VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Information Technologies in
Control Engineering
Prof.Vilem Srovnal, Ph.D.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Contact
VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava – VSB TUO
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science - FEECS
Department of Measurement and Control –KAT455
17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
Tel: +420 597 321 231, Fax: +420 597 323 138,
E-mail: [email protected],
http://www.vsb.cz, http://kat455.vsb.cz
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Information Technologies in Control
Engineering
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Introduction
Overview of Information Technologies
Approach of the PLC manufacturers to
the information technologies
Mobile Technologies
Conclusion
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Introduction
• At the current development of the distributed control systems, the
knowledge and use requirements of the information technologies
constantly grow.
• A majority of the front manufacturers of the industrial automation
offers so called intelligent components and equipment that are
able of relatively independent function in the distributed mode.
• Recently, the use of the following information technologies is
required, i.e.
• Internet access and HTML pages browsing, sending and receiving
emails (e-messages), or the transfer of the measured values (data)
into the database systems or for further processing.
• For such a purpose, a widely used Ethernet communication
network is suitable.
• The access is provided by the communication processors with an
implemented function support for the information technologies
(IT).
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Introduction
• The communication modules as for example Siemens CP
343-1 IT (CP 433-1 IT) can replace simple visualizations, for
which are currently used visualization programs like for
example InTouch, WinCC, Control Web and other.
• These modules provide functions to the Web server, SMTP
client and FTP client server. An important option is the use
of the Java language that can play a very important role in
interconnecting of the information and automation
technologies.
• Significant is also the use of mobile technologies
that can be used in case of GSM large distributed
systems or the Zig-Bee, Bluetooth and WiFi
technologies for the local systems
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Overview of Information Technologies
• Programming lools
• Technology of multi-agent systems
• Technology UML (Unified Modeling
language)
• Technology for generating the final code
• Communication and network technologies
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
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•
•
•
•
•
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Java
C++
Technology Microsoft.NET
C# .NET
Technology Keep Server
Technology OPC
Technology DCOM
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
• Java
– Belongs into the object oriented programming languages.
Its advantages are transferability, reliability, security, fast
application development.
– For the embedded applications there are various versions
available of Embedded Java VM, by this, the distributed
applications in real time are supported.
• C++
– It is object oriented version of C language that
significantly increases clarity and productivity of the
programmer’s work.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
• Technology Microsoft.NET
– An objective of this technology is an interconnection of
the world of information, people, systems and
equipment.
– The base of the .NET technology is the XML Web
services. Small and repeatedly used applications in XML
language (Extensible Markup Language) make possible
applications and data connection through the use of
Internet or Intranet.
– Client application software enables computers,
embedded systems and many automation devices to use
the XML web services.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
Structure of Microsoft.NET technologies
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
• C# .NET
– Is a new instrument of the .NET technology that
substitutes languages C++, Java and Visual Basic.
– It enables to create, provide, apply and use quickly and
reliably the solutions of SML services, with the use of
higher industrial standards and security.
• Technology Keep Server
– Keep Server is a 32 bit application that enables a transfer
of data and information from variety of industrial
devices and systems into the applications running on
computers under the Windows operational system.
– It makes possible to share the control resources and data
in large control applications
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
• Technology OPC (OLE for Process and Control).
– OPC Server allows access to data on various levels of
control and for various applications.
– The base of the OPC architecture is the client-server
model (Fig. 2 and 3).
– The server optimizes the requirements of various clients
for data access.
– This way the overall efficiency of the system increases,
because the communication with the physical devices
and databases enables and controls the OPC Server
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
Relation of OPC client and server
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
Typical architecture of OPC
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Programming tools
• Technology DCOM
Distributed component object model
• DCOM is a protocol that enables the software
components the direct network communication.
• Services to clients and components using RPC are
provided in the system runtime.
• Security and communication is provided by
generating of standard DCOM network packets.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• Object oriented technologies, a technology of
multi-agent systems is used for the realization of
distributed decision-making.
• These are used mainly for complex industrial
systems that develop in time.
