Fundamentals of Information
Systems, Sixth Edition
Chapter 2
Hardware and Software
Principles and Learning Objectives
• Computer hardware must be carefully selected to
meet the evolving needs of the organization and its
supporting information systems
– Identify and discuss the role of the essential
hardware components of a computer system
– Identify the characteristics of and discuss the usage
of various classes of single-user and multiuser
computer systems
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
2
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• The computer hardware industry and users are
implementing green computing designs and
products
– Define the term green computing and identify the
primary goals of this program
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
3
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Systems and application software are critical in
helping individuals and organizations achieve their
goals
– Identify and briefly describe the functions of the two
basic kinds of software
– Outline the role of the operating system and identify
the features of several popular operating systems
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
4
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Organizations should not develop proprietary
application software unless doing so will meet a
compelling business need that can provide a
competitive advantage
– Discuss how application software can support
personal, workgroup, and enterprise business
objectives
– Identify three basic approaches to developing
application software and discuss the pros and cons
of each
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
5
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• Organizations should choose a programming
language whose functional characteristics are
appropriate for the task at hand, considering the
skills and experience of the programming staff
– Outline the overall evolution and importance of
programming languages and clearly differentiate
among the generations of programming languages
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
6
Principles and Learning Objectives
(continued)
• The software industry continues to undergo
constant change; users need to be aware of recent
trends and issues to be effective in their business
and personal life
– Identify several key software issues and trends that
have an impact on organizations and individuals
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
7
Why Learn About Hardware and
Software?
• Organizations invest in computer hardware to:
– Improve worker productivity
– Increase revenue, reduce costs
– Provide better customer service
• Managers:
– Are expected to know enough about their business
needs to be able to ask tough questions
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
8
Computer Systems: Integrating the
Power of Technology
• To assemble an effective and efficient system:
– You should select and organize components while
understanding the trade-offs between overall system
performance and cost, control, and complexity
• Hardware objectives are:
– Subordinate to, but supportive of, the information
system and the current and future needs of the
organization
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
9
Hardware Components
• Central processing unit (CPU):
– Arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, and the register
areas
• Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU):
– Performs mathematical calculations and makes
logical comparisons
• Control unit:
– Sequentially accesses program instructions,
decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in
and out of the ALU, registers, primary storage, and
even secondary storage and various output devices
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
10
Hardware Components (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
11
Processing and Memory Devices:
Power, Speed, and Capacity
• System unit:
– Houses the components responsible for processing
(the CPU and memory)
• All other computer system devices:
– Are linked either directly or indirectly into the system
unit housing
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
12
Processing Characteristics and
Functions
• Clock speed:
– Series of electronic pulses produced at a
predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time
– Often measured in:
• Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second
• Gigahertz (GHz): billions of cycles per second
• Physical characteristics of the CPU
– Most CPUs are collections of digital circuits
imprinted on silicon wafers, or chips, each no bigger
than the tip of a pencil eraser
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
13
Memory Characteristics and Functions
• Memory:
– Provides the CPU with a working storage area for
programs and data
– Rapidly provides data and instructions to the CPU
• Storage capacity:
– Eight bits together form a byte (B)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
14
Memory Characteristics and Functions
(continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
15
Memory Characteristics and Functions
(continued)
• Types of memory:
– Random access memory (RAM):
• Temporary and volatile
– Read-only memory (ROM):
• Nonvolatile
• Provides permanent storage for data and instructions
that do not change
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
16
Multiprocessing
• Multiprocessing:
– Simultaneous execution of two or more instructions
at the same time
• Multicore microprocessor:
– Combines two or more independent processors into
a single computer
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
17
Multiprocessing (continued)
• Parallel computing:
– Simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple
processors to obtain results faster
• Grid computing:
– Use of a collection of computers to work in a
