Toroidal Vortex Flow
Conditions for vortex flow:
Taylor Number:
Reynolds Number:
Figure 7.1 Toroidal vortex flow in a
journal bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Mass Flow
Figure 7.1 Mass flow through rectangularsection control volume. (a) x-y plane; (b) y-z
plane; (c) x-y plane. [From Hamrock and
Dowson (1981).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Reynolds Equation
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Reynolds Equation Terms
Figure 7.3 Density wedge.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 7.4 Stretch mechanism.
Reynolds Equation Terms
Figure 7.5 Physical wedge mechanism.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 7.6 Normal squeeze
mechanism.
Reynolds Equation Terms
Figure 7.7 Translation squeeze
mechanism.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 7.8 Local expansion
mechanism.
Possible Motion in Bearings
Figure 7.9 Normal squeeze and sliding
velocities.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Possible Motion in Bearings
Figure 7.9 Normal squeeze and sliding
velocities.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Surface Slider
Bearing
Figure 8.1 Velocity profiles in a parallel-surface slider bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Flow in Inclined Slider
Figure 8.2 Flow within a fixed-incline
slider bearing (a) Couette flow; (b)
Poiseuille flow; (c) resulting velocity
profile.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Thrust Bearing
Figure 8.3 Thrust bearing geometry.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 8.3 Force components and oil
film geometry in a hydrodynamically
lubricated thrust sector.
Parallel-Surface Bearing
Figure 8.5 Parallel-surface slider bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Bearing
Figure 8.6 Fixed-incline slider
bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 8.7 Pressure distributions of
fixed-incline slider bearing.
Fixed-Incline Bearing
Results
Figure 8.8 Effect of film thickness ratio
on normal load-carrying capacity.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 8.9 Effect of film thickness ratio
on force components.
Fixed-Incline Bearing
Results
Figure 8.10 Effect of film thickness ratio
on friction coefficient parameter.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 8.11 Effect of film thickness ratio
on dimensionless volume flow rate.
Fixed-Incline Bearing
Results
Figure 8.12 Effect of film thickness ratio
on dimensionless adiabatic temperature
rise.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 8.13 Effect of film thickness ratio
on dimensionless center of pressure.
Streamlines in Fixed-Incline
Slider Bearing
Figure 8.14 Streamlines in fixed-incline bearing at four film thickness ratios Ho.
(a) Ho =2; (b) Ho =1 (critical value).
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Streamlines in Fixed-Incline
Slider Bearing (cont.)
Figure 8.14 Concluded. (c) Ho = 0.5; (d)
Ho = 0.25.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Step Bearing
Figure 8.15 Parallel-step slider bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Step Pad Slider
Bearing
Figure 9.1 Finite parallel-step-pad slider bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Step-Pad Bearing
Results
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Step-Pad Bearing
Results
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Parallel-Step-Pad Bearing
Results
Figure 9.3 Shrouded-step
slider bearings. (a)
Semicircular step; (b)
truncated triangular step.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline-Pad Slider
Bearing
Figure 9.4 Side view of fixed-incline-pad
bearing. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 9.5 Configurations of multiple
fixed-incline-pad thrust bearing. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1955).]
Film Thickness for Given
Surface Finish
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Results
Figure 9.6 Chart for determining
minimum film thickness corresponding to
maximum load or minimum power loss for
various pad proportions - fixed-incline-pad
bearings. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Results
Figure 9.7 Chart for determining minimum film thickness for fixed-incline-pad
thrust bearings. [From Raimondi and Boyd (1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Results
Figure 9.8 Chart for determining dimensionless temperature rise due to
viscous shear heating of lubricant in fixed-incline-pad thrust bearings. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1955)]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Results
Figure 9.9 Chart for determining performance parameters of fixed-incline-pad
thrust bearings. (a) Friction coefficient; (b) power loss. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1955)].
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Slider Results
Figure 9.9 Concluded. (c) Lubricant flow; (d) lubricant side flow.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Pivoted-Pad Slider Bearing
Figure 9.10 Side view of pivoted-pad
thrust bearing. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 9.11 Configuration of multiple
pivoted-pad thrust bearing. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1955).]
