Activity 1(30 min) (From Plenary)
Instructions:
1. Participants must work in pairs.
2. Each receives a list of questions (Appendix 1).
3. Discuss and answer the questions on the grid.
4. At the end, the entire group discusses the
answers.
5. Participants are provided with a list of answers.
6. Participants are also provided with Advocacy
booklets.
2.1 Rationale, Features and
Philosophy
2
Understanding Business Studies – Activity 1(30 min)
1. Participants to form groups of 3 – 10 members.
2. Discuss the skills that learners can acquire from
Business Studies.
3. Discuss the four main Business Studies topics and
their weighting.
4. Classify the topics from the ‘Overview of topics per
term’ (Appendix 2), according to the main topics.
5. Report back the discussions.
6. Resources: CAPS/ Overview of topics, Koki pens and
Flip charts.
3
Consolidation of Activity 1
4
Business Studies Skills
Among the others:
• critical thinking and analytical skills, alongside familiarity with
evaluative techniques;
• a creative problem-solving approach and sound, logical decisionmaking skills;
• effective and persuasive written and oral communication skills;
• numeracy and the ability to research, interpret and use business
and financial data and information;
• self-reliance, initiative and the ability to manage time, projects
and resources;
• appreciation of the causes and effects of economic and other
external changes.
• understanding organisational behaviour and structure; etc.
Four main Topics
1.Business
Environments
2.Business
Ventures
3.Business
Roles
4.Business
Operations
Weighting of topics
Weighting of Curriculum
Topic
Weeks
Business environments
1. Micro, market and macro environments
3
(weighting 25%)
2. Business sectors
2
3. Contemporary socio-economic issues
2
Business ventures
4. Entrepreneurship
1
(weighting 25%)
5. Avenues of acquiring business
1
6. Transform a business plan into an action plan
2
7. Forms of ownership
2
8. Start a business venture based on an action plan
2
9. Business location
1
10. Presentation of business information
1
Weighting of topics
Weighting of Curriculum
Topic
Weeks
Business roles (weighting
11. Creative thinking and problem-solving
1
25%)
12. Professionalism and ethics
1
13. The citizenship roles and responsibilities
1
14. Relationship and team performance
1
15. Team stages and dynamics theories and
conflict management
Business operations
16. Business functions (Marketing Production &
(weighting 25%)
Human Resource)
All topics across
17. Revision and exams
2
9
8
Classification of Grade 11 Topics
TERM
TOPICS
1
Control factors and
influence business
environments
Challenges on
environments
Adapting to
challenges in
environments
•Business sectors
Forms of ownership
2
Creative thinking and
problem solving
Stress, crisis and
change management
Transform a business
plan into an action
plan
Starting a business
venture based on an
action plan
Professionalism and
ethics
Presentation of
Avenues of acquiring
Business Information
a business
3
4
Assessment of
Team Stages,
entrepreneurial
dynamics
qualities in business theories and
conflict
Citizenship roles
management
and responsibilities
Introduction to
Marketing function the Human
Resources
Production function function
2.2 Content
Mapping
10
Activity 2 (60 minutes)
INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Study the Content Framework (APPENDIX 3) and the Annual
Teaching Plan in the Business Studies CAPS document. Compare
the topics, identify and list the following:
– new content in Grade 11 CAPS
– content moved from one grade to Grade 11; and
2. How is the content structured in the CAPS as compared to the
Subject Statement?
3. Choose someone in the group to report the group discussions.
4. Resources: Subject Statement, LPG, Content framework (APPENDIX
3), Annual Teaching Plan in the Business Studies CAPS document,
Koki pens and Flip charts.
ACTIVITY 3 (60 Minutes)
INSTRUCTIONS:
• Participants to form groups of 3-10 members.
• Use content map (Appendix 4).
• Study the Business Studies content map and comment on
progression of content from one grade to another.
• How would you support the delivery of curriculum in Grade 10 in
order to make sure that progression of content to Grade 11 is
achieved?
• What would you do if you find gaps in the learners’ content
knowledge for a specific topic that progresses into grade 11.
• Choose someone in the group to report back. (10 minutes)
Consolidation of Activities
Content Overview
TOPIC
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
GRADE 12
Micro, market and
macro
environments
Components, features and
Interrelationship between
the three environments
Influences, Control Factors,
Challenges and adaptation of
business environments.

Business sectors
Links between various sectors.
Business sector and its
environment
Contemporary
socio-economic
issues
Classification of business
sectors
Formal and informal sectors
Public and private sectors
Identify contemporary socioeconomic issues that impact
on business
Social responsibility and Social
Corporate Responsibility (CSR)
Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurial qualities.
Business
opportunity and
related factors
Research instrument
Business opportunities
New ideas
Impact and challenges of
contemporary socio-economic
issues: Intellectual property
rights.
The concept and how much
business embraces
entrepreneurial
Key success factors, e.g.
sustainability, profitability,
customer base, etc. Identify
areas for improvement
None