• The multi-agent systems ensure the ability to a
dynamic and flexible system to react quickly to
changes mainly for the following features:
–
–
–
–
common objective,
work in cooperation,
flexibility,
independence and liberty.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• The agent architecture for the real time
systems must be adjusted to comply with all
the requirements of the control applications.
• The assumption is the cooperation of agents
in an environment of preemptive
multitasking, where their activity may be
interrupted anytime and also they may be
asked to provide information anytime.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• Every agent has its application area. The agent
architecture contains:
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Control component
Reactive component,
Cognitive, analytic and learning component.
Planner then coordinates the agent’s actions and its
communication protocols.
• The cooperation mechanism among the active
agents is crucial for the quality of control.
•
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• Cognitive status of an agent is described by three
components:
– agent information status,
– agent purpose status
– and agent evaluation status.
• Various parts of the process are controlled by
jointly cooperating autonomous agents.
• The algorithm of the agents’ cooperation is the
essential principle for the control system work.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• For the agent action coordination is possible
to use two structures of the control system:
• First one method presumes a higher level
agent presence that coordinates the actions
of remaining agents.
– The agent at higher level performs its decisions
on the basis of the overall technology process
model, or the models of production or process.
• The second method is based on the absolute
independence of the agents.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• In this case, two different concepts of agents can be
used.
• The first concept is based on a presumption that
every agent knows the status of the complete
process and performs the control commands based
on the complete process simulation.
• Based on a history, their knowledge of the former
results and the actual status of the whole process,
the agents perform their decision.
• Agents communicate among each other only in
exceptional situations.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
• The second concept is based on coordination that is
performed by negotiations among the agents.
• Each of the agents evaluates its advantages for various
decisions.
• The communication of the agent with other agents is in
progress for the cost of the profit.
• The information source is the local agent environment,
from which the agent receives the current process
information.
• The information is used for the control decision evaluation
and for the model parameters change.
• A typical task of use is a control of a group of mobile robots
(Fig 4).
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology of multi-agent systems
Control strategy of soccer game of robots using multi-agent technology
image
Transformation
movie
camera
physical representation of
agents – robots
objects’ coordinates
Strategic agent
Determination of game
strategy
service
control
agent’s tasks
distribution
wireless
link
AA
AA
DA
DA
DA
DA
set of
Decision Agents
AA
set of
Action Agents
AA
direct links between
decision and action agents
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
communication
between agents
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML (Unified Modeling language)
• The main objective is
– reusability,
– transferability,
– and ability
• of cooperation of the object oriented software in distributed
heterogenic systems.
• A unified modeling language UML is the language for
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specification,
visualization,
creation,
and documentation
• of a software system as well as for action modeling and
other systems.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• The selection of created models and diagrams has a
significant impact on the problem approach and on
the reach of the solution.
• Every complex system is best understood by a
system of almost independent model
visualizations.
• Only one view is not sufficient.
• Every model can be interpreted in various degrees
of fidelity.
• The best models are connected with reality.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• The development of an application software model
for the purpose of debugging before its realization
is as useful as for example having a plan for
building construction or a wiring diagram of the
printed circuit table.
• A good model is the foundation of the successful
application realization.
• With the growth of application complexity, the
importance of the suitable modeling techniques
and programming language consistency increases.
– Model elements – basic expressions and semantic
– Notation – optical representation of the model objects
– Guidelines – method of use
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• The UML language is well defined and widely
accepted.
• It is a model language for the creation of object
and component oriented systems.
• For the area of real time control is UML extended
by ObjectTime component that is essential for
systems working in real time.
• There is product available on the market from
companies
– Rational Software Corporation – Rational Rose RT
– Ilogix – Rhapsody.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• Rhapsody, the underlying model is an ASCII
repository of all the information that makes up a
project: classes and their behavior.
• The designer views allow you to observe the model
from several different angles, like turning a cube in
your hand to view its different sides.
• Rhapsody provides
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constructive views,
derived views,
hierarchical text views,
and animated views:
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• Constructive views: Use case diagrams, object model
diagrams, statecharts;
• Derived views: Sequence diagrams
• Hierarchical text views: Browser, generated code
• Animated views: Animated statecharts, animated sequence
diagrams, print reports
• Depending on its focus, a particular view may not show
certain classes, instances, relationships, or behaviors in the
model.
