"Minorities in Europe”
Session 1:
Introduction and definition of the
focal problem.
Does the European Union have a
minority policy?
Denis Gruber
Faculty of Sociology, St. Petersburg State University
DAAD-Lecturer for Sociology
"Minorities in Europe”
Session 1:
Introduction and definition of the focal problem.
Does the European Union have a minority policy?
1. Structure of the seminar
2. Discussing Minorities: Definition, Facts and Protection
3. Going in detail: Minorities in Europe
4. Stateless Persons. The Case of Estonia
5. European Union and Minority Policy
6. The FNCM
7. Conclusion
"Minorities in Europe”
1. What is a minority? Ethnic and National Minorities in Europe
2 March
Introduction and definition of the
focal problem.
Does the European Union have a Seminar
minority policy?
Ethnic Minorities in
Europe: The Basic
Facts, Stefan Wolff
National and Ethnic Minorities in Lecturing
Wednesday Europe
3 March
Minority Rights
Minority Issues in
and the OSCE High
on National
HEINTZE (2000)
High Commissioner
on National
Office for
Institutions and
Human Rights
European Centre for
Minority Issues
"Minorities in Europe”
2. Ethnicity, Ethnic Minorities, Minority Identities and Minority Languages
Ethnicity, Ethnic Mobilization
Thursday and Ethnic Violence
4 March
Ethnic Mobilization and
Bascque ethnic violence
Ethnic Violence, James
D. Fearon
The Roma
The Gypsies
5 March
9 March
Cultural Identities and Ethnic
Minorities in Europe
Minority and Regional
Languages in Europe.
Language Minorities in Old
and New Europe
Europeas a mosaic of
identitites: some
Estanislao Arroyabe
European Charter for Regional
and Minority Languages
Case Studies
Ingrid Gogolin (2002)
"Minorities in Europe”
3. Ethnic Minorities in Eastern, Central, South-Western and South-Eastern Europe
Wednesday 10 March
Eastward Enlargement and
National Minorities
The forgotten issue?
Eastward enlargement
and national minorities
Ruth Ferrero1 (2005)
e.g. Croatia, Ukraine
11 March
12 March
Ethnic Minorities in European
Russian minority in abroad. The
case of the Estonia
People with Turkish Migration
Background in Germany
15 March
16 March
Seminar Discussion
Seminar Discussion
Ethnic Minorities in South-Eastern Lecturing
and South-Western Europe
Immigrants and Ethnic
Minorities in European
Cities: Life-courses and
Quality of Life in a
World of Limitations
(Schwarz-woelzl 2006)
New Identity of Russian
Speaking Children in
Estonian Society
Mare Leino, Marika
The Turkish Minority in :
The Relationship
between Politics and
Education in the
Integration of Parallel
Communities Christine
Difato (2006)
Minority Nationalism in
the Balkans:
the Bulgarian Case
Andrey Ivanov (2006)
quality of life
Ethnic Settlement
Gruber (Estonia)
The Case of Kreuzberg
From 1st – 3rd generation
e.g. Romania, Bulgaria
"Minorities in Europe”
4. Ethnic Minorities, Labour Markets and Minority Entrepreneurship
17 March
18 March
Labour Market
Positions of Ethnic Seminar
Minorities in Europe Discussion
Ethnic Minority
Ethnic Discrimination in europe’s
Labour Market: A Field Experiment,
Leo Kaas / Christian Manger (2010)
Ethnic entrepreneurship: A theoretical
framework, Thierry Volery, (2007)
Infomal Sector
Small and
5. Minorities, Demographics and Social Problems
19 March
Sexual Minorities
in Europe
Who is afraid of sexual minorities?
Homosexuals, moral panic and the
exercise of social control,
Iwona Zielinska (2005)
Case Studies
Inside majorities and minorities
• there is a mutual dependence between majorities and
minorities with positive and negative aspects
• presence of ethnic minority is a challenge for the recognition
and protection of their fundamental rights
• minority question is a common task and problem for all
• Europe has been the cradle of the ideology of the nation-state:
minorities living in states with ethnically different majorities are
facing the suspicion to be a kind of "fifth brigade"of their
respective "kin-state" or at least they are considered "nationally
not enough reliable“
Discussing Minorities
term “minority” is still ambiguously defined in specialised literature
as well as in the political debate
• definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific
differentiate between:
- traditional national or autochthonous minorities
- old and new (immigrant) minorities
- national and ethnic minorities
- types of religious, language, sexual, stateless, economic,
handicapped (disabled) age etc. minorities
… to avoid confusion, some authors prefer the terms "subordinate
group" and "dominant group" rather than "minority" and "majority
Discussing Minorities
 … sociological a minority is not necessarily a numerical minority
— it may include any group that is subnormal with respect to a
dominant group in terms of social status, education,
employment, wealth, political power, social behavoiur, etc.
 the term "minority" typically refers to a socially subordination
ethnic and / or national group (understood in terms of
language, nationality, religion and / or culture)
Discussing Minorities
- group of people who, because of their physical or cultural
characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society
- group of people who, because of their physical or cultural
characteristics, follow strategies to single out from the others in the
- role of identities
- inclusion, exclusion, self-exclusion
- discrimination
- historical development
- socio-economic, socio-political, socio-cultural development
- protest, resistance, violence
Discussing Minorities
 Some minorities are so relatively large or historically
or otherwise important that the system is set up in a
way to guarantee them comprehensive protection and
political representation
 e.g.: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina recognizes
the three main nations, none of which constitute a
numerical majority, as constitutive nations, but….
 … other minorities such as Roma and Jews, are
officially labelled as "others" and are excluded from
some protections, e.g. they may not be elected to a
range of high political positions including the
Defining Minorities
According to Capotorti's definition for the UN (Pan/Pfeil, 2003)
"minority" means a community…
a) compactly or dispersedly settled on the territory of a state;
b) which is smaller in number than the rest of the population of
a state
c) whose members are citizens of that state (but: what is the
case for stateless persons?)
d) which have ethnic, linguistic or cultural features different
from those of the rest of the population (but: what is with the
self-perception of peoples without their own state like the
Catalans, the Bretons, the Corsicans, the Romany, etc.)
e) whose members are guided by the will to safeguard these
Ethnic Minority
“An ethnic group is characterized by some behavioural
patterns, value orientations, and interests, often
political, social and economic, which differ from
those of other groups within society. An ethnic group
is considered to be an ethnic group with several
distinguishing characteristics in comparison to other
ethnic groups.” (Jenkins 1997)
 Who does belong to an ethnic
• Ethnic groups can live in nation-states although they have no
origin or tradition in these areas, e.g. migrant groups or
• The relationships between majority groups and minority
groups are the most popular researches in ethnic studies
• Here, is often argued that although both special groups,
majority and minority, share a common culture, a historic
tradition, and a sense of ‘peoplehood’
(Banks, 1997: 66)
 Who does belong to an ethnic minority?