coordinated manner to solve a common problem
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
18
Secondary Storage and Input and
Output Devices
• Secondary storage:
– Compared with memory, offers the advantages of
nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy
– Considerably slower than memory
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
19
Access Methods
• Sequential access:
– Data must be retrieved in the order in which it is
stored
– Devices used called sequential access storage
devices (SASDs)
• Direct access:
– Records can be retrieved in any order
– Devices used are called direct access storage
devices (DASDs)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
20
Secondary Storage Devices
• Magnetic tapes:
– Primarily for storing backups of critical organizational
data
• Magnetic disks:
– Direct-access storage device
• Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks
(RAID):
– Method of storing data that generates extra bits of
data from existing data
• Virtual tape:
– Storage technology for less frequently needed data
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
21
Secondary Storage Devices
(continued)
• Storage area network:
– Uses computer servers, distributed storage devices,
and networks to tie everything together
• Optical discs:
– Common form of optical disc on which data cannot
be modified once it has been recorded
• Digital video disc (DVD):
– Storage medium used to store software, video
games, and movies
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
22
Secondary Storage Devices
(continued)
• Solid state secondary storage devices:
– Store data in memory chips rather than magnetic or
optical media
– Have few moving parts, so they are less fragile than
hard disk drives
– Disadvantages of SSD:
• High cost per GB of data storage
• Lower capacity compared to current hard drives
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
23
Input Devices
• Devices used to input general types of data:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Personal computer input devices
Speech recognition technology
Digital cameras
Touch-sensitive screens
Optical data readers
Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices
Pen input devices
Magnetic stripe card
Radio Frequency Identification
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
24
Input Devices (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
25
Output Devices
• Display monitors:
– Used to display the output from the computer
– Plasma display:
• Uses thousands of smart cells (pixels) consisting of
electrodes and neon and xenon gases that are
electrically turned into plasma to emit light
– LCD displays:
• Flat displays that use liquid crystals
– Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs):
• Use a layer of organic material sandwiched between
two conductors
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
26
Output Devices (continued)
• Printers and plotters:
– Two main types of printers are laser printers and
inkjet printers
– Plotters are a type of hard-copy output device used
for general design work
• Digital audio player:
– Can store, organize, and play digital music files
• E-books:
– Digital media equivalent of a conventional printed
book
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
27
Computer System Types
• Computer systems:
– Can range from desktop (or smaller) portable
computers to massive supercomputers that require
housing in large rooms
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
28
Computer System Types (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
29
Computer System Types (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
30
Portable Computers
• Handheld computers:
– Single-user computers that provide ease of
portability because of their small size
• Laptop computer:
– Personal computer designed for use by mobile users
• Notebook computers:
– Lightweight computer that weighs less than 5
pounds
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
31
Portable Computers (continued)
• Netbook computer:
– The smallest, lightest, least expensive member of
the laptop computer family
• Tablet computers:
– Portable, lightweight computers with no keyboard
• Smartphone:
– Combines the functionality of a mobile phone,
camera, Web browser, e-mail tool, MP3 player, and
other devices
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
32
Nonportable Single-User Computers
• Thin client:
– Low-cost, centrally managed computer with no extra
drives
• Desktop computers:
– Single-user computer systems that are highly
versatile
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
33
Nonportable Single-User Computers
(continued)
• Nettop computer:
– Inexpensive desktop computer designed to be
smaller, lighter, and consume much less power than
a traditional desktop computer
• Workstations:
– More powerful than personal computers but still
small enough to fit on a desktop
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
34
Multiple-User Computer Systems
• Server:
– Used by many users to perform a specific task, such
as running network or Internet applications
• Blade server:
– Houses many computer motherboards
– The approach requires much less physical space
than traditional server farms
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
35
Multiple-User Computer Systems
(continued)
• Mainframe computer:
– Large, powerful computer shared by hundreds of
concurrent users connected to the machine over a
network
• Supercomputers:
– The most powerful computers with the fastest
processing speed and highest performance
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
36
Green Computing
• Concerned with:
– Efficient and environmentally responsible design,
manufacture, operation, and disposal of IS-related
products
• Goals:
– Reduce the use of hazardous material
– Enable companies to lower their power-related costs