• Rhapsody lets you remove an element from a view without
deleting it from the model.
• The browser provides the most comprehensive view of the
system because it includes all possible elements.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Working scheme
• Analyze:
• Define system requirements, identify necessary
objects, and define their structure and behavior
using UML diagrams. The main UML tools for
analyzing the system are as follows:
– Case diagrams: Shows general interactions between the
system and external objects (Fig. 5).
– Sequence diagrams: Shows sequences of steps and
messages passed between objects when executing a
particular instance of a use case.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
System analyzing by the case diagram
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• Design:
• Trace requirements to the design, taking into
account architectural, mechanistic, and detailed
design considerations. The main UML tools for
designing the system are as follows:
– Object model diagrams: Show the structure of the
system in terms of classes and objects, and define
relationships between these objects.
– Statecharts: Show the behavior of a particular class over
its entire life cycle .
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Activity chart of whole system
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VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Activity chart of CAN bus model part
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• Implementation:
• Automatically generates code from the analysis model, then
build and run it from within Rhapsody.
• To implement the system, you define a configuration (either
an executable or a library), and generate code for any of
several target processors.
• Rhapsody-generated code is bare-metal code with no
scheduler or run-time engine.
• Automatic code generation from the UML model assures
that the design and its implementation are always in sync.
• Finally, you build the configuration using supplied make
files.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Developing of microprocessor based embedded control systems
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
• Test:
• Animate the application on the local host or
a remote target to perform design-level
debugging within animated views.
• You test an executable compiled using
Animation instrumentation by running the
application and observing its progress in
various animated views, such as
– Animated sequence diagrams
– and Animated .
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Control panel as the model of environment
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology UML
Root structure of the system model
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology for generating the final code
• As an example is used CodeWarrior from
Metrowerks company for 8- and 16-bit embedded
systems that is a powerful instrument for the
productivity increase of the software development.
• Among the main development instruments belong:
– project control,
– source code editor
– and browser.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology for generating the final code
• The project control in the development environment of the
CodeWarrior enables the connection of the program files as
well as with a help of a simple project file, to specify, what
compilers and building programs will be used for the final
program creation.
• The source code editor enables editing the source code and
text.
• The browser uses the commands shown in the source code
and controls the views in windows for fast and intuitive
access to the variables, routines, calculation, class
definitions and other components of the source code.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology for generating the final code
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•
•
•
The following main functions are available:
Compiler optimization C/C++,
efficient macro-assembler,
building program SmartLinker that assembles the
objects with valid links,
• creation of S-records for Motorola, hexa-files for
Intel or binary files,
• decoder for object and absolute files decoding,
• program Libmaker for library generation,
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Technology for generating the final code
• multi-purpose debugging program that enables:
– simulation and debugging of the embedded application,
– simulation and debugging of the embedded application
in real time,
– simulation and cross debugging of the embedded
application,
– debugging in several languages: assembler, C and C++
– real time support,
– hardware design simulation (i.e. motherboard, processor
or inputs and outputs)
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Communication and network technologies
• One of the newest trends is the interconnection of the
controllers and control sub-systems into web networks
(web-enabled devices) with individual addresses.
• Automation devices with high connectivity.
• The controller works in such web network, can send the
measured data into the database systems or for further
processing,
• Contact a different chosen node with the requirement to
provide the relevant data or transmit targeted warnings.
• Embedded control systems as local database servers.
• New web oriented languages implemented directly in the
controllers.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Communication and network technologies
• Increasing the autonomy of the individual controllers while at
the same time increasing the efficiency of the complex control
system as an aggregate.
• New generation of communication and information
instruments in the area of automation with a theoretical
background in the area of multi-agent technologies.
• Reliability of network transfers for the critical industrial
applications.
• New special software and hardware modifications of the
existing communication means
– Rockwell develops SafeDeviceNet,
– Siemens SafeProfiBus, etc.
• Efficient doubling or tripling of transfers as an expansion of the
current protocols and standards.