Devise, evaluate and
recommend strategies
Recent legislation
None
None
Content Overview
TOPIC
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
GRADE 12
Business Plan
Development of a business
plan (including a financial
analysis)
Transformation of a business plan
into an action plan
Management
and leadership
Management and Leadership
in the Micro environment
None
Management and
leadership styles and
approaches
Forms of
ownership
Definition, characteristics,
advantages, disadvantages
and differences.
Establishing a company vs. other
forms of ownership.
Formation of companies: MOI
Name and prospectus
Contribution of form of
ownership to the success or
failure of a business
Setting up a
business
None
Starting a business venture based on
an action plan
None
Contracts
Contracts and their legal
implications
Avenues of acquiring businesses (e.g. Investment insurance
franchising)
Business
location
Factors that impact on
business location decisions
None
None
Content Overview
TOPIC
Investment:
securities
Investment:
insurance
Presentation
information
Creative
thinking and
problemsolving
Self-manage
ment
professionalis
m and ethics
GRADE 10
Introduction to investments in
financing function
None
Verbal and non-verbal
presentation of a variety of
business information
Creative thinking vs.
successful business practice
problem-solving
Concept of self-management in
a business context
GRADE 11
GRADE 12
None
Business investment
opportunities, e.g. shares
None
Investment opportunities:
assurance and insurance
Verbal and non-verbal; respond Verbal and non-verbal; amend
professionally to questions and information as necessary
feedback
Creative thinking to address
Creative thinking to respond to
business problems and to
challenges in dynamic and
improve business practice
complex business contexts
Theories and principles
of professionalism and
ethics. The principles
and skills of professional,
responsible, ethical and
effective business
practice
Professional, responsible,
ethical and effective business
practice . Recommendations
for improvement
Content Overview
TOPIC
GRADE 10
GRADE 11
GRADE 12
Human Rights,
inclusivity and
environmental
issues
None
None
Business addresses issues
of human rights, inclusivity
and environmental issues.
Social
responsibility
Contribution towards
immediate community
Social responsibility and CSR
The citizenship roles
and responsibilities
Contribute time and effort
to advancing the wellbeing of others
Stress, crisis,
None
change, conflict
management
Concepts relating to
Conflict management skills
stress, crisis and change to resolve differences in
management.
business situations
Relationship
and team
performance
Team Stages and Team Achievement of specific
dynamics, and theories. objectives.
Recap : criteria, stages,
team dynamics and
theories
Accomplish business
objectives. Criteria for
successful and collaborative
team performance
Content Overview
TOPIC
Business
functions
GRADE 10
Eight business functions
Relatedness of business
functions
The National Credit Act 34 of
2005 and the National
Consumer Protection Act 68
of 2008, and their impact on
the purchasing and marketing
functions.
GRADE 11
GRADE 12
Marketing function.
Legislation regarding
Human Resources.
Production function:
Employee benefits;
Production planning and skills development
control.
Introduction to
Human Resources
Function
Levels and tasks of general
management
Quality of
performance
Quality in relation to the
various business functions
None
How quality of
performance can influence
a business
2.3 Planning
Activity 4 (a)(45 Min)
1. Participants study Grade 11 content in the CAPS and answer the
following questions:
a. What level(s) of planning are necessary from here?
b. How would the Summary of Annual Teaching Plan assist you in
planning?
2. Pacing: Is the time allocation across 40 weeks (weeks/hours)
helpful in terms of planning for teaching, learning and
assessment?
3. Sequencing: Discuss sequencing of content and give meaning to
how the content or topics are linked to form a workable chain.
4. Report back and discuss.
Activity 4 (b) (30 min)
Instructions:
1. Study how the CAPS (Annual teaching plan) is
structured. How would you prepare your lesson and
what elements can you put in a lesson preparation?
2. What goes into the Teacher’s file?
3. Are the suggested LTSM/resources in the CAPS
appropriate? Motivate and provide more suggestions?
(A CD is provided to districts for distribution).
4. Report Back and Discuss
5. Resources: Subject Statement, CAPS, Koki pens and
Flip charts.
Consolidation of Activities
22
Summary of planning
• Planning is important and necessary
• For accountability to parents, officials and other
stakeholders
• A proper annual teaching plan gives teachers a plan in
terms of content, resources, assessment, starting and
completion time
• A proper lesson preparation must state the topic
covered, date started and completed, textbook/
resources used, and assessment. See example below
Planning
SUBJECT: _________________________ GRADE: ______
Topic
Content
Date
started
Completion
date
Specific
Resources
used per
Topic/sub
topic
TERM: ___
Assessment
(specifics – refer to
templates,
examples, etc in
teacher working
file)
•Lesson preparation in the teacher’s working file.
•Learner books as evidence of teaching and learning process
•Recording and reporting of learner performance as evidence
•Hint: Annual teaching plan can be adapted for this purpose
(completely optional)
Teacher File (5 min)
• What is the importance of a teacher file?
Each teacher must keep a single file for planning and
moderation purposes.
• What are the essential requirements of a teacher
file?
The file must consist of:
• Annual work schedule/Annual teaching plan
• A record of starting of the lesson and completion
date.
• Assessment Plan
Teacher File
• Formal Assessment Tasks and memoranda
• Indication of Textbook(s) and any other resources to
be used
• Record sheets containing learners’ marks for each
formal assessment task
• Any intervention that is planned by the teacher to
assist learners especially those who are experiencing
barriers to learning.
Resources (5 min)
Resources to offer Business Studies as a subject are the responsibility of the school.
• Each learner should have:
– a textbook
– stationery
– other relevant resources.
• The teacher should have:
– a variety of textbooks for reference
– a Partnership’s Articles of Association
– Legislation, e.g. :
• Companies Act, 71 of 2008,
• Employment Equity Act No. 55 of 1998,
• Intellectual Property Act No. 51 of 2008
• National Credit Act No. 34 of 2005,
• Consumer Protection Act No. 68 of 2008,
• Basic Conditions of Employment Act No. 75 of 1997,
Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Labour Relations Act No. 66 of 1995,
Black Economic Empowerment Act No.53 of 2003,
Skills Development Act No.97 of 1998,
Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993,
Hire Purchase Act,
Long-term Insurance Act 52 of 1998,
Short-term Insurance Act 53 of 1998, etc.
Memorandum of Incorporation (MOI) - new founding document of a company
Specimen of contract forms
Bank brochures
Business and financial magazines
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Policy – any company
The King Code of Governance for South Africa 2009
Textbooks/LTSM
• effective tool for teaching and learning
• presents all the topics in the content overview
• knowledge and concepts are well scaffolded to
provide understanding and insight
• variety of activities/ exercises that are clear and
address different cognitive levels.
NB: Each learner should have a textbook per subject to take home to
study and do homework.
Grade 10 Approved Books – Catalogue
•Via Afrika Business Studies Grade 10
• Oxford Successful Business Grade 10
•Business Studies FastTrack Grade 10
•Business Studies Platinum Business Studies 10
•Business Studies Solutions for all Grade 10
•Focus Business Studies Grade 10
•Enjoy Business studies Grade 10
•Business Studies Grade 10 OBE
•VIA Afrika Bedryfstudie Graad 10
•Oxford Suksesvolle besigheidstudies Graad 10
• Almal Verstaan besigheidstudies Graad 10
•Verken besigheidstudies Graad 10
•Geniet besigheidstudies Graad 10
•Besigheidstudies OBE Graad 10