• but: In Scotland, those referred to as 'ethnic
minorities' are mainly identified as those
groups of people who have come from the
'new commonwealth' to live in the country
since the 1950‘s. However, this excludes the
many 'ethnic minorities' from England and
Europe who settled in Scotland before and
since the 1950's
National Minority
• A national minority lives in another nation, but their ethnic
group has got its own government in another national state,
e.g. Danish people living in Germany, or Hungarians living in
* What is the case for ethnic Russians living in Estonia or
Latvia without any citizenship?
* Are ethnic minorities also national minorities?
Language Minority
- official language minority groups mostly have the right
to be educated in their language, in their own schools,
with their own elected school boards, where they exist in
sufficient numbers
- they are neither an ethnic nor a national minority, but
their first language is not the same as the mother tongue
of the ethnic majority of the country they live in, e.g. the
French speaking citizens of Switzerland
Facts about minorities in Europe
• Apart from the mini-states all European states are home
to ethnic and national minorities
• 87 different minorities are living in Europe
• In 2003 (last census) the number of persons belonging to
a national or ethnic minority in Europe accounts to
86,674 millions (11,45% of the population) divided on
329 national or ethnic groups
• just about 30 years ago the number of Europe's
ethnic minorities has been estimated with 90 ethnic
groups with a maximum of 38 millions of members
• About 80% of Europe's 329 national minorities have
less then 300.000 members.
Facts about minorities in Europe
• No European country with more than one million inhabitants
has no national minorities
• Even in Portugal, often retained a country without minorities,
apart from the Romany, are living two Hispanic minorities
• The remaining countries are hosting between 3 and 45
minority groups each
• The major number of ethnic minorities obviously are living in
the European part of Russia (45 groups), followed by the
Ukraine (23 groups) and Romania (19 groups)
• The respective share of national minorities on the total
national population of the single European states is moving
between a few percent and more than 30% as in Latvia,
Moldova, Macedonia, Estonia and Serbia-Montenegro
Facts about minorities in Europe
- German speaking groups (not as titular nation) in 22
- There are Romany groups in 28 states
- Russians, after the collapse of the USSR, are a
minority in 9 European states
- Ukraine alone is home to 11 millions of (at least)
ethnic Russians
• Åland Islands
• Albanians
• Alsace
• Aosta Valley
• Arabs
• Aragon
• Armenians
• Aromanians
• Asturias
• Azores
• Basque Country
• Belarussians
• Bosniacs
• Brittany
• Bulgarians
• Bunjevci (Bunyevtsi) in Serbia
• Canary Islands
• Cashoubs
• Catalonia
• Cimbres
• Cornwall
• Corsica
• Crimea
• Croats
• Csángó
• Czechs
• Danes
• Estonians
• Faroe Islands
• Finns
• Flanders
• Frisia
• Friuli
• Gagauzia
• Galicia
• Germans
• Greeks
• Grishun
• Hungarians
• Ingria
• Ireland (North)
• Ireland (North)
• Italians
• Karelia
• Kashubians
• Kosovo (Albanians)
• Kurdistan
• Ladins
• Latvians
• Lipovians
• Lithuanians
• Livonians
• Lorraine - Moselle
• Low Germans
• Ludians
• Luxembourgers
• Macedonians
• Madeira
• Man / Isle of Man
• Mirandians
• Montenegro
• Moravia
• Occitania
• Poles
• Pomaks
• Prussia
• Romanians
• Roms
• Russians
• Ruthenians
• Sápmi (Lappland)
• Sardinia
• Savoy
• Scania
• Scotland
• Serbs
• Seto
• Silesia
• Slovaks
• Slovenes
• Sorbs
• South Tyrol
• Swedes
• Tatars
• Transdniestr / Transnistria
• Yenishes
• Yiddish
The Case of the Ludians
• Ladin (Ladino in Italian)
• is a Rhaeto-Romance language spoken
in the Dolomite mountains in northern Italy
in the border regions of the provinces
Südtirol and Veneto
• it is closely related to the Swiss Romansh
• it is spoken in some municipalities of the Province of BolzanoBozen, the Province of Trento, and the province of Belluno
• It is officially recognized in Italy and has some official rights in
the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, while it does not
have official status in the province of Belluno (Veneto region).
The Case of the Kashubians
• a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland
• settlement area is referred to as Kashubia (Polish: Kaszuby, German:
Kaschubei, Kaschubien)
• members speak Kashubian, classified either as a language or a Polish dialect
• In analogy to the linguistic classification, Kashubians are considered either an
ethnic or a linguistic group
• Among larger cities, Gdynai contains the largest proportion of people declaring
Kashubian origin
• the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdansk, the capital of the Pomerian
Voivodeship and the traditional capital of Kashubia
• traditional occupations of Kashubians were agriculture and fishing
• today‘s occupation: service and hospitality industry, agrotourism
• main organization that maintains the Kashubian identity is the KashubianPomerian Association
The Case of the Kashoubians
• over 300,000 people in Poland are of the Kashubian
• In the Polish census of 2002, only 5,100 people declared
Kashubian nationality
• 51,000 declared Kashubian as their native language
• a „standard" Kashubian language does not exist despite
attempts to create one, rather a variety of dialects are
spoken that differ significantly from each other
• The vocabulary is influenced by both German and Polish
• Most Kashubians declare Polish nationality and Kashubian
ethnicity, and are considered both Polish and Kashubian
• but: on the 2002 census there was no option to declare
one nationality and a different ethnicity, or more than
one nationality
The Case of the Kashoubians
• Kashubians are descendants of the Slavic Pomeranian tribes
• were at various times Polish and Danish vassals
• While most Slavic Pomeranians were assimilated during the
medieval German settlement of Pomerania especially in
Pomeralia some kept and developed their customs and
became known as Kashubians
• since 1466 within Royal Prussia, since 1772 within West
Prussia, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second
Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West
Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 within the People's
Republic of Poland
The Case of the Kashoubians
• During the Second World War, Kashubians were considered by the Nazis as
being either of "German stock" or "extraction", or "inclined toward
Germanness" and "capable of Germanisation", and thus classified third
category of Deutsche Volksliste (German ethnic classification list)
• However, Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause,
particularly those with higher education, were arrested and executed
(12,000 were executed)
• When integrated into Poland, Kashubian autonomy faced a Communist
regime striving for ethnic homogenity
• Kashubians were sent to Silesian mines, where they met Silesians facing
similar problems
• Lech Badkowski from the Kashubian opposition became the first
spokesperson of Solidarnosc
The Case of the Kashoubians
• Today, in some towns and villages in northern Poland,
Kashubian is the second language spoken after Polish, and it is
taught in regional schools.