– Enable the safe disposal or recycling of some
700,000 tons of computers each year
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
37
Overview of Software
• Computer programs:
– Sequences of instructions for the computer
• Documentation:
– Describes program functions to help the user
operate the computer system
• Types of software:
– Systems software
– Application software
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
38
Supporting Individual, Group, and
Organizational Goals
• Sphere of influence:
– Scope of problems and opportunities addressed by a
particular organization
• Personal sphere of influence:
– Serve the needs of an individual user
• Personal productivity software:
– Helps users improve their personal effectiveness
• Workgroup:
– When two or more people work together to achieve
a common goal
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
39
Supporting Individual, Group, and
Organizational Goals (continued)
• Workgroup sphere of influence:
– Serves the needs of a workgroup
• Enterprise sphere of influence:
– Supports the firm in its interaction with its
environment
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
40
Installing and Removing New Software
• Before you can use any type of software, it
must be installed on a computer
• Software for personal computers typically comes
on CDs or is downloaded from the Web
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
41
Systems Software
• Includes:
– Operating systems
– Utility programs
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
42
Operating Systems
• Set of programs that controls computer hardware
and acts as an interface with application programs
• Can control one computer or multiple computers, or
• Can allow multiple users to interact with one
computer
• Combinations of OSs, computers, and users:
–
–
–
–
Single computer with a single user
Single computer with multiple users
Multiple computers with multiple users
Special-purpose computers
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
43
Operating Systems (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
44
Operating Systems (continued)
• Activities performed by the operating system:
– Perform common computer hardware functions
– Provide a user interface and input/output
management
– Provide a degree of hardware independence
– Manage system memory
– Manage processing tasks
– Provide networking capability
– Control access to system resources
– Manage files
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
45
Operating Systems (continued)
• Common hardware functions:
–
–
–
–
Get input from keyboard or another input device
Retrieve data from disks
Store data on disks
Display information on a monitor or printer
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
46
Operating Systems (continued)
• User interface and input/output management:
– User interface:
• Allows individuals to access and command the
computer system
– Command-based user interface:
• Requires that text commands be given to the
computer to perform basic activities
– Graphical user interface (GUI):
• Uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send
commands to the computer system
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
47
Operating Systems (continued)
• Hardware independence:
– Application program interface (API):
• Allows applications to make use of the operating
system
• Memory management:
– Allows computer to execute program instructions
effectively and to speed processing
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
48
Operating Systems (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
49
Operating Systems (continued)
• Processing tasks:
– Multitasking:
• More than one program can run at the same time
– Time-sharing:
• Allows more than one person to use a computer
system at the same time
– Scalability:
• Ability of the computer to handle an increasing
number of concurrent users smoothly
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
50
Operating Systems (continued)
• Networking capability:
– Allows computers in a network to send and receive
data and share computing resources
• Access to system resources and security:
– Protection against unauthorized access
– OS establishes a logon procedure
• File management:
– Ensures that files in secondary storage are available
when needed and that they are protected from
access by unauthorized users
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
51
Current Operating Systems
• Microsoft PC operating systems:
– Windows XP
– Windows Vista
– Windows 7
• Apple computer operating systems:
– Wintel
– Snow Leopard (OS X v10.6)
• Linux:
– Red Hat Linux
– Caldera OpenLinux
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
52
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
53
Workgroup Operating Systems
• Windows Server:
– Can be used to prevent unauthorized disclosure of
information
• UNIX:
– Can be used on many computer system types and
platforms
• Red Hat Linux:
– Can manage a cluster of up to eight servers
• Mac OS X Server:
– Includes support for 64-bit processing
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
54
Enterprise Operating Systems
• z/OS:
– IBM’s first 64-bit enterprise OS
• HP-UX and Linux:
– HP-UX:
• Robust UNIX-based OS from Hewlett-Packard
• Supports Internet, database, and business
applications on server and mainframe enterprise
systems
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
55
Operating Systems for Small
Computers, Embedded Computers,
and Special-Purpose Devices
• Cell phone embedded systems and operating
systems:
– Embedded systems provide communication and
limited personal information management services
• Windows embedded:
– Included with or embedded into small computer
devices
• Proprietary Linux-based systems:
– Linux is a major competitor to Symbian
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
56