CONTENT FOR GRADE 11
• Intellectual Property Law (Act No. 51 of 2008)
• Business Success Factors
• Presentation of Business related information
• Formation of Company
• Team Dynamics
• Production Planning and Control
31
ASSESSMENT TASKS
1.
a.
b.
c.
Allocate the following to each group for new content to follow:
Set five short and objective questions,
Set two paragraph questions ( including data response, case studies)
with memo
Set an essay question and memo guideline that indicates
introduction, body and conclusion, indicating the relevant headings
and sub-headings
Note: Take the required cognitive levels into recognition when setting the
questions above.
Set the questions and allocate marks in alignment with the
requirement of NSC for Business studies
32
CONTENT TOPIC 1
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS
33
Intellectual Property
ACTIVITY 1: (60 min)
Instructions:
• Participants to form groups of 3 -10
• Name and discuss the examples of the works protected by
intellectual property laws.
• Discuss in your groups how copyright infringements affect the
South African economy.
• Discuss the implementation of copyright infringement
penalties and the effectiveness of law in South Africa.
• Report your reasons to the entire group.
Objectives
•
•
•
•
•
Define intellectual property
Understand and avoid plagiarism
Understand copyright and avoid infringement
Understand trademarks
Understand patents
Plagiarism is the use of another person’s words or
ideas without giving proper credit.
36
What is Intellectual Property
• Intellectual property is the legal ownership of an idea
rather than a thing
• It is the “blueprint” of a house not the house
‘‘intellectual property’’ • means any creation of the mind that is capable of being
protected by law from use by any other person, whether in terms
of South African law or foreign intellectual property law,
• includes any rights in such creation, but excludes copyrighted
works such as a thesis, dissertation, article, handbook or any
other publication which, in the ordinary course of business, is
associated with conventional academic work
37
Patent
• “Patent” means a certificate in the prescribed form
to the effect that a patent for an invention has been
granted in the Republic.
• “Patented article” means any article in respect of
which a patent has been granted and is for the time
being in force.
What is Copyright?
• Copyright is a law protecting literary, scholarly, and
artistic works from unauthorized copying
• International treaties offer the similar protections across
national borders
• Works Protected:
• Literary works
• Musical works
• Dramatic works
• Choreographic works
• Pictorial, graphic, & sculptural works
39
What is Copyright?
Works Protected:
(a) literary works;
(b) musical works;
(c) artistic works;
(d) cinematograph films;
(e) sound recordings;
(f) broadcasts;
(g) programme-carrying signals;
(h) published editions;
(i) computer programs.
40
What is Copyright?
Not Protected
• Performance not recorded
• Titles, names, short phrases, slogans, familiar symbols or
designs
• Blank forms that collect information
• Works consisting entirely of information that is common
property e.g. Markings in centimetres/mm on a ruler or
tape measure
• Ideas, procedures, methods, systems, processes, etc. –
these can be patented
41
Ownership of Copyright
a) The ownership of any copyright shall vest in the author
or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, in the coauthors of the work.
b) Where a literary or artistic work is made by an author in
the course of his employment by the proprietor the said
proprietor shall be the owner of the copyright.
c) Where a person commissions the drawing of a portrait
or taking of a photograph, pays or agrees to pay and the
work is made in pursuance of that commission, such
person shall becomes the owner of any copyright.
42
Ownership of Copyright
d) Where in a case the author’s employment by another
person under a contract of service or apprenticeship,
that other person shall be the owner of any copyright.
e) Paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) shall in any particular case
have effect subject to any agreement excluding the
operation thereof and subject to the provisions of
section 20 of the act (Moral rights).
f) Ownership of any copyright shall initially vest in the
state or the international organization concerned, and
not in the author.
43
Infringement of Copyright and Penalties
1. Any person who at a time when copyright subsists in a
work, without the authority of the owner of the copyright—
(a) makes for sale or hire;
(b) sells or lets for hire or by way of trade offers or exposes
for sale or hire;
(c) by way of trade exhibits in public;
(d) imports into the Republic otherwise than for his private
or domestic use;
(e) distributes for purposes of trade; or
Infringement of Copyright and Penalties
(f) distributes for any other purposes to such an extent that
the owner of the copyright is prejudicially
– affected,
– articles which he knows to be infringing copies of the work, shall
be guilty of an offence.
2. Any person who at a time when copyright subsists in a
work makes or has in his possession a plate knowing that
it is to be used for making infringing copies of the work,
shall be guilty of an offence.
3. Any person who causes a literary or musical work to be
performed in public knowing that copyright subsists in the
work and that performance constitutes an infringement of
the copyright, shall be guilty of an offence.
Infringement of Copyright and Penalties
4. Any person who causes a broadcast to be rebroadcast
or transmitted in a diffusion service knowing that
copyright subsists in the broadcast and that such
rebroadcast or transmission constitutes an infringement
of the copyright, shall be guilty of an offence.
5. Any person who causes programme-carrying signals to
be distributed by a distributor for whom they were not
intended knowing that copyright subsists in the signals
and that such distribution constitutes an infringement
of the copyright, shall be guilty of an offence.
Infringement of Copyright and Penalties
6. A person convicted of an offence under this section shall
be liable—
(a) in the case of a first conviction, to a fine not exceeding
five thousand rand (R5 000) or to imprisonment for a
period not exceeding three years (3 y)or to both such fine
and such imprisonment, for each article to which the
offence relates;
(b) in any other case, to a fine not exceeding ten thousand
rand (R10 000) or to imprisonment for a period not
exceeding five years (5y) or to both such fine and such
imprisonment, for each article to which the offence
relates.
What is a Trademark?
• A Trademark™ is a word, phrase, symbol or design, or a
combination of words, phrases, symbols or designs, that
identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of
one party from those of others.
• A Service Mark℠ is the same as a trademark, except that
it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service
rather than a product.
What is a Trademark?
Beware:
• The Internet does not edit for copyright, trademarks,
service mark or plagiarism
• Just because it is on the Internet does not mean it is not
protected
CONTENT TOPIC 2
BUSINESS VENTURES
50
Business Success and
Failures
ACTIVITY 2.1 ( 60 min)
Instructions:
•Participants to form groups of 3 – 10.
•Individually give some ideas about business success and failures.
•Then compare your ideas within your group.
•Group together ideas that you all agree on in your answers and
begin to get a better understanding of the things that can define
business success and failures.
•Now that you have spent some time looking at what you think
business success is about, spend some time looking at how
businesses themselves might define success.
•Report back your discussion.
Introduction
Many people start out with the intention of setting
up a business to make it a success.
There may be a variety of reasons for starting a new
business - making some money might be one.
But there are other reasons as well such as the
challenge, the desire to take responsibility and control
of your own future and so on.
Factors Contributing to Success