• Since 2005 Kashubian enjoys legal protection in Poland as an
official regional language
• It is the only tongue in Poland with this status; granted by an
act of the Polish Parliament on January 6, 2005
Native people
(sharing its area with other communities)
• • Aromanians
• Bunjevci (Bunyevtsi) in Serbia
• Cimbres
• Crimea
• Csángó
• Ingria
• Lipovians
• Livonians
• Lorraine - Moselle
• Low Germans
• Ludians
• Mirandians
• Mócheno
• Pomaks
• Vepsia
• Votes
• Walser
The Case of the Pomaks
Ethnographic map
of European Turkey
from the late 19th. century,
showing the regions
largely populated by
Pomaks in brown
A Pomak bride from Ribnovo being made up for her ceremony
Young Pomak women in traditional costume
Pomak Men
Nomadic or scattered people
• Roms
• Yiddish
Area with stong identity
• Aragon
• Asturias
• Azores
• Canary Islands
• Madeira
• Moravia
• Prussia
• Savoy
• Scania
• Seto
• Silesia
• Võro
The Case of the Moravia
Moravia Czech: Morava; German: Mähren
The Case of the Moravia
• The Moravians are a Slavic ethnic group who speak various
dialects of Czech
• Some Moravians regard themselves as an ethnically distinct
group; others consider themselves to be ethnically Czech
• In the census of 1991, 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech
population described themselves as being of Moravian
• In the census of 2001, this number had decreased to 380,000
(3.7% of the population)
• Moravia historically had a huge minority of ethnic Germans,
although they were largely expelled after World War II
Minority in search of autonomy
• Alsace
• Asturias
• Brittany
• Friuli
• Karelia
• Sardinia
• Savoy
• Silesia
The Case of Friuli
Friulian coat of arms
Location of historical region within the administrative region.
The Case of Friuli
• In 1815, the Congress of Vienna enacted the definitive
union of Veneto and Friuli with Austrian Lombardy, to
constitute the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
• In 1866 central Friuli (today's province of Udine) and
western Friuli (today's province of Pordenone) were
joined Italy with Veneto after the Third Italian War of
• While standard Italian is the primary official language
of the region, several other regional languages and
dialects are spoken in Friuli
Minority in search of more recognition
• Aromanians
• Cornwall
• Grishun
• Ladins
• Lorraine - Moselle
• Low Germans
• Mirandians
• Moravia
• Occitania
• Roms
• Scania
• Sorbs
• Wallonia
• Walser
The Case of the Sorbs
National costume of Lusatian Sorbs as traditionally worn
in the northern part of Lusatia
Bilingual names of streets in Cottbus
The Case of Sorbs
• ca. 40,000 Upper Sorbs, 20,000 Lower Sorbs
• In 1018, on the strength of peace in Bautzen, Lusatia became
a part of Poland; however, before 1031 it was returned to
• At the beginning of the 16th century the whole Sorbian area,
with the exception of Lusatia, underwent Germanization
• The Thirty Years War and the Black Death caused terrible
devastation in Lusatia: almost half the Sorbs died
• In 1667 the Prince of Brandenburg, Frederick Wilhelm,
ordered the immediate destruction of all Sorbian printed
materials and banned saying masses in this language
• The Congress of Vienna, in 1815, gave part of Upper Lusatia to
Saxony, but most of Lusatia to Prussia
The Case of the Sorbs
• From 1871 the whole of Lusatia became a part of united
Germany and was divided between three parts: Silesia,
Prussia and Saxony
• From 1871 the industrialization of the region and German
immigration began; official Germanization intensified
• Although the Weimar Republic (1919) guaranteed
constitutional minority rights, it did not practice them
• Throughout The Third Reich, Sorbian costume, culture,
customs and even the language was said to be no indication
of a non-German origin
• Young Sorbs enlisted in the Wehrmacht and were sent to the
The Case of the Sorbs
• The defeat of Nazi Germany changed the Sorbs’ situation
considerably: those to the east of Neisse and Oder were
expelled or assimilated by Poland
• regions in the German Democratic Republic) faced a large
influx of expelled Germans and heavy industrialisation, which
both forced Germanization
• East German authorities tried to counteract this development
by creating a broad range of Sorbian institutions
• Sorbs were officially recognized as an ethnic minority, more
than 100 Sorbian schools and several academic institutions
were founded
The Case of the Sorbs
• Sorbian Slovians caused the communist government of the
GDR plenty of trouble, mainly because of the high levels of
religious observance and resistance to the nationalisation of
• After the unification of Germany in 1990, Lusatians made
efforts to create an autonomous administrative unit; however
Helmut Kohl’s government did not agree to it
• Although Germany supports national minorities, Sorbs claim
that their aspirations are not sufficiently fulfilled
• desire to unite Lusatia into one country has not been taken
into consideration because Upper Lusatia still belongs to
Saxony and Lower Lusatia to Brandenburg
The Case of the Sorbs
• an annual state grant of 15.6 million Euro by the
Federal and the Saxon governments is fixed
• Liquidations of Sorbian schools under the pretext of
financial difficulties take place
• Sorbs also called on Poland and Polish President Lech
Kaczynski for protection and to represent them in
talks with German state as unlike for example Danes
have no state to help them against German
Minority in search of strong autonomy
• Aosta Valley
• Canary Islands
• Crimea
• Frisia
• Galicia
• Man / Isle of Man
• Sápmi (Lappland)
• Wales
Stateless Nation
• Alsace
• Aosta Valley
• Basque Country
• Brittany
• Cashoubs
• Catalonia
• Cornwall
• Corsica
• Faroe Islands
• Flanders
• Frisia
• Friuli
• Gagauzia
• Galicia
• Grishun
• Karelia
• Kosovo (Albanians)
• Kurdistan
• Ladins
• Man / Isle of Man
• Occitania
• Ruthenians
• Sápmi (Lappland)
• Sardinia
• Scotland
• Sorbs
• Transdniestr / Transnistria
• Wales
• Wallonia
Europe –
The Case of Occitania
The Case of Occitania
• area is situated in the southern half of France, includes
Monaco, spans parts of Italy and Spain
• Occitania has been recognized as a cultural concept since the
Middle Ages
• it has never been a legal nor a political entity under this name,
although the territory was united in Roman times until the
French conquest started in the 1200s
• Presently, about 3 million people out of 14 million in the area
have a proficient knowledge of Occitan
• The Aran Valley of Spain is the only area where an Occitan
dialect is an official language (along with Spanish and Catalan).