• New highly efficient data coding systems for industrial purposes
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Approach of the PLC manufacturers to the
information technologies
• Development instruments
• Diagnostics and equipment service
through Intranet and Internet
• Communication devices of the Siemens
Company
• Communication instruments of the
Schneider Electric Company
• Communication instruments of the
Bernecker & Rainer Company
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Approach of the PLC manufacturers to the
information technologies
• The solutions of the individual companies lies
mostly in the development of an application that
includes Web server with the graphic screen and
data interpretation in such way how they can be
seen on the screen by an user.
• The advantage is the possibility of the process
viewing with the possibilities of data modifications
from any computer equipped by a standard Internet
browser.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Development instruments
• Programmable controllers (PLC) of the different manufacturers
are programmed generally by a similar method, but the
compatibility with different types of PLC was not possible in the
past.
• Therefore, conditions were set in a standard IEC 1131 for the
system neutral programming method and it contains the
definitions of the following languages: IL – instruction list, LD –
contact drawings, FBD – Functional block diagram, SFC –
sequential block drawing, ST – structured text. The programming
under the stated condition carries all features of the object
oriented programming.
• This way the IEC brings the programming of the PLC to the
requirements of current and future development. In addition to
these methods, some of the companies add to the development
instruments other programming languages.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Diagnostics and equipment service through
Intranet and Internet
• Among the current IT trend also belongs the minimization
of on-site technical assistance.
• Recently it is a very often requirement to service devices
and technology component groups remotely including the
real time code and communication exchange.
• The use of Intranet and Internet is suitable for these
purposes.
• Among other requirements belongs an option to enable the
control system and its parts to communicate with other
products of competitors that means that the new system
must be open.
• The diagnostics of all the intelligent parts of the equipment
or device should be integrated through one access point.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Approach of the PLC manufacturers to the
information technologies
Connection of control and visualization elements
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Communication devices of the Siemens Company
• For the Siemens Simatic class S7-300 and S7-400 control
devices are available communication modules CP343-1 IT and
CP443-1 IT on the basis of Ethernet TCP/IP. These modules
enable the following IT communication services:
– Web Server - HTML pages can be accessed through the standard
Internet browsers.
– Standard Web pages make possible the observation and control of
the process running on S7-300(S7-400). Pages can be written in any
HTML editor as preferred.
– E-Messages. The communication processor enables sending emessages to a large number of addresses on the basis of the system
events.
– Communication through FTP. Server: Other computers can through
FTP protocol read and write to/from the CPU memory. Client: CPU
can send data from the memory of other computers, also read or
delete.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Communication instruments of the Schneider Electric
Company
• Also this company is involved in the development and
production of automation instruments connected into web
networks:
– Transparent Factory enables to provide all necessary
information from the controlled process to all the users with
defined access.
– Unified communication bus type Ethernet, through which
they mutually communicate using an industrial type standard
Modbus TCP/IP in speeds 10 to 100Mbit/s.
– TSX Micro designated for small and medium sized
applications.
– Communication module Ethernet TCP/IP with the embedded
Web server support.
– Mention function RAS, by which is the module equipped, and
enables the direct connection of any modem and the basis of
the serial communication.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Communication instruments of the Bernecker & Rainer
Company
• By the direct support of the Internet based on the Intel Pentium
platform, be it PLC or industrial PC (Automation Runtime).
• Web server and FTP server are parts of their operation systems.
• HTML pages are located directly in PLC or IPC and their
transmission can be realized through FTP server.
• FTP provides access to the complete file system located on
CompactFlash or, for some IPC,
• Direct access from the Internet network to the service and
process data.
• Visualization PC as an access point to the Internet.
• PVI (Process Visualization Interface) that supports BaR
Automation Net.
• Process data transfer to the Internet provides this server through
the Windows standard interface, that is DDE, OPC, Active X
objects and also through the web server.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• Significant is also the use of mobile
technologies that can be used in case of
GSM for large distributed systems or the
Zig-Bee, Bluetooth, WiFi and other
technologies for the local systems.