Profitability
Customer base / stakeholders
Ethical behaviour
Sustainability
Brand awareness
Effective Communication
Compatible Corporate Cultures
Integrative conflict resolution and negotiation
Entrepreneurial qualities
Defining Business Success
The first and most obvious measure of success is looking at
profit.
Profit is the difference between the total amount received
through sales (total revenue) and the total expenditure on
selling those products (total cost).
Profit = Total Revenue - Total Cost (Π = TR - TC)
TR = P x Q sold
TC = Fixed Costs (FC) + Variable Costs (VC)
Defining Business Success
The basic definition above is fairly simple but it can hide
a number of different problems that you need to be aware
of.
A firm might represent profit in different ways.
There is gross profit, net profit and profit margins
and it is important that you are aware of the differences
between these three terms.
Let us use an example based on a typical local
newspaper as an example to illustrate the differences.
Calculations
Gross Profit: The gross profit is the total revenue
minus the cost of sales - the cost
Net Profit: fixed costs plus variable costs = total costs
and less from the Gross profit. This measure of profit is
called the 'net profit‘.
The profit margin of any item is the difference between
the selling price and the cost of producing it.
Profit and Success
When looking at profit, therefore, we have to
be careful to look a bit more closely at what
measure of profit we are talking about, i.e.
gross profit, net profit or profit margin.
What is Business Failure?
You might think that a successful business is one that makes a
profit. This was one of the factors that might help us to judge
the success of a business. However, the amount of profit made
is also important.
Let us take an example of a small business - your local butcher,
for example. In 2007, the business made a profit of R30,000. In
2008, the profit came in at R12,000. Does this mean that s/he is
failing? What would your response be now if we told you that in
2009 they made a loss of R3,000? Would this mean that they
had 'gone bust'?
This type of movement in profit levels is typical of many businesses.
What is Business Failure?
Some years are much better than others: there might be particular
reasons for the dip in profits and it would be difficult to make any
judgement about the business until we knew more about the
background to the reasons.
We need to think carefully about what we mean by profit. There
is a good deal of confusion over this term.
Many people confuse profit with revenue, price with costs and
regularly refer to 'making money' without being more precise on
what this actually means.
What is Business Failure?
A dip in profits could be explained by the firm having higher
costs for a short period of time - perhaps because they have
decided to extend the shop, maybe the costs of buying raw
materials have increased or it could be due to a slump in sales.
Making sure that we understand what these figures mean is
an important part of building our understanding of business
failure.
Business failure is not just a case of making a loss - many firms
make a loss but do not 'go bust'. So business failure must be
something more than making a loss.
Business Failure
There are a number of reasons why a business might fail - some
are to do with the business itself and some are outside the
business's control
First provide learners with a worksheet and instruct them
to answer the questions about what they think business
failure is all about.
Causes of Business Failure
The following are some possible causes of business
failure.
Cash flow problems
Poor business planning
Fall in demand for the product
Rise in costs or a lack of control of costs
Writing Business Reports,
Memos and Flyers
64
Activity 2.2 (60 min)
• Instructions
• Participants to form groups of 3 - 10
• Design a flyer for your new plumbing business
to advertise your business in the local
community. Use an A5 sheet of paper.
• Report back to the group.
• PowerPoint presentation to consolidate the
activity.
65
How to Write a Business Flyer
• Write an eye-catching headline to attract attention.
• Put it in big letters at the top of your flyer.
• Your headline should be readable from a meter or two
away.
• Compose several bullet points of information about the
advantages of your business.
• Keep your points short and clear. Make sure they
demonstrate why your business is the best choice a
customer can make.
• Create incentives for people to use your business.
66
How to Write a Business Flyer
• Consider adding a coupon, mentioning a special offer, or
advertising sale prices on the flyer.
• Make sure you've included the location, hours and contact
information for your business.
• Since this information is less important, keep it in a
simple, smaller writing or font.
• Check that your flyer is easy to read.
• The rest of the flyer should be neatly organized and in a
readable writing or font.
67
Types of Business Flyers
•
•
•
•
•
Business promotion
Job advertisement
Sales Promotion/advertising
Information flyer
Event flyer
68
Example of a Sales Promotion Flyer
PROMOTION TITLE
Place text here that describes your product or service. This text should be brief and should
entice the reader to want to know more about the goods or services you are offering.
 List items and features here.
 List items and features here.
00% Off
Date of Sale:
Time of Sale:
Describe your location by landmark or area of town.
Primary Business Address
Your Address Line 2
Your Address Line 3
Your Address Line 4
Name of Organization / logo
Phone: 555-555-5555
Fax: 555-555-5555
E-mail: [email protected]
Your business tag line here, e.g.
(We offer the best!!)
69
Job advertisement Flyer
GREAT JOB AVAILABLE WITH GROWING COMPANY
Are you looking for opportunity? This is the position that will give that to you. If you are motivated and
hard working, we want to hear from you. This is a management position. (Describe position in full)
POSITION INFORMATION
Occupation: Management
Industry: IT - Internet
Job Type: Full-Time
Education: 2 Year College
Salary: R160,000 per year
JOB FUNCTIONS
• Lead a small team of employees
• Project management lead
• Employee performance reports
• Manage quality of system data
• Report system problems to IT
COMPANY INFORMATION
JOB BENEFITS
• Medical Aid Scheme
• Housing Allowance
• Car Allowance
• Annual Bonuses
Go Smart Solutions, LLC
Jake Johnson
1340 Burbank Blvd
Richards Bay, 3880
035-843-3071
Email Us
Visit Company Website
ABOUT OUR COMPANY
Go Smart Solutions, LLC partners combined have over 30 years experience in the technology field. This experience and
our dedication to our customers has allowed us to stay on top of the latest, cutting edge web technologies.
70
REPORTS
71
Reports
•Reports are documents which present specific,
focused content - often the result of an
experiment, investigation, or inquiry to a specific
audience.
To give the information
To record events for decision making
To recommend specific action.
•There are formal and informal/semi-formal
reports
72
Objective of Reports
• It helps management to identify the reason(s)
underlying the situation that management
already knows.
73
How to Write Reports
A report should include the following:
•Introduction
•Background
•Body (Discussion)
•Conclusion (Make recommendation)
•References
•Appendixes
74
How to write a Report
• Introduction
– Purpose and Scope; Limitations, Assumptions, and
Methods
• Background/History of the Problem/context/overview
• Body
– Discussion
– Presents and interprets data
• Conclusions and Recommendations/present
findings/propose idea.
• References or Works Cited
• Appendixes – if there are any.
– Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question
tallies, printouts, and previous reports
75
MEMOS
76
How to Write Memos
Memorandum should include the following:
• Subject Line
• Introduction
• Discussion
• Conclusion
77
Subject Line
• 100% of readers read the subject line
• Write the “focus” and “topic” for the subject
line
– For example, Don’t just write: “Administrators”
– Do write:
•
•
•
•
•
“Salary Increases for Administrators”
“Termination of Comptroller Administrators ”
“Hiring Procedures for Administrators”
“Vacation Schedules for Administrators”
“Training Seminars for Administrators”
78
Introduction of the Memo
• Write one or two clear introductory sentences
– What you want
– Why you are writing
• Examples:
– “In the third of our series of quality control meetings
this quarter, I’d like to get together again to
determine if improvements have been made.”
– “As a follow-up to our phone conversation yesterday
(11/2/12), I have met with VP regarding your
suggestions. He’d like to meet with you to discuss the
following ideas in more detail.”
79
Discussion
• Respond with the reporter’s questions:
– Who, What, When, Why, Where, and How
• Make your information accessible by applying
highlighting techniques
– Itemization
– White space
– Boldface type
– Headings
– Columns
– Graphics
80
Conclusion
• Conclude with either a complimentary close or a
directive close
– Complimentary close: motivates readers and leave
them happy
• “If our quarterly sales continue to improve at this rate, we
will double our sales expectations by 2013.
Congratulations!”
– Directive close: tells readers exactly what you want
them to do next or provides dated action
• “Next Wednesday (15/03/12), Mr. Jones will provide each of
you a timetable of events and a summary of
accomplishments.”
81
Activity 2.3(60min)
1. Read the scenario below and answer the questions that follow:
•Scenario:
•“You are a supervisor and realize that your staffing needs have
increased due to the changes in the current year’s enrolment.
Write a memo requesting more funds to the director of your
department”.
•Pre-write: Answer who, what, when, why, where, and how
•Write: Draft the memo using the correct memo format and
checklist
•Re-write: Check for errors, flow, and tone
2. Name and explain the elements of report writing.
3. Report Back the Discussion.
4. Display an example of a Memo to participants.
82
Example of a Memo
To:
From:
Mrs. Peters, Supervisor
Dianna Moreno, Sales Manager DM
Date:
March 7, 2012
Re:
Product Promotions
Next Wednesday (14/03/2012), Mrs Khoza will
provide each of you a timetable of product
promotions and a summary of sales
accomplishments.”
Call me if you have questions: (014) 555-7355.
83
Formation of a Company
ACTIVITY 3: (120 Min)
Instructions:
1. “One or more persons may incorporate a profit
company and three or more a non-profit company. A
company is incorporated by completing and filing a MOI
and a Notice of Incorporation”. With this statement in
mind, discuss the following:
a. Company registration.
b. Memorandum of Incorporation.