The Case of Occitania
• According to the 1999 census, there are 610,000 native
speakers and another million persons with some exposure to
the language
• Native speakers of Occitan are to be found mostly in the older
• in France, Occitan is still not recognized as an official
language, as the status of French has been constitutionally
protected since 1992
• Occitan activists want the French government to adopt
Occitan as the second official language for seven regions
representing the South of France
Stateless people in Europe
• A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or
- the state that gave their previous nationality has ceased to
exist and there is no successor state or their nationality has
been repudiated by their own state
effectively making them refugees (e.g. ethnic Russians in
Estonia and Latvia)
Stateless Person
• People may be stateless also if they are members of a group
which is denied citizen status in the country on whose
territory they are born
• if they are born in disputed territories
• if they are born in an area ruled by an entity whose
independence is not internationally recognized
• or if they are born on territory over which no modern state
claims sovereignty
At home in Estonia? The Social Integration of ethnic
Russians in the European Union‘s North-Eastern
Border Region
Denis Gruber, Dissertation, Institute of Sociology,
Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg
Scholarship by the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
„Zuhause in Estland? Eine Untersuchung zur
sozialen Integration von ethnischen Russen in Estland.“
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
Research Region
• particular socio-cultural region in Estonia as well as the European
 Internal migration flows“ of the USSR result in the highest amount
of non-titular ethnic population in the whole Europe
 pedominant Russian-speaking area
 moreover: most urbanized region in Estonia (89 per cent)
 In 2007: 172,775 inhabitants:
- 34,314 (19,7 Prozent) of inhabitants are ethnic Estonians
- 122,482 persons are ethnic Russians
 75,000 (40,3 %) are citizens of Estonia
 34, 577 (19,9 %) are citizens of the Russian Federation
 61,921 (35,6 %) with undertermined citizenship
 4,000 are citizens of other nation-states
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
Ethnische Besonderheiten Estlands
87,6 %
74,6 %
61,5 %
68,2 %
68,6 %
20,1 %
30,3 %
25,8 %
25,7 %
8,2 %
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
Staatsbürgerschaftliche Besonderheiten Estlands
ethnische Russen im Jahr 2007:
39,5 %
estnische Staatsbürgerschaft
19,4 %
russische Staatsbürgerschaft
37,6 % keine Staatsbürgerschaft
3,5 %
andere Staatsbürgerschaft
Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia
term is used for those who:
have an ethnic Russian migration background
(even descendants of migrations; migrants of
the 2nd or 3rd generation)
have citizenship of Estonia, Russia or are
stateless (in Estonian legislation called
are using the Russian language in everyday
life as primary language
The question of citizenship
• members of the Russian group have been divided
in two sub-groups:
1. Those who have been already lived in the First
Estonian Republic (1918-1940) and their
2. those who were comming to ESSR as labourforce
in the course of the industrialisation process
• last group has been classified by conservative
Estonian Politicians as a threat for the achieved
national souveranity and where called from now
on „Aliens“
• Term „Alien „(Estonian „muulane“) is used for a
„person of another nationalitaty („Alien Law” by July
• “An alien is a person who is not an Estonian citizen and
aliens staying in Estonia are guaranteed rights and
freedoms equal to those of Estonian citizens unless the
constitution, this Act, other Acts or international
agreements of Estonia provide otherwise. Aliens are
guaranteed the rights and freedoms arising from the
generally recognised rules of international law and
international custom. Aliens staying in Estonia are
required to observe the constitutional order and
legislation of Estonia.”
„Path dependency“
• Use of the concept of „path dependency“ to
investigate the Estonian transformation
• requires to focus on the significance of
historical (social, political and economic)
• Includes to stress on formal and informal rules
which were created through a long-term
„Path dependency“
• practicized Estonian „ethno politics“ have to be seen
in near context to the Soviet ethnicity- and nationality
until Estonain independence, ethnic relationships of
autochthone Estonians and Russian migrants have
been determined by political rulers in Moscow
Soviet ethnicity-and nationality politics pursued two
core targets:
1. ideological and cultural „assimilation“ of the
inhabitants in the single Soviet Union Republics
2. a forced industrialisation of the Soviet Union
• Estonian transformation process has been
controversilary discussed in literature because of ist
heterogeneous development paths in the spheres of
politics, economy and social integration
• economic studies: positive development of the
„Baltic tiger“ through the carried out neoliberal
„shock therapy“
• sociological studies criticized that political rulers have
been pursued ethno-nationalist aims (ethnic defined
nation, integration problems of the Russian-speaking
minority, „ethnic boundary constructions“ and social
• International organizations like AMNESTY
INTERNATIONAL (2006), the IOM (2006) and
that despite of an improved minority situation
integration problems and smouldering ethnic
conflicts between Estonians and Russians in
the Estonian society furthermore exist
• example: demolition of the memorial of the
„Bronze Soldier“ in April 2007
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
Systemintegration und die vier
Dimensionen der Sozialintegration
Quelle: Esser (2001), S. 16
 requires to distinguish between „systemic integration“ and
„social integration“ of migrants and/or members of ethnic
because: a common understanding of „integration“ and
„inclusion“ would mean that the individual integration
process in the „Lebenswelt“ is similarily to the inclusion of the
subsystems in the Estonian titular society (special rights,
occupying of certain positions, appropriation of important
societal ressources)
 Is succesful if ethic minority actors as well as the members of
the titular society are similarly placed in the different
positions of the labour market
solution: integration approach of German scholar Hartmut Esser
(1999, 2001)who differs between social and systemic
Systemic Integration
• takes place independently (anonymiously) from
the motives and relationships of individual actors
• refers to the means integration in a social system
like integration in the world-market, nation-state,
international concerns, corporative actors or
supra-national entities like the EU
• refers to particular mechanisms of the market,
institutioanl laws of the nation-state and
particular media resources (not mass media, but
Social Integration
• focuses on motives, orientations, and purposes of
individual actors,
• refers to the „embedding process“ of individual actors in a
social system
• is associated with the grant of laws, learning of the titular
population‘s language, embedding in the education system
and the national employment market, interethnic
friendships and identification with the nation-state
• Esser (2001): succesful „social integration“ of ethnic
minorities can not be evaluated by their embedding in the
„Lebenswelt“, but also by their inclusion in the sub-systems
of the social system of the titular society and possibilities to
control important resources in state and society
Dimensions of social integration
• societal position of migrants and/or ethnic minorities in
a social system: employment market positions (politics,
administration, etc.)