Pivoted-Pad Slider Results
Figure 9.12 Chart for determining pivot location
corresponding to maximum load or minimum power loss for
various pad proportions - pivoted-pad bearings. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Pivoted-Pad Slider Results
Figure 9.13 Chart for determining outlet
film thickness for pivoted-pad thrust
bearings. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 9.14 Chart for determining
dimensionless temperature rise due to
viscous shear heating of lubricant for
pivoted-pad thrust bearing. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1955).]
Pivoted-Pad Slider Results
Figure 9.15 Chart for determining performance parameters for pivoted-pad
thrust bearings. (a) Dimensionless load; (b) friction coefficient. [From Raimondi
and Boyd (1955).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Pivoted-Pad Slider
Results
Figure 9.15 Concluded. (c) Lubricant flow; (d) lubricant side flow;
(e) power loss.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Journal Bearing
Figure 10.1 Hydrodynamic journal
bearing geometry.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 10.2 Unwrapped film
shape in a journal bearing.
Sommerfeld Angle
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Full Sommerfeld Solution
Sommerfeld substitution:
Pressure distribution:
Maximum pressure:
Figure 10.3 Pressure
distribution for full
Sommerfeld solution.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Forces for Sommerfeld
Solution
Figure 10.4 Coordinate system and
force components in a journal bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 10.5 Vector forces acting
on a journal.
Reynolds Boundary
Condition
Figure 10.6 Location of shaft center for
full and half Sommerfeld journal bearing
solutions.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 10.7 Pressure profile for a
journal bearing using Reynolds
boundary condition.
Hydrodynamic
Journal
Bearings
Sommerfeld number:
Diameter-to-width ratio:
Figure 11.1 Pressure
distribution around a journal
bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Film Thickness and
Eccentricity
Figure 11.2 Effect of bearing number on minimum film thickness for
four diameter-to-width ratios. [From Raimondi and Boyd (1958)].
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Attitude Angle
Figure 11.3 Effect of bearing number on attitude angle for four
diameter-to-width ratios. [From Raimondi and Boyd (1958).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Friction Coefficient
Figure 11.4 Effect of bearing number on friction coefficient for four
diameter-to-width ratios. [From Raimondi and Boyd (1958).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fluid Flow
Figure 11.5 Effect of bearing number
on dimensionless flow rate for four
diameter-to-width ratios. [From
Raimondi and Boyd (1958).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 11.6 Effect of bearing
number on volume side flow ratio
for four diameter-to-width ratios.
[From Raimondi and Boyd (1958).]
Maximum Pressure &
Location
Figure 11.7 Effect of bearing number
on dimensionless maximum film
pressure for four diameter-to-width
ratios. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1958).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 11.8 Effect of bearing number
on location of terminating and maximum
pressures for four diameter-to-width
ratios. [From Raimondi and Boyd
(1958).]
Effect of Radial Clearance
Figure 11.9 Effect of radial clearance on some performance
parameters for a particular case.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Fixed-Incline Pad Journal
Bearings
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Effect of Preload
Figure 11.11 Effect of preload factor
mp on two-lobe bearings. (a) Largest
shaft that fits in bearing. (b) mp =0;
largest shaft, ra; bearing clearance cb
= c. (c) mp =1.0; largest shaft, rb;
bearing clearance cb =0. [From
Allaire and Flack (1980).]
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Hydrodynamic Squeeze
Film Bearings
Figure 12.1 Parallel-surface
squeeze film bearing.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Figure 12.2 Journal bearing with normal
squeeze film action. Rotational velocities
are all zero.
Parallel Circular Plate
Load support:
Time of approach:
Figure 12.3 Parallel circular
plate approaching a plane
surface.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
Rigid Cylinder
Load support:
Time of approach:
Figure 12.4 Rigid
cylinder approaching a
plane surface.
Fundamentals of Fluid Film Lubrication
Hamrock, Schmid & Jacobson
ISBN No. 0-8247-5371-2
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