c. Name of the company
d. Prospectus
2. Report to the entire group.
3. PowerPoint presentation to consolidate the activity.
Consolidation of Activity
86
Company Registration
‘‘Company’’ means a juristic person incorporated in terms of this
Act, or a juristic person that, immediately before the effective date
was registered in terms of the act.
One or more persons may incorporate a profit company and three
or more a non-profit company.
A company is incorporated by completing and filing a MOI and a
Notice of Incorporation.
Registration is effected by signature of the MOI by the requisite
number of persons and by filing it together with the prescribed
Notice of Incorporation at CIPC, together with payment of the
prescribed fee.
The Memorandum of Incorporation (MOI)
1.The founding document of a company under the Act.
2.It must be consistent with the Act and is void to the
extent it contravenes or is inconsistent with the Act.
3.It may incorporate “special conditions” applicable to the
company and any requirements for the amendment of any
such condition.
4.It may prohibit the amendment of any particular
provision of the MOI in which case the Notice of
Incorporation must clearly point this out.
The Memorandum of Incorporation (MOI)
5. Where there are “special conditions” it should be
stipulated in the MOI. Such a condition can be ring
fencing. In this case, the name of the company must
have Ring Fencing (RF) at the end. (Refer Teacher’s
guide p. 14 of Companies’ Act 71 of 2008)
If assets of a subsidiary are ring fenced, it means that
its assets are protected, included or excluded, from
exploitation, litigation and insolvency of the parent
company.
The Memorandum of Incorporation (MOI)
6. The Act distinguishes between ‘alterable
provisions’, which can be effectively amended
by the MOI and ‘unalterable provisions’, which
may not be overridden by the MOI.
7. The MOI can deal with any matter that the
Act does not address and may alter the effect
of any provision in the Act which is an
‘alterable provision’.
90
Company Name
Criteria for name of companies
•Company names will no longer be required to be
descriptive.
•Names may be in any language together with any:
1.Letters, numbers, punctuation marks
2.Any of the following symbols +, &, #, %, =;
3.Any other symbol if permitted
4.Round brackets used in pairs
5.The registration number, followed by (Pty) Ltd
•Profit company, may be the registration number of the
company, followed by “South Africa” or RF (Ring fencing)
if applicable, and the category of company, e.g. Ltd
Company Name
•May not be the same as or confusingly similar to the name of
another company or entity, or registered trade mark, or a name
registered for use in terms of the Business Names Act 1960 or a mark
word or expression which is restricted or protected in terms of the
Merchandise Marks Act 1941 or
•Must not falsely imply or suggest or mislead a person to believe
incorrectly that the company is part of any other person or entity or
is an organ of state or a court or is owned/managed by person(s)
having a particular education designation or is owned or enjoys the
patronage of any foreign state, head of government or international
organization.
Company Name
•Must not be offensive and must not include any word or
symbol that in isolation or in context may constitute
propaganda for war, incitement to imminent violence or
advocate hatred based on race, ethnicity, gender or
religion or to cause harm.
CONCEPTS AND RESTRICTIONS
REGARDING THE PROSPECTUS
ACCORDING TO THE NEW COMPANIES
ACT 71 OF 2008
94
Concepts in Prospectus
Shares -1973 ACT (Old Act)
• “Share” means a share and includes
– Stock
– Debentures
– Shares and debentures not governed by
Companies Act
– Rights and Interests in company or to
share or debenture
Concepts in Prospectus
Securities (New Act)
“Securities” defined by Securities Service Act:
(i) shares, stocks and depository receipts in a public
company
(ii) notes
(iii) derivative instruments
(iv) bonds
(v) debentures
(vi) participatory interests in collective investment
schemes (local and approved foreign schemes)
Concepts in Prospectus
(vii) units in foreign (unapproved) collective investment
schemes
(viii) instruments based on an index
(ix) securities listed on a foreign exchange
(x) instrument declared by Registrar in Gazette
(xi) rights in securities (i) to (xi); and includes shares in a
private company
Concepts in Prospectus
Definition of Offer to the Public:
•Offer to the Public includes offer of securities to be issued
by a company to any section of the public, whether
selected as
‐ holders of company’s securities
‐ clients of person issuing prospectus
‐ holders of any class of property (e.g. pursuant to a
take over offer)
‐ any other manner
• But excludes:
(i) dealers in securities
(ii) Public Investment Corporation (PIC)
Concepts in Prospectus
(iii) person or entity regulated by SARB
(iv) authorised financial services provider (per FAIS
Act)
(v) a financial institution (per FSB Act)
(vi) secondary offer through exchange (note: new
exclusion)
•Person to be regarded as being member of public,
despite being a shareholder of, or purchaser of goods
from, a company
Concepts in Prospectus
• Initial Public Offering (IPO)
Offer of securities to public if:
– no securities of company previously offered to public
– all securities of that company previously offered have
been re‐acquired
•Primary Offering
Offer to the public, made by company, of securities to be
issued by that company, or another company
– within same group
– with whom company proposes to merge
– into which company proposes to be amalgamated
Concepts in Prospectus
• Secondary offering
Offer for sale to public of securities of a company or its
subsidiary, made by a person other than that company
or its subsidiary
•Rights offer means
an offer, with or without a right to renounce in favour of
other persons, made to existing holders of a company’s
securities to subscribe for securities of that company, or
another company within same group
Concepts in Prospectus
•“Domestic concern”
‐ if offer is made to
– directors
– prescribed officers
– related persons provided not renounceable to anyone
other than this class
• Offer relates to employee share scheme:
– Compliance Officer appointed
– disclosure in financial statements
– Compliance Officer has
Concepts in Prospectus
• provided written statements to any employee
• filed documents
• filed certificate
• Right offer: - Letters of allocation must be
– filed, in the case of unlisted securities
– approved by exchange, in the case of listed securities
General Restrictions On Offers To Public
1. No offer to public of any securities of any person, unless
– that person is a company; and
– if a foreign company, it has filed at least 90 days prior to
offer
• its MOI
• list of names and addresses of its directors
2. No IPO of securities, unless accompanied by prospectus
3. Other than securities that are the subject of an IPO
• No primary offer to public of any
‐ listed securities, unless in accordance with
requirements of exchange
‐ unlisted securities, unless accompanied by
prospectus
General Restrictions On Offers To Public
• No secondary offer to public of any securities, unless
offer complies with section 101 of the act.
Secondary Offers
• Does not apply to listed securities
• Secondary offering must be accompanied by:
– copy of (updated) prospectus used in primary offering;
or
– written statement complying with section 101(4)‐(6)
• Does not apply to:
– sales by executors/trustees out of deceased/insolvent
estates
General Restrictions On Offers To Public
– sales in execution or by public auction or public tender
(Note: possible loophole)
• Written statement must
– be filed for registration
– be issued within 3 months of registration
– be signed by person making offer
– contain particulars required by this section only
– be accompanied by a copy of the latest financial
statements
Summary Of New Position
1. Offers to public which must be accompanied by
prospectus
• IPO
• primary offer to public of unlisted securities
2. No prospectus required for
• primary offer to public of listed securities
• secondary offer to public of listed securities unless an
IPO
but
still need to comply with requirements of exchange
Prospectus
Prospectus: Document inviting the public to buy securities
New provisions
• Requirements do not apply to listed securities, unless for
IPO
• Prospectus must contain all information an investor may
reasonably require to assess
• assets and liabilities, financial position, profits and
losses, cash flow and prospects of the company, and
• securities being offered and rights attached to them
– adhere to prescribed specifications
• Commission or exchange (in respect of listed securities)
can relax requirements
Prospectus
• Supplementary prospectus must be registered to:
– correct any errors
– report on new matters
– report on changes in respect of relevant or material
matters
• Supplementary prospectus must be “published” to
known recipients of prospectus and included in future
distributions of prospectus
• Acceptances may be withdrawn within 20 days of
publication
• Offer or may accept withdrawal or apply to Court for
order
Prospectus
• Prospectus must be in plain language
• Will be “plain language” if reasonable to conclude
person with average literacy skills and minimal
experience in company law matters could understand
without undue effort
(Note: Will present challenge)
CONTENT TOPIC 3
BUSINESS ROLES
111
BUSINESS ROLES:TEAM
DYNAMICS
TEAM DYNAMICS THEORIES
Team Dynamics Content
• Description of team dynamic theories
• Use them to analyse specific businessbased Case Studies
Why Team Dynamics Theories?
• Decisions made by groups are determined by
the roles and interaction of the roles that
individuals play in a group
• This interaction determines whether a group
is successful or not.
TEAM DYNAMICS THEORIES
• Belbin Role Theory
• Jungian Theory
• Management Team Role Indicator Approach
(MTR-I approach)
• Margerison-McCann Profiles
• Group Consensus
THE BELBIN ROLE THEORY
Developed by Dr Meredith Belbin and his
research team
Dynamics of this theory:
• Based on interaction between team members.
• Success has more to do with the behaviour of
team members than with intellect or skill
• Nine separate roles were identified which are
divided into three groups namely:
Action Oriented,
People Oriented and
Cerebral Roles.
Action Oriented Roles
Team Role
Shaper
Characteristics
Moves the team forward
Sets challenges
Keeps focus
Implementer  Plans practical and
implementable strategies
 Ensures plans are carried out
efficiently
Completer/ Detects errors
Finisher
Good quality controller
People Oriented Roles
Team Role
Coordinator
Teamworker
Resource
investigator
Characteristics