• important for pursuing ressources
• bounded to certain laws, like citizenship, election laws
• process of „adaption“
• necessary knowledge and qualifications for the
interaction in the titular society, like language
• often results in „acculturation“: semi or partial
Dimensions of social integration
• helpful for minority actors to „come in
contact“ with the members of the titular
• emotional/identificative orientation of actors
with the titular society as well as the society
of origin
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
•Platzierung: strukturelle Dimension
Wie stellt sich die Platzierung ethnischer Russen in das politische und
ökonomische System der estnischen Gesellschaft dar? Welche Faktoren
fördern bzw. hemmen diese Form der Sozialintegration?
•Kulturation: kognitive Dimension
Welche Aussagen können zur Akkulturationsbereitschaft ethnischer
Russen getroffen werden? Wie vollzieht sich ihre sprachliche Assimilation?
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
•Interaktion: soziale Dimension
Wie stellt sich die Interaktion der ethnisch-russischen Minderheitengruppe
mit der estnischen Mehrheitsbevölkerung dar? Welche regionalen
Besonderheiten müssen beachtet werden?
•Identifikation: identifikative (emotionale) Dimension
Über welche identifikativen Bezüge verfügen ethnische Russen mit der
estnischen Aufnahmegesellschaft, der russischen Herkunftsgesellschaft und
den Angehörigen der eigenen ethnischen Gruppe in Estland und Russland?
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
• Fremdexklusion und Selbstexklusion von Bedeutung
• Staatsbürgerschaft als „soziale Schließung“
• Bedeutung der Sprachenpolitik für Inklusion und Exklusion
• Staatsbürgerschaft als Ressource
• Staatenlosigkeit als Resultat von Fremd- und
• Problematik der „politischen Inklusion“ und „demokratischen
Inklusion“ moderner Nationalstaaten
• - „trader’s dilemma“ (Evers&Schrader, 1995):
ethnic minorities look for cultural distance with
regard to the majority population and / or they do
not assimilate because cultural distanciation is a
strategy for solving problems
• broaden cope of action, status, and attention
• increasing cohesion and internal resources
• circumvent a political wanted assimilation (also
• but: total exclusion is almost impossible
I: warum Sprachtestprüfung nach dem erstmaligen Nichtbestehen nicht
wiederholen wird:
• „Why? It is not my duty and task. Either we are citizens or not. For me it is
protest. And they are threating me with penalties. But I am living here more
than 25 years and 15 years within this state Estonia. I know that they are
crushing me, but I have already learned to live under these circumstances.
When I have failed the exam they told me: okay, you have tried it, that is why
we do not punish you. According to the law I shall repeat the language exam
after three month, but preparation and test will cost a lot of money again.“
(Interview 33)
I: Pressure / crushing?:
• „They do not ask if I am able to do a job, but they ask if I am able to speak the
Estonian language. Noone asks which experiences I have in my daily life, in
occupation, only the knowledge of Estonian language is important for them.
They always asked me if I have the certification for beginner level; and I
answered that I do not have one. They told me that I am a good person, that I
have a gooa career but I can not find a job in a higher position because I do
not have a valid certificaton of Estonian knowledge. I do not know if someone
knows about it in Europe wht is going on here. These are restrictions and
limitations of personal freedom and rights. It is discrimination against
Russians in Estonia.“ (Interview 33)
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
• Unterschiede zwischen beiden ethnischen Gruppen
liegen in kultureller, vor allem sprachlicher
• Nordostregion nahezu ethnisch geschlossen
• staatlicherseits erwarteter Sprachassimilation steht
schwache Bereitschaft zur Sprachassimilation gegenüber
• Kommunikation in der Muttersprache
• „Überlegenheitsgefühle“
• Einfluss russischsprachiger Massenmedien
• I have worked here since 33 years. And I worked as Director for Quality
Services. I came here during the Soviet period and you know that all the
Russians here were brought in from all parts of the Soviet Union, that’s why
we are a Russian-speaking community in this part of Estonia. I came from the
Eastern part of the Soviet Union. I was born in the 1940s. My hometown is
more than 8,000 kilometers far away from Narva. My father worked as an
engineer in a mine and he worked in a mine for gold production. I came to
Narva in 1974. I have married my wife. I was Ukrainian, but I was born in
Russia. I came here after finishing education in a special institute. My wife is
mixed by nationality. Her father is Estonian and her mother is Russian. She
was also born in Russia, near the city of Orenburg. Her father was mechanic
and has worked in a building company. And her family has migrated to this
part of Estonia because they have found workplaces here. And I have
married here and I have one son and one daughter. They both have already
finished their studies at the Tartu University. My daughter is Philologist and
lives in Tallinn and works for a Russian-speaking newspaper. So, she works as
a Journalist. My son works now in Kohtla-Järve in a big American company.
He is Chemist. After finishing University he worked here in Narva at our
Regional Environment Department, but this Department has moved from
Narva to Jöhvi, the capital of Ida-Virumaa.
Akkulturation: Sprache
• “For example me, I do not know the Estonian ABC until
now. I simply do not know it. Maybe it is because our
factory does not work with Estonian people. The reason
is not that we do not want to have Estonian-speaking
labor force but here are simply no Estonian-speakers.
Maybe if you take our company. In Soviet time we have
had 4,500 workers and only two of them were native
Estonians. Now, we have only one. He is a very good
worker. You can say that he is an ‘alien’. It has to do with
the history of Estonia which is a traditional agricultural
country. And most of Estonians were employed in the
agricultural sector. You must know that today in Narva
there are Estonians, but they are mostly working in the
public sector like in the City administration. Of course,
there are some Russians; I mean those with Russian
names.” (Interview 39)
• „No one needs this language. With whom you shall speak in
Estonian, especially in Narva. I have 60 programs in my home
cable-TV, but there are only three programs in Estonian
language and most of programs are in Russian language. And
also the Estonian language is a very underdeveloped
language. Still now they do not have technical words and it
has to do with the agricultural past of the Estonian people. It
is a problem for Estonians. And after the independence I took
part in a special governmental commission and I could see
when they have translated their laws and texts from Russian
or English language in Estonian language that they had to take
English synonyms or English words because they do not have
technical words in Estonian. It is a big difference to the
Russian language and the Russian-speakers because they are
able to find Russian words for the new equipment and
technical things, like mobilnik for mobile phones.” (Interview
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Geistes-, Sozial- und Erziehungswissenschaften
Institut für Soziologie
• divergierende Identifikationsmuster
• Problematik der mentalen und psychischen „Anwesenheit“
in zwei Gesellschaften
• „zu Hause in Estland“ ? oder !
• divergierende Identifikationsmuster
• Individuell differenzierte Identifikationsmuster vs.
kohärenter gruppenspezifischer Identifikationen
• „Sicherheitsgefühle“ in Estland und Verbundenheit zur
Herkunftsgesellschaft aufgrund grenzüberschreitender
Kontakte und globaler Entwicklungen
"Minorities in Europe”
Session 2:
National and Ethnic
Minorities in Europe.