• Automations devices have integrated
support for wireless solutions as Zig-Bee,
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and infra red.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• GSM wireless communication is used:
–
–
–
–
Remote objects in large distributed control systems,
Mobile objects in the control system,
Enables communications in the inaccessible terrain.
Radio-modems enabling the wireless data transmission
in mobile telephone networks and enable the
interconnection with Internet.
In these networks can be used:
– Short message service SMS,
– Data service GPRS.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• The data transmission in the GPRS networks is paid
according to the data volume transmitted and not according
to the number or time of connection.
• In cases in connection with the central dispatching, where
is required often transmissions of small data volumes, are
used SMS.
• Compared with the usual communication technologies this
technology has the following advantages:
– costs for the data transmission in the GPRS network are very low
– costs for transmission of SMS containing 160 Bytes is also low
– time for transmission of 500B including setting the connection
makes 2 sec
– mobility, possibility to realize the application anywhere in the
sphere covered by the GSM signal
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• Wi-Fi works on 2,4GHz with maximal speed about
11Mbps and maximal real range about 100m. WiFi is acceptable for industry solutions, where EMG
noise is small.
• Power consumption of this wireless standard is
relatively high in compare of other solution.
• ZigBee is a new low rate wireless network standard
designed for automation and control network.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• ZigBee is a new low rate wireless network standard designed for
automation and control network.
• Expected applications for the ZigBee are building automation, security
systems, remote control, remote meter reading and computer
peripherals.
• The ZigBee standard utilizes IEEE 802.15.4 standard as a radio layer
(MAC and physical layer).
• Global use: ISM 2.4 GHz band with 16 channels and data rate of 250
kb/s; USA and Australia: 915 MHz band with 10 channels and data rate
of 40 kb/s; Europe: 868 MHz band with single channel and data rate of
20 kb/s.
• The channels are numbered form 0 (868 MHz, direct sequence spread
spectrum), 1 to 10 (915MHz, direct sequence spread spectrum) and 11
to 26 (2.4 GHz, offset-quadrate phase shift keying).
• The above mentioned data rates are theoretical.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• Bluetooth technology has significantly reduced the
costs.
• Bluetooth is attractive for areas and applications it
was not primarily designed for.
• Networks with large number of nodes.
• Bluetooth standard supports construction of larger
network, but does not define how.
• Network structure is very important, as it has
significant effect on the communication properties.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• Bluetooth operate on 2,4GHz to and it has maximal range
for communication about 10m, maximal speed in physical
layer is about 1Mbps, lees of power consumption.
Bluetooth is acceptable for small spaces.
• The functionality of Bluetooth is governed by a public and
royalty-free specification and defined by the Bluetooth
Special Interest Group (SIG).
• The Bluetooth specification defines both hardware and
software layers.
• Traditionally, Bluetooth module manufacturers provide the
necessary Software Development Kit (SDK) to interface
with their modules.
• One of the complexities of Bluetooth development is the
fragmentation of these SDKs and APIs.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Mobile Technologies
• Vendor-specific SDKs force developers to adopt proprietary
APIs for their respective Bluetooth chip sets.
• Bluetooth applications built on top of these APIs are not
portable across devices and platforms.
• Bluetooth specification as defined by Bluetooth SIG is a
functional specification of the technology.
• It does not describe how Bluetooth devices can be
programmed or how applications exercise a Bluetooth
device's functions and utilize communication channels.
• Infra red is able to transmit data for small distance to 30cm
and maximal transmitted speed is about 1.152Mbps. It is a
very suitable solution for synchronization with others
mobile devices or computers. Power consumption is less
too.
WSEAS - ACOMS05 Prague, Czech Republic
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, FEECS, Department of Measurement and Control
Conclusion
• The mentioned use of the information technologies
represents only a part of the most important tools
that are used for the application of the control
systems.
• The meaning of these technologies constantly
grows.
• Because of the limited extent of this article, it is not
possible to focus on this subject in detail.
• Area of the real-time operating systems is also very
important for design and realization of distributed
control systems.
• This wide area is for the separate presentation.
WSEAS - AEE '04 CANCUN, Mexico
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