Ensures team objectives reached
Draws best from each member
Delegates tasks well

Identifies what he/she must do
and does it
 Versatile person

Seeks opportunities
Good at networking
High level of awareness

Cerebral Roles
Team role
Plant
Monitor/
evaluator
Specialist
Characteristics
Extremely creative
Creative problem solver

Good logical thinker
Does not take sides (impartial)
Weighs up all options

In-depth knowledge in specific
areas

Key Principles of the Belbin Theory
• The nine roles bring necessary strengths
to the team – each role also has a
negative flipside
• A successful team needs a balance of all
nine roles
• It is better to have one or a few role
players short, than to have too many of
the same kind of role players
Reflect: Which of Belbin’s roles do you identify
yourself with?
The Jungian Theory
Developed by one of the fathers of
psychoanalysis, Carl Gustav Jung
Dynamics of this theory:
• Certain personality types follow certain
behaviour patterns
• Persons are born with a preference to certain
attitudes which they carry through adulthood
• Other attitudes can be used, but we are more
at ease with our inherent ones
The Jungian Theory
Extrovert/Extravert
Expresses lots of energy in
the outside world
Sensing
Believes information from the
outside world
Thinking
Decisions are made based on
logical reasoning
Judging
Acts strictly according to
plans made
Or
Introvert
Energy lived out mainly in the
internal world of a person
Or
INtuition
Believes information perceived from
an own imaginative world
Or
Feeling
Person bases decisions mainly on
emotions
Or
Perceiving
Willing to improvise and make
alternative plans
Key principles of the Jungian Theory
• Combinations of the criteria above determine the personality type
of a person
• Each team member should know his/her own personality type,
and the personality types of the rest of the team in order to
understand what drives them
• There are 16 possible personality types (combinations). E.g. ENFP
(Extrovert, INtuition, Feeling and Perceiving), INTJ (Introvert,
INtuition, Thinking and Judging) etc.
• You can guide a team to succeed by using their strengths and
compensating for their weaknesses
• Reflect: Which combination do you think fits your personality?
The MTR-I Approach
Developed by Steve Myers during the 1990’s as a tool towards
team development as it is based on the personality theory of
Carl Gustav Jung.
Dynamics of this theory:
• Defines team roles in terms of contributions made by each
member towards the team’s success
• The team is possible to assess whether, individually as well as
other members, are actually using their skills and talents
optimally to make the team effective.
The MTR-I Approach (continued)
ROLE
Coach
PRODUCT
DELIVERED
Harmony and
agreement
Crusader
Determined
priorities
Explorer
New and
improved ways
of doing things
Imaginative
ideas
Innovator
ACTION REQUIRED
Create harmony and
agreement through
building good
relationships
Focuses on specific idea/s
he/she believes in, takes
action and pleads for it
Find new and improved
ways of doing things
Creates imaginative ideas
The MTR-I Approach (continued)
ROLE
Sculptor
Curator
PRODUCT
DELIVERED
Reach goals
ACTION REQUIRED
Clear ideas and
information
Gets team to think
clearly and have in
depth knowledge
Gets the team to get
things done in time
Conductor Logical structure
and organisation
Provides a logical
structure and good
organisation
Scientist
Demonstrates why and
how things work
Explanation of
method and
reasons for
actions
Principles of the MTR-I Approach
• Team roles are defined clearly in order to ensure group
success.
• It is possible to assess whether every individual member
of the team is actually using their skills and talents
optimally to make the team effective.
• In this way the position of each member can be
established.
Reflect: Which of the MTR-I Approach roles do you
identify yourself with?
The Margerison-McCann Profiles
Developed by Margerison and McCann to focus on optimising
individual development, contributing towards team success
Dynamics of this theory:
 Uses the Team Management Wheel to maximize individual
performance towards building a balanced high performing
team
Team Management Wheel
PROMOTER
INNOVATOR
ADVISER
DEVELOPER
LINKING
MAINTAINER
ORGANIZER
PRODUCER
INSPECTOR
The Margerison-McCann profiles
Role
Reporter Adviser
Creator Innovator
Explorer –
Promoter
Assessor Developer
Description of role
Gathers information
Explain to members
Assist others and is patient

Creative, imaginative and innovative
Questions norms

Finds new ideas
Explore other companies
Networks outside the group

Evaluates, analytical and objective
Develops new activities
Experiments

The Margerison-McCann profiles (cont.)
Role
Thruster Organiser
Concluder Producer
Controller Inspector
Upholder Maintainer
Description of role
Makes things happen
Results orientated, turns an idea into action

Complete tasks according to specification,
budget and on time
 Works logically and effectively towards goal