Minority Rights in Europe
Denis Gruber
Faculty of Sociology, St. Petersburg State University
DAAD-Lecturer for Sociology
The Internship Concept of the
How to Combine Theory with
Dr. Denis Gruber
minority rights
• after the decolonization period, the collapse of the Soviet bloc
and the growing number of intra-state conflicts caused by the
denial of the collective rights to minorities, the international
community came back to focus on the collective dimension of
minority rights
• Minority rights are an essential part of the fundamental
human rights in defence of human dignity against the state
• compared with the classical individual human rights there are
specific features of minority rights
 religious activities
 cultural
 education facilities
 language rights
minority protection based upon human rights
at the international level:
 in Art. 26 and 27 of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
Article 26
• All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall
prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective
protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status.
Article 27
• In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons
belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with
the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and
practice their own religion, or to use their own language.
minority protection based upon human rights
at the international level:
 the UN-Declaration on the rights of persons belonging to national
minorities of the 18 December 1992
Article 1
• States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic,
cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their
respective territories and shall encourage conditions for the
promotion of that identity. States shall adopt appropriate
legislative and other measures to achieve those ends.
Article 2
• Persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic
minorities have the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and
practise their own religion, and to use their own language, in
private and in public, freely and without interference or any form
of discrimination.
minority protection based upon human rights at
the international level:
 the UN-Declaration on the rights of persons belonging to
national minorities of the 18 December 1992
- the right to participate effectively in cultural, religious, social,
economic and public life (Art. 2)
- the right to participate effectively in decisions on the national
and regional level concerning the minority (Art. 3)
- the right to establish and maintain their own associations (Art. 4)
- the right to establish and maintain, without any discrimination,
free and peaceful contacts with other members of their group
and with persons belonging to other minorities (Art. 5)
minority protection based upon human rights
at the international level:
• prohibition against discrimination in Art. 14 of the European
Convention of Human Rights (ECHR)
Article 14
• The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any
ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political
or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a
national minority, property, birth or other status.
Protection of ethnic minorities in Europe
• Since 1990 the protection of ethnic minorities in Europe
has gained significant new momentum
• Research in European minorities increased since the
political change set in in 1989/91
• today there is more political transparency and correct
demographic data collection and publication
• The information technology has added to the possibility to
research and register also about ethnic groups hitherto
unknown or forgotten
Minorities and European integration
Members of
Absolute number
of minorities
In 1000s
1. EU-15 2003
2. EU-25 2004
3. EU-27 (2007?)
Europe (39 states)
The EU and its phases
of enlargement
Share of minorities on
total population in %
Source: Christoph Pan/Beate S. Pfeil (2003), National Minorities in Europe, Vienna, ETHNOS.
Not included are the micro-states: Andorra, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican.
Minority issues: international or national?
Minority protection on the national level
National parliaments of the single European states
 approve acts either for comprehensive regulations regarding
the rights of all national minorities
 enabling central or national governments to take action for
promoting and protecting minorities
 delegating the issue to a lower governmental level (regional,
provincial, municipal)
 The political representation of national minorities in
parliaments and governments and its international
implications is however a feature typically retained in the
powers of the centre.
Minority issues: international or national?
Minority protection on the international level
• Council of Europe: In the European context, minority rights are
safeguarded primarily by the CoE’s Framework Convention for
the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM)
• other bodies are the European Commission against Racism and
Intolerance (ECRI), the Committee of Experts of the European
Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the Monitoring
Committee of the Parliamentary Assembly
• OSCE, High Commissioner on National Minorities
• EU: does not have its own system of minority protection
• bilateral dimension
Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe (OSCE)
green OSCE participating States
orange Partners for Co-operation
56 participating States
11 Partners for Co-operation
Secretary General
M. P. de Brichambaut
Kanat Saudabayev
Office for Democratic
Institutions and Human Rights Janez Lenarčič
Representative on Freedom of
the Media
Miklós Haraszti
High Commissioner on
National Minorities
Knut Vollebæk
as the CSCE1
July 1973
Helsinki Accords
30 July – 1 August 1975
Paris Charter
21 November 1990
renamed as the OSCE
1 January 1995
• the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental
• mandate includes issues such as arms control, human rights,
freedom of the press and fair elections
• an ad hoc organization under the United Nations Charter
(Chap. VIII)
• is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis
management and post-conflict rehabilitation
• It was created during the Cold War era as an East-West forum
OSCE - Structure and institutions
• Political direction to the Organization is given by heads of
state or government during summits (held as needed)
• high-level decision-making body of the Organization is the
Ministerial Council, which meets at the end of every year
• at ambassadorial level the Permanent Council convenes
weekly in Vienna and serves as the regular negotiating and
decision-making body
• The post of Chairperson-in-Office is held by the minister for
foreign affairs of the participating State which holds the
• From 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2010 the Chairpersonin-Office is the Finnish Minister for Foreign Affairs Alexander
High Commissioner on National Minorities
• The High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM)
initiates and develops co-operation with other international
organizations and institutions
•  Präsentation
Early warning and early action
• HCNM has a twofold mission
to contain and de-escalate tensions
to act as a "tripwire," meaning that he is
responsible for alerting the OSCE whenever
such tensions threaten to develop to a level at
which the High Commissioner cannot contain
them with the means at his/her disposal
• HCNM is allowed to operate with the necessary
• Involvement by the High Commissioner does not require
the approval of the Permanent Council or of the State
• but: HCNM cannot function properly without the political
support of the participating States
• importance of such support becomes particularly acute
when the High Commissioner presents reports and
recommendations to the state concerned and,
afterwards, to the Permanent Council
The High Commissioner
Knut Vollebaek
• Ambassador Knut Vollebaek was appointed to the post of
High Commissioner on National Minorities of the Organization
for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) for a threeyear term on 4 July 2007, succeeding Mr. Rolf Ekéus of
• the former Norwegian foreign minister (1997-2000) is
internationally recognized for his role in the promotion of
peace and security and the protection of human rights
• was the Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE in 1999, played a key
role in attempting to find a peaceful solution to the Kosovo
The European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI)
• non-profit, independent foundation
• established in 1996 by the governments of Denmark, Germany
and Schleswig-Holstein
• Centre is governed by a board composed of nine members: three
from Denmark, three from Germany, one representative from
the OSCE, one from the Council of Europe, and one from the EU
• ECMI is also particularly interested in the emerging convergence
of standards between EU members and applicant states
• ECMI has been invited to consider standards implementation
and majority-minority relations in particular states in
cooperation with the government of that state and local groups.
