Mrs. Coyle Introduction to Chemistry Part I Chemistry and Technology Chemistry The study of: the composition (make-up) of matter the changes that matter undergoes What is matter? Anything that: has mass and occupies space (volume). Mass vs Weight Mass: a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. (SI unit kilogram, kg) Weight: The force with which the earth pulls on an object. (SI unit Newton, N) The 5 Branches of Chemistry Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical Biochemistry Inorganic Chemistry The study of chemicals that do not contain carbon. Organic Chemistry The study of chemicals that contain carbon. Origin: study of chemicals in living organisms. Organic or Inorganic ? Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Methane CH4 Hydrochloric Acid Ethane HCl C2H6 Analytical Chemistry Composition of matter. Ex: Mass Spectrometer Gas Chromatograph http://besg.group.shef.ac.uk/Facilities/Images/gcms.JPG Physical Chemistry The study of : The mechanism The rate The energy transfer that happens when matter undergoes change. Biochemistry Study of processes that take place in organisms. Science What? Why? How? When? Science and Technology Science Pure Does not necessarily have an application. Technology Applied Has practical applications in society. Engineering. Question: Science or Technology? Studying or forming aspirin in a lab in small scale (small amounts). Question: Science or Technology? Producing aspirin tablets so that consumers can use them. Example: Discovery of Nylon by Wallace Carothers in 1930’s http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/nylon/nylon.html http://heritage.dupont.com/touchpoints/tp_1935-2/depth.shtml Microscopic- Macroscopic Micro –(small) Microscopic- objects can be seen with a microscope. Macro-(from afar) Macroscopic- objects are seen without a microscope. Part II – A Brief History and the Scientific Method Aristotle (Greece, 4th Century BC) Philosopher who believed that: There are 4 elements: earth, water, air, fire. Matter is perpetually divisible. Democritus (Greece, 4th Century BC) First atomic theory Atom (indivisible). Alchemists (~300BC-1650 AD) China, India, Arabia, Europe, Egypt •Aiming to: Change common metals to gold. Develop medicines. •Developed lab equipment. •Mystical. Galileo Galilei (Italy 1564 AD) Father of the scientific method (along with the Englishman Francis Bacon 1500’s). Antoine Lavoisier (France 1743-1794) Regarded as the Father of Chemistry. Designed equipment. Used observations and measurements. Discovered nitrogen. Antoine Lavoisier (cont’d) Discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass: In a chemical reaction mass is conserved. Antoine Lavoisier (cont’d) Explained burning as reaction with oxygen. Old theory: release of “phlogiston”. Question: Does an iron nail gain mass or lose mass when it rusts (a form of burning)? John Dalton (England 1766-1844) Atomic theory Amedeo Avogadro (Italy, 1776-1856) Avogadro’s Number 6.02x1023 One mole of any substance contains 6.02x1023 particles. Dmitri Mendeléev (Russia, 1834-1907) First Periodic Table of elements. The Scientific Method Steps followed during scientific investigations. Scientific Method Observation- recognition of a problem. Hypothesis- a proposed explanation of an observation an educated guess must be testable. Experiment- a procedure used to test a hypothesis (measurement, data collection, manipulated and responding variables) Theory Law Theory A well tested explanation for a broad set of observations. May use models. May allow predictions. Theories may change to explain new observations. Law A statement that summarizes results of observations, but does not explain them. Changes or is abandoned when contradicted by new experiments. Note: The order of the steps can vary and additional steps may be added. “No number of experiments can prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Albert Einstein Part III Math and Chemistry Math- the language of Science Units SI Units – Basic Units Length Mass Time International System (meter) (kilogram) (second) mks m kg s National Bureau of Standards Solving Word Problems Analyze List knowns and unknowns. Devise a plan. Write the math equation to be used. Calculate If needed, rearrange the equation to solve for the unknown. Substitute the knowns with units in the equation and express the answer with units. Evaluate Is the answer reasonable?