Focussed and detail oriented
Good with facts and figures

Cares for well being of the team
Pillar of strength to others

Principles of the Margerison-McCann profiles
• People work in their preferred roles towards
success when understanding their own
strengths.
• Management must know and understand the
preferred roles of their employees in order to
balance the teams successfully.
Reflect: Which of Margerison-McCann Profile
roles do you identify yourself with?
GROUP CONSENSUS
Dynamics of Group Consensus:
A process of group decision making
Strive towards agreement
Based on collective intelligences to find
effective solutions
Time consuming but positive for the
individuals and team atmosphere
Group Consensus
Process:
 Define the problem/s
 Discuss and consider each proposal to involve all
members
 Set priorities
 Test whether all agree, if not, discuss again
 Group makes a decision and plans action/s
 Test proposed plan, explore further if some members
still do not agree, re-assess
Principles of Group Consensus
• When each member participates the team
takes better decisions and it forms better
group relationships
• It makes use of the principle of group synergy
where the group decision is always better
than that of the input of the brightest
member
APPLICATION OF TEAM DYNAMIC THEORIES
• ACTIVITY 4: (60 min)Team dynamics
• INSTRUCTIONS:
• Participants to form groups of 3-10
• Allocate one of the following theories, i.e. the Belbin role theory, Jungian
theory, MTR-I approach and the Margerison-McCann profiles to each
group. (Allocate group for Group Consensus for remaining persons)
• Use the following information and apply the allocated theory to achieve
an effective group result.
– “Your business is presented with an opportunity to develop a new line
of Marathon Running shoes for athletes participating in the Olympic
Games in London in 2012/Shoes for African Soccer Cup 2013.“
– Make use of the roles in your theory to clarify the specific roles and
action/tasks that will be undertaken by each group member/individual
in order to achieve optimal team success.
– Present your action plan explaining the dynamics of the theory to the
group.
• 3.4 Wrap-up
Application of Team Dynamic Theories
CAPS:
“Use them to analyse specific business-based
Case Studies”
ASSESSMENT TASK: Teachers to design case study demonstrating
certain group roles/confusion/overlapping of some roles.
Learners to
*identify (motivate from case study) group roles (applying e.g.
Belbin theory)
*compare roles with e.g. MTRI approach roles
*point out confusion/overlapping etc.
*make recommendations to improve group effectiveness
CONTENT TOPIC 4
BUSINESS OPERATIONS
138
Production Planning and
Control
139
Activity 5 (60 Min)
1. Participants to form groups of 3-10
2. Discuss the meaning of the following concepts in
your own words:
a. Production planning
b. Production control
c. Routing
d. Scheduling
3. Report to the entire group.
140
Production Planning and Control
Production Planning
Production Control
Planning
Dispatching
Routing
Following up
Scheduling
Inspection
Loading
Corrective Action
141
Production Planning
Production Planning
•Production planning is the technique of foreseeing every
step in a long series of separate operations,
•each step to be taken at the right time, and
•at the right place and each operation to be performed at
the maximum efficiency level.
Determining where each operation on a component part,
sub-assembly, or assembly is to be performed, resulting in
a route for the movement of a manufacturing lot through
the factory.
142
Production Planning
Scheduling refers to:
working out the time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time
necessary to perform the entire series as routed, making allowances for all factors
concerned.
• Production schedule
•Master Schedule
•Manufacturing schedule
•Scheduling of Job order manufacturing
Loading
Execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out includes the assignment of the
work to the operators at their machines or work places. So loading determines who will do
the work, as
Routing determines where, and
Scheduling determines when it shall be done.
143
Production control
Production control is:
•the process of planning production in advance of
operations,
•establishing the exact route of each individual item part or
•assembly, setting, starting and finishing for each important
item, assembly or
•the finishing production and releasing the necessary
orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have
the smooth function of the enterprise.
144
Production control
Dispatching
Dispatching involves the issuing of production orders for starting the
operations. Necessary authority and conformation is given for:
1. Movement of materials to different workstations.
2. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation.
3. Beginning of work on each operation.
4. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation.
5. Movement of work from one operation to another in
accordance with the route sheet.
6. Inspecting or supervision of work
Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into
production.
145
Production control
Follow up
• Every production programme involves determination of the
progress of work,
• removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the
productive operations are taking place in accordance with the
plans.
• It spots delays or deviations from the production plans.
• It helps to reveal defects in routing and scheduling,
misunderstanding of orders and instruction, under loading or
overloading of work etc.
• All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measures
are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned
date.
146
Production control
Inspection:
This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required as
effective agency of production control.
Corrective measures
•Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting
the route, rescheduling of work changing the workloads, repairs and
maintenance of machinery or equipment, control over inventories
of the cause of deviation in the poor performance of the employees.
• Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc.
may have to be taken. Alternate methods may be suggested to
handle peak loads.
147
Methodology - Teaching
Approach
Activity 1 (60 min)
“The education system seeks to reduce barriers to learning, ensures
that inclusivity is “everybody’s” business and requires an integrated
approach”!! With this statement in mind, answer the following
questions:
1. Name and discuss four barriers to learning.
2. Discuss some of the learning diversity that learners are faced with
and how would you manage the learning process in order to cater
for learners with diverse learning problems?
3. Which teaching approaches can you advise teachers to apply in
order to solve the teaching and learning problems? Choose a new
content to demonstrate your answer.
4. What is meant by this statement: “Special needs require
specialised skills for effective response.”
Consolidation of the Activity
150
Barriers to Learning
Barriers to learning: difficulties that arise within the education
system as a whole , the learning site and/or within the learner, which
prevent access to learning and development for some learners.
 Systemic barriers e.g. overcrowded classrooms, inaccessible school
buildings for the disabled, lack of basic and appropriate learning materials,
exclusionary policies and practices etc.
 Societal barriers e.g. poverty, safety and security, children affected and
infected by HIV/AIDS, child-headed households, children living in the
streets, children in conflict with the law etc.
 Pedagogical barriers e.g. inappropriate teaching methods as well as
learning and teacher support material, unqualified and under-qualified
teachers, inappropriate assessment procedures, lack of support for teachers
etc.
 Intrinsic barriers e.g. barriers resulting from issues located within a learner
such as neurological, physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities, psychosocial and emotional difficulties etc.
Managing Diversity
In the management of the learning process you should
take cognisance of such diversity and plan for it
accordingly.
– Diverse learning styles: Use various teaching methods and
approaches to cater for different learning styles and employ
optional activities.
– The pace of learning: Learners learn at various paces. Devise
plans to cater for the needs of both fast and slow learners.
This may involve expanded opportunities and enrichment.
– Levels of achievement and development: Learners in the
classroom will often be at different levels of physical and
cognitive abilities and the teacher need to plan accordingly.
Managing Diversity
• Language diversity: The language of instruction may be an obstacle
and retard the learning progress of some learners. You should be
aware of this and not disadvantage such learners. A variety of
assessment methods can be used to overcome this.
• Gender diversity: You should make a conscious effort to avoid
discriminatory practices in the classroom on the basis of gender
• Cultural diversity: Recognise and be sensitive to the different
cultures in the classroom. Diverse some activities where learners
can be made aware of each others cultural heritage, within the
subject context
• Learners experiencing other barriers to learning:
– learners with special learning disabilities
– severely mentally handicapped
– epileptic
Managing Diversity
• Learners experiencing other barriers to learning:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
cerebral palsy physically disabled (e.g. paraplegic, quadriplegic)
hard of hearing
deaf
partially sighted
blind
autistic
HIV-positive
pregnant learners (within safe window- period)
the prison population
the militarised youth
learners with speech impairments
Teacher need to plan accordingly to cater for learners with
different barriers.
A Pedagogical Response to Diversity in the Classroom
• Special needs require specialised skills for effective response
• Responding to Diversity
 Every classroom (special or mainstream) is diverse in many
respects
 Every teacher has to differentiate in teaching and assessing as
well as adapt the teaching and learning environment (LTSM,
setting etc)
 Working knowledge of the class is imperative!!!!!!!!!!!!
 Differentiation and adaptation interlocking and complementary
 Aspects for differentiation and adaptation
 Differentiation applied (focus of the training)
 Maximizing participation and managing classroom activities
 Different Learning styles and needs
Teaching approaches
The recommended teaching strategies may include the
following approaches:
– group discussion;
– debates;
– simulation games;
– role-playing;
– case studies;
– projects and surveys;
– field trips and visits, and
– newspaper cuttings / scrapbooks;
– Co-operative learning; and
– problem-solving.
156
Conclusion
The teaching approach or method should:
• Encourage learners to explore business trends, due to the everchanging demands of the business workplace.
• Engage learners in the discovery of knowledge and construct
knowledge by themselves through social interactions.
• Allow an open-ended questions or situations for inquiry through
group discussions and interaction.
• Provide opportunities to reflect upon and test theories through
real-world applications.
Conclusion
• Assist in solving problems; focus on teamwork,
collaboration, exploration and negotiation.
• Address the limitation of individual work and provide
opportunities for intellectual challenge.
• Provide opportunities to integrate and apply the
knowledge and skills acquired in the subject to respond
or react to simulated scenarios.
• Learn to identify how to solve the problem rather than
seeking ‘model’ answers.
• Give daily homework in Business Studies.
Assessment And
Moderation
159
ACTIVITY 1 (120 min)
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
Participants to form groups of 3-10.
Discuss the meaning of formal and informal assessment.
Allocate the following to each group
Set ten short and objective questions,
Set five paragraph questions ( including data response, case studies) with
memo
c. Set an essay question and memo guideline that indicates introduction, body
and conclusion, indicating the relevant headings and sub-headings
d. Make use of activity 2.2 and draft an analytical rubric with five criteria and
four levels to assess the flyer.
Note: Take the required cognitive levels into recognition when setting the
questions above.
Set the questions and allocate marks in alignment with the requirement of
NSC for Business studies
160
Assessment Continued
e. Design a case study providing suitable information to learners
in order to do the following calculations:
I. Total cost of production
II. Unit cost of production
III. Selling price
IV. Calculation of profit
V. Break- even analysis