Minority issues: international or national?
Minority protection on the international level
• Framework Convention on the Protection of National
Minorities (FCNM) in 1994
 a tool of binding international law to protect minorities
 Actually 32 states have ratified the FCNM, some more have
signed it already and will proceed to ratification soon (but not
France and Turkey, keep on sticking to their national doctrine
denying the existence of national minorities)
• „Copenhagen Document of 1995“: full respect of institutional
stability as a guarantee of democracy and rule of law, full
respect of human rights and the protection of minorities
• is the most comprehensive multilateral treaty devoted to
minority rights in Europe
• sets a number of principles according to which states are to
develop specific policies to protect the rights of minorities
• adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of
Europe in 1994
• Framework was to become active in 1998
• accession to the Convention is obligatory, at least politically,
for States that apply for membership in the Council of Europe
• Article 25 binds the member states to submit a report to the
Council of Europe containing “full information on the
legislative and other measures taken to give effect to the
principles set out in this framework Convention”
Signatories in light green, member states in
dark green, non-members of the Council of
Europe in grey
Member Countries
33 countries
• Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina
(non-member State), Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary,
Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova,
Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, and the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
 What is with France and Turkey?
Article 1:
“… the protection of national minorities is an integral part of the
protection of human rights”
Article 3:
“1. Every person belonging to a national minority shall have the
right freely to choose to be treated or not to be treated as
such and no disadvantage shall result from this choice or from
the exercise of the rights which are connected to that choice.“
“2. Persons belonging to national minorities may exercise the
rights and enjoy the freedoms flowing from the principles
enshrined in the present framework Convention individually
as well as in community with others.“
Ratifying states agree to:
promote the conditions necessary for minorities to
maintain and develop their culture and identity
(Article 5)
encourage tolerance, mutual respect, and
understanding among all persons living on their
territory (Article 6)
protect the rights to freedom of assembly,
association, expression, thought, conscience, and
religion (Articles 7, 8, and 9)
facilitate access to mainstream media and promote
the creation and use of minority media (Article 9)
Ratifying states agree to:
• recognize the right to use a minority language in private and in
public and display information in the minority language (Articles
10 and 11)
• recognize officially surnames and first names in the minority
language (Article 11)
• foster knowledge of the culture, history, language, and religion
of both majority and minorities (Article 12)
• recognize the rights of minorities to set up and manage their
own educational establishments and learn their own language
(Articles 13 and 14)
Ratifying states agree to:
• “endeavour to ensure” that there are adequate opportunities
to be taught in the minority language, in areas traditionally
inhabited by national minorities or where they live in
“substantial numbers” (Article 14)
• “create the conditions necessary for the effective
participation of persons belonging to national minorities in
cultural, social and economic life, and in public affairs, in
particular those affecting them” (Article 15)
• refrain from measures that alter the proportions of the
population in areas inhabited by minorities (Article 16)
• not interfere with the rights to maintain contacts across
frontiers and participate in the activities of national and
international NGOs (Article 17)
Advisory Committee
• composed of up to 18 members elected by the Committee of
Ministers (the highest decisionmaking body in the Council of
Europe)from candidates proposed by States Parties
• ergo: not all countries can have one of their nominees serve on
the Committee
• those candidates who are not elected are placed on a reserve list
of additional members
• On the basis of a rotation system, the composition of the Advisory
Committee will change over time
• members serve in their individual capacities and are independent
and impartial
• members do not represent their governments, but or although
the Committee of Ministers relies heavily on the work of the
Advisory Committee
Advisory Committee
- prevailing international standard of recognition of minorities by
acknowledging their self-identification
• exchange information with the states under review, to be invited
to visit these states
• may organize meetings with government representatives and
independent sources
• visits to States, during which the Committee meets with the
government, NGOs, minority communities, academics, and other
interested parties
• do what no other expert body of the CoE or UN has done to date:
a thorough and systematic examination of every aspect of the
implementation of the FCNM, including the issue of minority
Advisory Committee
specific tasks: examination of state reports
• States that have ratified the Convention must file their first
report within one year and every five years thereafter
• states have to publish their reports whenever requested by
the Committee of Ministers
• The Advisory Committee may invite the Committee of
Ministers to request ad hoc reports
• reports are made public by the Council of Europe and are
available on the Council's web site (www.coe.int)
• initial reports should contain full information on legislative
and other measures adopted by the State to realize the
principles of the Convention
Advisory Committee
• AC’s work has enhanced the determination of the CoE’s
most representative and political body, the Parliamentary
Assembly (PACE)
• goal: adopt strongly-worded recommendations in favour
of the recognition of all existing minorities
• In 2001, PACE adopted Recommendation 1492 (2001):
Rights of national minorities, which stated:
„The Assembly condemns the denial of the existence of
minorities and of minority rights in several Council of
Europe member states and the fact that many minorities
in Europe are not afforded adequate protection.“
Advisory Committee
• since 2008, the AC’s opinions for all member states had been
• following the HRC’s interpretation of Article 27, which
includes migrant groups among minorities, the AC noted that
in all states reviewed there were grounds for improvement, as
none offered the FCNM’s protection to recent migrant
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member
A) Definition
 Convention does not define “national minority” because it
defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities
possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage
 Convention only applies to “national” minorities, in contrast to
the 1992 UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to
minorities, which applies both to “national” and to “ethnic,
religious and linguistic” minorities
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member states?
A) Definition
- in 2003….
 Liechtenstein and Malta declared that they had no national minorities
 Denmark, Germany, Macedonia, Slovenia and Sweden listed those
national minorities to be protected by the FCNM and set out their
own definition of “national minority” when they ratified the
 Austria, Estonia, Poland, and Switzerland, considered citizenship as a
requirement for individuals to be recognized as members of
 many of these declarations exclude non-citizens and migrants
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and
member states?
A) Definition
• France refuses to recognize any minority; therefore the
Basques, Bretons, Corsicans, Roma etc. are unrecognized
• Turkey considers that no Muslims can have an ethnic identity
other than Turkish; hence Muslim Kurds or Roma are
unrecognized, while non-Muslims are recognized only as
religious minorities
• Greece’s declares that all Eastern Orthodox are viewed as
ethnic Greeks, while Muslims are recognized but only as a
religious minority; hence Macedonians as well as Roma are
unrecognized minorities
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and
member states?
A) Definition
• Albania does not recognize the Egyptian community as a national
minority, a separate group from the Roma, although its members
aspire to that status
• In Armenia, the AC notes that some small minorities are recognized
as national minorities, while others are not
• In Cyprus, the AC failed to record the presence and non-recognition
of Roma
• Czech authorities mentioned the ‘Moravian and Silesian national
identities’, registered in the 1991 census, but did not recognize
them as national minorities
• Denmark did not consider Roma as a national minority
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member states?
