allgöwer
Basel, Switzerland
Thomas Rüedi
Chur, Switzerland
29
1969 AO VET (veterinary)
Dog treated with Kuntscher nail by
H Knoll, J Jenny and
owner H Willenegger
30
1969 Dynamic compression
Martin Allgöwer
Stephan Perren
Max Russenberger
Dynamic Compression Plate
Narrow: DCP 3.5
Broad: DCP 4.5
31
1969 AO Manual
Maurice Müller
Martin Allgöwer
Robert Schneider
Hans Willenegger
1970 Translated from German
into English by
by Joseph Schatzker
32
1970 AO and Lorenz Böhler
Prof Willenegger presents Prof Böhler with AO book.
33
1972 AO International
Hans Willenegger
Liestal, Switzerland (1910−1998)
1st president of AOI
34
1974 1st AO CMF course
Joachim Prein
Basel, Switzerland
35
1978 Strain theory of healing
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
Alexander Boitzy
St Gallen, Switzerland
36
1981 Biomechanical stability
Bernhard Georg Weber
St Gallen, Switzerland (1927−2002)
Minimax Fracture Fixation
Minimal amount of metal
Maximum stability
37
1983 Soft-tissue injury
Harald Tscherne
Hannover, Germany
Tscherne classification of closed fractures
38
1984 AO Foundation
Peter von
Rechenberg
Notary
39
Martin
Allgöwer
Thomas Peter
Rüedi Matter
Maurice
Müller
Robert
Schneider
Fritz
Straumann
Robert
Mathys
Hans
Willenegger
Stephan
Perren
Hansjörg
Wyss
1984 Four pillars of AO
Martin Allgöwer
Basel, Switzerland
1st AO Foundation president
Four pillars of cooperation:
• Documentation
• Teaching
• Research
• Instrumentation
40
1987 AO Classification
Maurice Müller
Peter Koch
Serge Nazarian
“A classification is useful only
if it considers the severity of
the bone lesion and serves
as a basis for treatment and
for evaluation of the results.”
41
1987 Indications for ORIF
Joseph Schatzker
Toronto, Canada
42
Marvin Tile
Toronto, Canada
1988 Periosteal blood supply (plates)
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
Osteoporosis under
plate is caused by
bone necrosis and
not by stress
protection
43
1988 AO Plastic bones
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
“Synthes bones” = SYNBONE
44
Thomas Rüedi
Chur, Switzerland
1989 AO Founders reunited
Hans
Willenegger
Robert
Schneider
Maurice
Müller
Peter von
Rechenberg
CEO
45
Martin Allgöwer
Walter
Bandi
1989 AO Alumni Association
56 local chapters in 6 AO Regions in 2008
Europe
North America
Middle East
Asia Pacific
Latin America
46
Africa
1989 Indirect reduction
Jeff Mast
Roland Jakob
Reinhold Ganz
47
1990 “Bio-logical” fixation
Alexander Boitzy
Bern, Switzerland
Reinhold Ganz
Bern, Switzerland
Soft-tissue injury determines
the type of fracture fixation.
Three stages of tissue damage:
1. Compromised (careful standard fixation possible)
2. Partial degloving (indirect reduction required)
3. Soft tissues destroyed (reconstruction essential)
48
1990 Endosteal blood supply (nails)
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
49
1990 Small footprint LC-DCP
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
50
Emanuel Gautier
Chur, Switzerland
L
Limited
C
Contact
D
Dynamic
C
Compression
P
Plate
1990 Robert Schneider passes away
51
1992 AO North America
52
1992 AO Center Davos
Spring
Fall
53
Summer
Winter
1993 Internal fixator PC-Fix
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
Slobodan Tepic
???, Switzerland
PC-Fix
Point Contact Fixator
Monocortical locking
54
1994 AO East Asia
Suthorn Bavonratanavech
Chiangmai, Thailand
1st president of AOEA
Hong Kong
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan/Chinese Taipei
Thailand
55
1995 LISS
Robert Frigg
Bettlach, Switzerland
Less
Invasive
Stabilization
System
Locking head screws
56
1997 Walter Bandi passes away
57
1997 Mini incisions (MIPO)
Christian Krettek
Harald Tscherne
Minimally
Invasive
Plate
Osteosynthesis
58
1998 AO Latin America
AOLAT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
59
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
México
Perú
Uruguay
1998 Hans Willenegger passes away
60
1999 AO Clinical investigation
Ruedi Moser 1999−2003
61
Beate Hanson 2003−
Surgeon of the 20th century
62
2000 AO Principles of Fracture Management
Thomas Rüedi
Chur,
Switzerland
63
Liam Murphy
Surrey,
England
2000 Howard Rosen passes away
64
2000 Robert Mathys passes away
65
2000 Locking compression plates
Robert Frigg
Michael Wagner
Robert Schavan
Bettlach, Switzerland
Wien, Austria
Willich Anrath, Germany
Combination hole
Osteoporotic bone
Nonunions
66
2000 AO Plate technology
1961
1963
1970
Round hole plates
Tubular plates
Dynamic compression plates
Maurice Müller
Maurice Müller
Stephan Perren
1989
1990
1990
Indirect reduction techniques
Biological fixation
Limited contact (DC) plates
Jeff Mast
Reinhold Ganz
Stephan Perren
1993
1997
1995
2000
PC-Fix
MIPO
LISS
Locking compression plates (LCP)
Stephan Perren
Christian Krettek
Robert Frigg
Robert Frigg
67
2001 Anatomical plates
Preshaped locking plates for MIPO techniques
68
2001 AO Portal on the Internet
69
2002 Hardi Weber passes away
70
2002 StarDrive screws
Stephan Perren
Davos, Switzerland
71
2003 AOSpine is formed
John Webb
Max Aebi
Paul Pavlov
Nottingham,
England
Montreal,
Canada
Nijmegen,
Netherlands
72
2003 Strain theory and LCP
Michael Wagner
Wien, Austria
73
Christoph Sommer
Chur, Switzerland
2004 AO CAS and BrainLAB
Christian Krettek
Hannover, Germany
C
A
S
74
Computer
Aided
Surgery
2005 AO Expert nails
75
2006 AO Trauma Asia Pacific
AOTAP
Australia
China
Hong Kong
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
India joins AOTAP in 2007
76
2006 AO LCP Manual
Michael Wagner
Wien, Austria
Robert Frigg
Bettlach, Switzerland
77
2006 AO Surgery reference
Editors:
Chris Colton
Peter Trafton
Joseph Schatzker
Ernst Raaymakers
78
2007 AOSpine Manual
John Webb
79
Vincent Arlet
Max Aebi
2007 AO Principles of Fracture
Management─2nd edition
Thomas Rüedi
Chur, Switzerland
Richard Buckley
Calgary, Canada
Christopher Moran
Nottingham, England
80
2007 Pediatric classification
Theddy Slongo
Bern, Switzerland
81
Laurent Audigé
Dübendorf, Switzerland
2007 Martin Allgöwer passes away
82
2008 AO 50th anniversary
Professor Maurice Müller
on his 90th birthday
March 28, 2008
unveils a plaque
in Hotel Elite.
Biel (Bienne)
Switzerland
83
84
Transforming Surgery
Changing Lives
85
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The First 50 Years