4. Choose two scribes, one captures the questions electronically
(where possible) and one manually.
5. Report back the discussions
161
Assessment Continued
6. All groups respond to/answer Activity (e)
above.
7. Feedback to the group
162
Explanation of Forms of
Assessment
163
Formal and Informal Assessment
Assessment
INFORMAL
Daily Assessment
Not required to record
Used to improve learning and
teaching
FORMAL
Programme of Assessment
Recorded
Used for promotion / certification
164
Informal and Formal Assessment Cont.
Informal
Daily assessment
Formal
Programme of Assessment
Monitor learner’s progress
Systematic way of evaluating
learner progress
Used for promotion /
certification
Improve teaching
Scaffold learning
Recorded
Stepping stones to tasks in
Programme of Assessment
Not required to record
165
Formal Assessment Tasks
Formal Assessment tasks in BCM include:
• Project,
• Assignments,
• Case Studies,
• Presentations,
• Reports,
• Tests, and
• Examinations.
Other forms of assessment can be presented in
the informal assessment.
166
Project
A project is given a longer period of time to
complete as it involves some form of research,
consolidating and choosing relevant information
and preparing a written document (e.g. report) as
evidence or constructing a model.
Research will always form part of the project, in
other words the project is the evidence of the
Research conducted.
167
Characteristics of a project
A project should have the following characteristics:
• A finite and defined life cycle
• Defined and measurable business products
• A corresponding set of activities (or elements) to achieve
the business products
• A defined amount of resources
• A defined responsibility, to manage the project.
A project will take learners weeks to complete, hence in the Business Studies CAPS
Document (Annual Teaching Plan) there are textboxes in which we indicated that “a
project must always be given to learners a term before submission date”.
168
Assignment
Assignment as part of the POA – formal assessment
• Unlike the project an assignment is a task/activity that learners
can do in a few days (e.g. 2 – 3 days)
• Learners are given a task over a few days (which can be over a
weekend), e.g. learners given information to complete, such as
information from a Case Study or Data Response in Business
Studies.
Where the assignment is not a Case Study or Data Response:
• Clear criteria should be given to learners against which the
assignment will be assessed.
• Depending on the instructions of the assignment, learners may
be required to acknowledge sources of information.
Assignments can also be done as part of informal assessment (daily)
169
Case Study
• Learners are presented with a real-life situation, a
problem or an incident related to the topic.
• They are expected to assume a particular role in
articulating the position of e.g. Owner of a Business,
Marketing Manager, Production Manager, etc.
• They would draw on their own experience, the
experience of peers or prior learning to interpret,
analyse and solve a problem(s).
170
Case Study Continued
• Newspaper articles, magazine articles, and TV or radio
presentations form excellent case studies. Learners
have to read and/or listen, digest the business or
economic information and then make informed
decisions.
• Case studies in BCM are a very good way of keeping the
subject up to date and relevant. They always form part
of the examinations in BCM subjects.
• Case studies/scenarios need to be contextualized into a
specific subject, e.g. “The impact of HIV/AIDS on the
Business” – most candidates in the Grade 12 Business
Studies exam contextualized it into Life Orientation.
171
Report
• A report in BCM subjects is generally a written evidence of
analysis and interpretation of the business information. It
can be short or long.
• In a project the report is longer. Other reports are shorter
than a report in a project and it is specific to the topic, e.g.
learners are given a SWOT Analysis or Business scenario to
analyse and interpret. After that they write a report, or
• a business manager has come to you for advice (after
studying the business financial statements) on whether
the business is experiencing liquidity problems.
• This will always be shorter than a report in a project.
172
Presentation
• Presentations are very important to BCM learners.
• In future learners will be expected to present the
business information such as their business plans or
the financial statements of their businesses when
lobbying for funds from financial institutions.
• Some will be expected to present the analysed results
of the economic conditions of a country or financial
indicators to the public.
173
Presentation
• In Business Studies we have a stand alone topic on
presentation skills.
• Presentations can be written or oral, but there must be
learner evidence of the presentation.
• The use of computers, i.e. PowerPoint presentation is
encouraged where the resources are available.
• Information can be presented in a form of:
–
–
–
–
Report – including financial report
Memorandum
Business plan
Flyer, Poster, electronic format(DVD/CD)
174
Activity 2 (120 min)
1. Participants to form groups of 3- 10.
2. You are requested to give learners a project to complete. Decide
on a Business Studies topic and give learners guidance on how to
complete a project. Refer to the following:
•Identify a problem to be solved/topic
•Determine the content/skills/knowledge to be addressed:
•Set clear criteria and give good instructions to guide the learner
•Determine which resources will be required to complete the
project
•Determine the time frame/duration/process/due date
•Determine mark distribution and compile an assessment tool
that speaks to the criteria set
•(NB: Continuously monitor the project and guide the learners)
3. Report Back the Discussion.
175
Programme of Assessment
POA
Grade 11
Examinations
Two
End-of-year
Midyear 300 marks
Tests
Two
First Term and
ThirdTerm = 100
Assignment, Presentation
and Project
Terms 1, 2 & 3 = 50
Not tests or exams
300 marks converted into 75%
End of year
75%
25%
Tasks during
school year
176
176
Programme Of Assessment
The Programme of Assessment in Grade 11
Final exam
300
Converted to a
650÷6.5
300
mark out of:
= 100
100
50
300
Project
650
50
Mid-year
100
Total marks
Test
Year mark
Term 4
Test
Term 3
50
Total
Term 2
Presentation
Assessment
Assignment
Term 1
400
Note: In Grade 11 the Seven Assessment tasks make up the Programme of Assessment.
Refer to Protocol on Assessment.
Formal Tasks
Formal tasks are administered under:
– Controlled conditions
– Facilitated during class time by teacher
– Certain aspects could be done at home e.g.
sourcing information, planning, etc.
178
Examination
Content stipulated specifically for the grade
100%
Cognitive levels
Basic thinking skills (e.g. factual recall, low-level
application and low-level comprehension)
Moderately high thinking skills (e.g. more advanced
application, interpretation and low-level analysis)
Higher-order thinking skills (e.g. advanced analytical
skills, synthesis and evaluation)
30%
50%
20%
Mid-year examinations
Below is an outline of the structure of the mid-year examinations for Grade 11:
Grade 11
Paper
1
Time
3 hours
Marks
300
Topics
As per Grade annual
teaching plan
179
Examination
Mid and End-of-year examinations
Grade 11 should write a 3-hour mid-year examination of 300 marks and final examination.
Paper Time
Grade 11 1
Marks Business
Business
EnvironmentVenture
3 hours 300
25%
25%
Business
Role
25%
Business
Operation
25%
Structure of Mid and End of the Year Exam
SECTION
DESCRIPTION
MARKS AND TIME
GUIDE
A
(Compulsory)
40
30 min
180
90 min
80
60min
300
3 hours
Different types of short and objective questions using various assessment styles and covering the
entire curriculum, e.g. multiple-choice, match columns, choose the correct word in brackets, etc.
(20 short questions x 2)
.
B
(Three questions in this section must be answered)
(Choose any THREE of the FIV E questions. Three questions of 60 marks each)
These questions should cover the entire curriculum. Answers should be in paragraph style. Rubrics
can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking memorandum. Applicable verbs,
e.g. discuss, motivate, compare, differentiate, explain, etc. Case studies (scenarios) or source-based
questions should be included.
C
Set four questions covering the entire curriculum (use scenarios)
Choose any TWO of the FOUR questions. (Two questions of 40 marks each)
These are higher cognitive questions which should assess insight and interpretation of theoretical
knowledge. (E.g. design, plan, appraise, evaluate, etc.). Answers should be in paragraph style. A rubric
can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking memorandum.
TOTAL
181
Suggested Structure of Controlled Tests
SECTION
DESCRIPTION
MARKS AND TIME
GUIDE
A
(Compulsory)
20
10min
40
20min
40
30min
100
1 hour
Different types of short and objective questions should be set using various assessment styles and
covering the entire content for a specific term, e.g. multiple-choice, match columns, choose the
correct word in brackets, etc.
(10 short questions x 2)
B
.
(Two questions in this section must be answered)
(Choose any TWO of the THREE questions. Three questions of 20 marks each)
These questions should be set on the content covered during a specific term. Answers should be in
paragraph style. Rubrics can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking
memorandum. Applicable verbs, e.g. discuss, motivate, compare, differentiate, explain, etc. Case
studies (scenarios) or source-based questions should be included.
C
Set two questions covering the entire content for a specific term (use scenarios)
Choose any ONE of the TWO questions. (Two questions of 40 marks each)
These are higher cognitive questions which should assess insight and interpretation of theoretical
knowledge. (E.g. design, plan, appraise, evaluate, etc.). Answers should be in paragraph style. A rubric
can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking memorandum.
TOTAL
182
Suggested Structure of Grade 10 Midyear Exam Paper
SECTION
DESCRIPTION
MARKS AND TIME
GUIDE
A
(Compulsory)
30
15 min
90
45 min
80
60 min
200
2 hours
Different types of short and objective questions using various assessment styles and covering the
entire content for the first two terms, e.g. multiple-choice, match columns, choose the correct word
in brackets, etc.
(15 short questions x 2)
B
.
(Three questions in this section must be answered)
(Choose any THREE of the FOUR questions. Four questions of 30 marks each)
These questions should cover the entire content for the first two terms. Answers should be in
paragraph style. Rubrics can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking
memorandum. Applicable verbs, e.g. discuss, motivate, compare, differentiate, explain, etc. Case
studies (scenarios) or source-based questions should be included.
C
Set three questions covering the entire content for the first two terms (use scenarios)
Choose any TWO of the THREE questions. (Two questions of 40 marks each)
These are higher cognitive questions which should assess insight and interpretation of theoretical
knowledge. (E.g. design, plan, appraise, evaluate, etc.). Answers should be in paragraph style. A rubric
can be used in the marking of this question, together with a marking memorandum.
TOTAL
183
Moderation
184
Moderation of assessment
• Moderation refers to the process that ensures
that the assessment tasks are fair, valid and
reliable.
• Moderation should be implemented at school,
district, provincial and national levels.
• Comprehensive and appropriate moderation
practices must be in place for the quality
assurance of all subject assessments.
185
Moderation of assessment
• All Grade 11 tasks are internally moderated
• The subject head for Business Studies or Head of
Department for the Business, Commerce and
Management subjects at the school will generally
manage this process.
• Moderation at the school will be carried out at least
once per school term.
186
Moderation
• Use subject head if HoD did not specialise in
the subject
• All PoA tasks: HoD moderates before task is
given to learners
• HoD moderates 10% of learner responses to
PoA tasks and marking instruments.
187
Activity 3(60min)
1. Participants form groups of 3 – 10
2. Discuss the challenges that you encounter when doing
SBA moderation. How can you overcome those
challenges?
3. Draft a moderation checklist that can be used when
moderating the Programme of Assessment tasks in
Grade 11
4. Report back and discussion.
188
Moderation of POA task: What to look for?
• Duration, length ( in case of a test and
examination)
• Weighting of content
• Weighting of cognitive levels
• Language used.
• Use of pictures, diagrams, graphs to facilitate
language
• Level of difficulty
189
Thank You
190
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