Utility Programs
• Help to perform maintenance or correct problems
with a computer system
• Some can help computer systems run better and
longer without problems
• Can help to secure and safeguard data
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
57
Utility Programs (continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
58
Application Software
• Application programs:
– Interact with systems software
– Help you perform common tasks, such as:
• Creating and formatting text documents
• Performing calculations
• Managing information
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
59
Types and Functions of Application
Software
• Proprietary software:
– One-of-a-kind program for a specific application,
usually developed and owned by a single company
• Off-the-shelf software:
– Existing software program that is purchased
• Application service provider (ASP):
– Company that can provide software, support, and
computer hardware on which to run the software
from the user’s facilities over a network
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
60
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
61
Overview of Application Software
(continued)
• Software as a service (SaaS):
– Allows businesses to subscribe to Web-delivered
business application software by paying a monthly
service charge or a per-use fee
– Can reduce expenses by sharing its running
applications among many businesses
• Cloud computing:
– Use of computing resources on the Internet (the
cloud) rather than on local computers
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
62
Personal Application Software
•
•
•
•
•
•
Word processing
Spreadsheet analysis
Database applications
Graphics program
Personal information managers
Software suites and integrated software packages
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
63
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
64
Mobile Application Software
• Operating systems designed for smartphones
include:
– OS X iPhone, Android, and WebOS
• Tens of thousands of applications have been:
– Developed by third parties for the iPhone
• Palm WebOS:
– Has only recently released its software development
kit
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
65
Workgroup Application Software
• Support teamwork, whether people are in the same
location or dispersed around the world
• Groupware:
– Software that helps groups of people work together
more effectively
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
66
Workgroup Application Software
(continued)
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
67
Enterprise Application Software
• Software that benefits an entire organization
• Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software:
– Set of integrated programs that manage a
company’s vital business operations for an entire
multisite, global organization
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
68
Application Software for Information,
Decision Support, and Specialized
Purposes
• Available in every industry:
– Specialized application software for information,
decision support, and other purposes
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
69
Programming Languages
• Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules
for constructing statements:
– By which humans can communicate instructions to
be executed by a computer
• Programming:
– Involves translating what a user wants to accomplish
into instructions that the computer can understand
and execute
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
70
Software Issues and Trends
• Software bug:
– Defect in a program that keeps it from performing as
it should
• Some tips for reducing impact of software bugs:
– Register all software
– Check read-me files for workarounds
– Access support area of the manufacturer’s Web site
for patches
– Install latest software updates
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
71
Copyrights and Licenses
• Most software products are protected by law using
copyright or licensing provisions:
– In some cases, you are given unlimited use of
software on one or two computers
– In other cases, you pay for your usage:
• If you use the software more, you pay more
• Some software now requires that you register or
activate it before it can be fully used
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
72
Software Upgrades
• When software companies stop supporting older
software versions or releases:
– Some customers feel forced to upgrade to the newer
software
• Deciding whether to purchase the newest software:
– Can be a problem for corporations and people with a
large investment in software
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
73
Global Software Support
• Supporting local operations:
– One of the biggest challenges IS teams face when
putting together standardized, company-wide
systems
• Trend:
– Outsourcing global support to one or more thirdparty distributors
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
74
Summary
• Hardware:
– The physical components of a computer that perform
the input, processing, storage, and output activities
of the computer
• Green computing:
– Concerned with the efficient and environmentally
responsible design, manufacture, operation, and
disposal of IS-related products
• Software:
– Consists of programs that control the workings of the
computer hardware
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
75
Summary (continued)
• Operating system (OS):
– Set of computer programs that controls the computer
hardware to support users’ computing needs
– Manages tasks to allocate computer resources
through multitasking and time-sharing
• Application software:
– Applies the power of the computer to solve problems
and perform specific tasks
Fundamentals of Information Systems, Sixth Edition
76
Descargar

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition