Mrs. Coyle
Introduction to Chemistry
Part I
Chemistry and Technology
Chemistry
The study of:

the composition (make-up) of matter

the changes that matter undergoes
What is matter?

Anything that:
has mass
and
 occupies space (volume).

Mass vs Weight


Mass: a measure of the amount of
matter that an object contains. (SI
unit kilogram, kg)
Weight: The force with which the
earth pulls on an object. (SI unit
Newton, N)
The 5 Branches of Chemistry
Inorganic
 Organic
 Analytical
 Physical
 Biochemistry

Inorganic Chemistry

The study of chemicals that do not
contain carbon.
Organic Chemistry


The study of chemicals that contain
carbon.
Origin: study of chemicals in living
organisms.
Organic or Inorganic ?

Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4

Methane
CH4

Hydrochloric Acid

Ethane
HCl
C2H6
Analytical Chemistry

Composition of matter.
Ex:
Mass Spectrometer
Gas Chromatograph
http://besg.group.shef.ac.uk/Facilities/Images/gcms.JPG
Physical Chemistry

The study of :
The mechanism
 The rate
 The energy transfer

that happens when matter
undergoes change.
Biochemistry

Study of processes that take place
in organisms.
Science
What?
 Why?
 How?
 When?

Science and Technology

Science  Pure


Does not necessarily have an
application.
Technology  Applied
Has practical applications in society.
 Engineering.

Question: Science or Technology?
Studying or forming aspirin in a lab in
small scale (small amounts).
Question: Science or Technology?

Producing aspirin tablets so that
consumers can use them.
Example: Discovery of Nylon
by Wallace Carothers in 1930’s
http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/nylon/nylon.html
http://heritage.dupont.com/touchpoints/tp_1935-2/depth.shtml
Microscopic- Macroscopic

Micro –(small)


Microscopic- objects can be seen with
a microscope.
Macro-(from afar)

Macroscopic- objects are seen
without a microscope.
Part II – A Brief History and
the Scientific Method
Aristotle (Greece, 4th Century BC)
Philosopher who
believed that:
 There are 4 elements:
earth, water, air, fire.

Matter is perpetually
divisible.
Democritus
(Greece, 4th Century BC)
First atomic theory
 Atom (indivisible).

Alchemists (~300BC-1650 AD)
China, India, Arabia, Europe, Egypt
•Aiming to:
Change common
metals to gold.
Develop medicines.
•Developed lab
equipment.
•Mystical.
Galileo Galilei (Italy 1564 AD)
Father of the
scientific method
(along with the Englishman
Francis Bacon 1500’s).

Antoine Lavoisier
(France 1743-1794)
Regarded as the Father of Chemistry.
 Designed equipment.
 Used observations
and measurements.
 Discovered nitrogen.

Antoine Lavoisier (cont’d)

Discovered the Law of Conservation of
Mass:

In a chemical reaction mass is conserved.
Antoine Lavoisier (cont’d)


Explained burning as reaction with
oxygen.
Old theory: release of “phlogiston”.
Question:

Does an iron nail gain mass or lose
mass when it rusts (a form of burning)?
John Dalton

(England 1766-1844)
Atomic theory
Amedeo Avogadro
(Italy, 1776-1856)


Avogadro’s Number 6.02x1023
One mole of any substance contains
6.02x1023 particles.
Dmitri Mendeléev
(Russia, 1834-1907)

First Periodic Table of elements.
The Scientific Method

Steps followed during scientific
investigations.
Scientific Method


Observation- recognition of a problem.
Hypothesis- a proposed explanation of an
observation





an educated guess
must be testable.
Experiment- a procedure used to test a
hypothesis (measurement, data collection,
manipulated and responding variables)
Theory
Law
Theory




A well tested explanation for a broad
set of observations.
May use models.
May allow predictions.
Theories may change to explain new
observations.
Law


A statement that summarizes results of
observations, but does not explain
them.
Changes or is abandoned when
contradicted by new experiments.
Note:

The order of the steps can vary and
additional steps may be added.
“No number of
experiments can prove
me right;
a single experiment can
prove me wrong.”
Albert Einstein
Part III Math and Chemistry

Math- the language of Science
Units

SI Units –

Basic Units
Length
Mass
Time

International System
(meter)
(kilogram)
(second)
mks
m
kg
s
National Bureau of Standards
Solving Word Problems



Analyze
 List knowns and unknowns.
 Devise a plan.
 Write the math equation to be used.
Calculate
 If needed, rearrange the equation to solve
for the unknown.
 Substitute the knowns with units in the
equation and express the answer with units.
Evaluate
 Is the answer reasonable?
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