Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE I. The Silk Road A. Origins and Operations • Parthians (247 BCE) • General Zhang Jian (128 BCE) • New cities • Goods exchanged from East – West B. The Sasanid Empire, 224 – 600 CE • Artifacts, sedentary warrior elite • Purpose of cities • New crops in Mediterranean • State religion – Zoroastrianism (intolerance) B. The Sasanid Empire Continued • 431 CE – Nestorian Christians declared heretics by Byzantine Empire • Third c. – rise of Manichaeism • Competition for converts along Silk Road C. The Impact of the Silk Road • Growing importance of trade • Nomads – dwellings • Competing religions • Military technology • Impact of stirrup What is the connection between Manichaeism and Nestorian Christians to the Silk Road? Why do you think these religions were considered a threat? II. The Indian Ocean Maritime System 1. South China Sea 2. East coast of India to islands of 3. • Southeast Asia West coast of India to Persian Gulf and East coast of Africa Dominant traders in each region – exceptions Mediterranean Indian Ocean •Square sails, •Triangular sails, oars, nails •Close to shore, many islands, small harbors •Contact with homeland lack of oars, sewn together •Long distance – Monsoon winds •No contact with homeland A. Origins of Contact and Trade • Early/late records • Indonesian migration to Madagascar • Impact on African mainland – canoes and agriculture B. Impact of Indian Ocean Trade • Goods from Africa and Middle East • Volume of trade • Western Indian Ocean ports – isolated, not primarily focused on trade • Eastern Indian Ocean ports – larger inland populations, trade VERY important • Role of women • Why were ports that were part of the West Indian Ocean trade routes less integrated in the surrounding landscape than East Indian Ocean ports? III. Routes Across the Sahara • Trans – • • • • • • Saharan caravan routes Cave paintings Cattle, horses, chariots CAMELS North – South Salt – forest products Impact of Rome • Compare the impact of technology on Saharan trade routes to the Indian Ocean Maritime trade. IV. Sub – Saharan Africa A. Geography, geography, geography… • 4,000 miles from Sahara to Cape of Good Hope • Palindrome effect • Tropical rainforest, deserts, savannah, Mediterranean climate • Rivers, rift valleys, cataracts Culture, Technology, and Migrations • Great traditions vs. • • • • • • • small traditions Geographic isolation Language, agriculture Music, kinship, dance Migration after Ice Age Bananas How did iron smelting reach sub – Saharan Africa? Bantu Migration – origins, language • What impact did the physical geography of Africa have on the cultural development of people living in sub – Saharan Africa? V. The Spread of Ideas A. Ideas and Material Evidence • Pig domestication – origins – prohibition • Coins – Anatolia – spread to Europe, North Africa, and India…China? B. The Spread of Buddhism • Not tied to a single ethnic/kinship group • Impact of kings and Silk Road travelers • Faxian (Early 5th c.) – Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Java, China • Ashoka’s missionaries • Different lands – Mahayana or Theravada Buddhism C. The Spread of Christianity • Spread in Asia and Africa – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria…Armenia and Ethiopia • Armenia – strategic Silk Road location • Zoroastrianism • Alphabet • Constantinople – missionaries to Yemen and Ethiopia • 4th c. CE – Aedisius and Frumentius in Ethiopia • Nubia • Why is it more difficult to trace the spread of Buddhism or Christianity than the spread of coin technology? • What factors enabled the spread of Buddhism and Christianity in Asia and Africa?