A) Definition
• In Denmark, Greenlanders and Faroese, who are considered as
indigenous and who live outside the traditional areas of settlement,
were not granted minority rights
• In Latvia and Estonia, the citizenship requirement, for individuals to
benefit from the FCNM provisions is insufficient
• in Ukraine, formerly deported Crimean Tatars have had difficulties
in obtaining citizenship, which is a prerequisite for the enjoyment of
their rights
• In Italy, while Roma are formally protected by the FCNM, they have
no legal instrument granting them full effective and comprehensive
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member
B) Minority situations differ greatly from country to country and
consequently require different approaches
 drafters of the Convention opted for “programmatic” provisions
that establish principles and objectives that should guide states
in protecting their minority populations
 Convention is largely constructed as a series of States’
obligations rather than as a detailed list of rights of persons
belonging to national minorities
 realization of these principles and objectives must take place at
the national level, notably through the adoption of legislation
and policies
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member
C) The convention is not more than a “Framework Convention”
 States use their discretion in designing legislation and policies
that are appropriate to their own circumstances
 programmatic provisions are worded in general terms and
often contain qualifying phrases such as “substantial
numbers”, “a real need”, “where appropriate”, and “as far as
 gives States Parties the flexibility to translate the Convention’s
objectives into national laws and policies that are most
But: What is the problem for ethnic minorities and member
D) Member States can decide how to fight against
 States are to adopt, “where necessary”, measures to promote
“full and effective equality between persons belonging to a
national minority and those belonging to the majority” taking
“due account of the specific conditions” of national minorities
"Minorities in Europe”
Session 3:
Discussing Ethnic Identity.
Ethnicity, Ethnic Mobilization and
Ethnic Violence
Denis Gruber
Faculty of Sociology, St. Petersburg State
DAAD-Lecturer for Sociology
Examining Ethnicity
• The word ethnicity comes from the ancient Greek ethnos: a
collectivity of humans lived and acted together, and which is
typically translated as ‘people’ or nation’
• The concept of ethnicity was introduced during the 1960s in
the American sociological discourse (Jenkins, 1997: 9)
• Ethnicity was investigated in Western studies of immigrants,
ethnic business, the relationship between race and ethnicity,
the relationship between ethnic majorities and ethnic
minorities, but..
• …ethnicity was also investigated in the former socialist
countries (e.g. The Soviet School of Anthropology) with its
most prominent scholar Yulian Bromley
Ethnicity and Ethnic Groups – 1. Max Weber
ethnic group 
“is based on the belief shared by its members that, however distantly, they
are of common descent (…) ethnic membership does not constitute a
group formation of any kind, particularly in the political sphere. On the
other hand, it is primarily the political community, no matter how
artificially organized that inspires the belief in common ethnicity” (Weber
Is Weber right?
- He thinks that the members tend to interact with one another and share a
• For Weber two interdependent sources for ethnicity’s
potential are important in social life:
- ethnicity may serve as a principle of social allocation
- ethnicity represents a form of social solidarity
 “group character of ethnicity”
 solidarity is made manifest when group members mobilize
themselves to influence the outcome of a political issue
 Solidarity serves as a resource to protect labour markets, in
the form of jobs, against other ethnic groups
 distinction between people inside and outside of the group
(”we” and “they”)
Further reasons for solidarity
• a common fate, a common history, discrimination in common
(Glazer & Moynihan, 1970)
• pursuit of collective interests does encourage ethnic
identification (Weber)
• sense of “ethnic communality” (Alba, 1990) as a form of
“social closure” that defines membership, the belonging to a
group, eligibility and access (e.g. language, economic way of
life, lifestyle, ritual, and the division of labour) (Jenkins, 1997)
• defending the “ethnic boundary” (inclusion and exclusion)
Three predominant approaches of ethnicity
• Primordial
• constructivist and/or instrumental
• circumstantial and/or rational choice
• ethnic groups frequently appeal to shared origin and kinship:
‘fatherland’ or ‘motherland’
• ethnicity is given by birth and blood
• emphasizes the emotional and imperative nature of ethnicity
• ethnicity is seen as a permanent and fundamental aspect of
human identity, “expressed either alone and for its own sake,
or in relations with differently ethnic others” (Banks 1996:
• ethnicity is rooted in a collective and historic identity
• ethnicity is deeply meaningful and “ethnic actors tend to
perceive themselves and the world through a primordial lens”
(Verkuyten 2005: 86)
• Following Verkuyten (2005: 86-7), there are at least three
strong arguments for a primordial interpretation of ethnicity:
1.) ethnicity is something people are socialized into (security,
protection, trust, etc.)
2.) symbolic reference to kinship and ancestry tends to create a
moral community in which locality, trust, and the obligation to
mutual aid and support are central
3.) ethnic group membership can appeal to help and support,
ethnic relationships are embedded in community and
supported by reciprocity, trust, and a sense of solidarity
(Brewer, 2001)
• Soviet ethnos theory is one of the most strongly primordial
„the expression of ethnicity is so strongly resilient that it persists
through generations and through a variety of social forms”
(Bromley, 1974:18)
• ‘ethnos’ is in the centre of ethnic research
• ‘ethnos’ is seen as morally neutral, because it neither helps
nor hinders the transformation of a society into a smoothly
functioning socialist society (Banks, 1996: 18)
• ‘ethnos’ is defined not as a “mere sum of features and
common characteristics”, but as an “integral system which is
conscious of its integrity” (Bromley, 1974)
Yulian Bromley (1921 - 1990)
• Bromley was a specialist in South Slavs
• was appointed Director of the Institute of Ethnography at the
Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1966, a post he held until 1989
• wrote more than 300 texts although he did not engage in
fieldwork himself
• Ernest Gellner described him as leading a minor revolution in
anthropology, which consisted of turning ethnography into the
study of ethnos-es, often referred to as ethnicity by western
Soviet ethnos theory
• ‘ethnos’ was used to describe an equivalent to the word
‘people’ that includes not only small communities (tribes or
ethnic minorities), but also to define those with millions of
members (Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, etc.)
• for Bromley ‘ethnoses’ are emerging as a result of the
“natural-historical process and not of a given people’s will”
(Bromley, 1978: 103)
• Soviet anthropologists suggest that there are a lot of
differences between the single ‘ethnoses’ in the Soviet Union,
 cultural features (language, ethnic division, etc.)
 psychological features (mainly in nuances and style of
expressing psychological traits common to all mankind)
Soviet ethnos theory
• SET was in an inseparable connection to the SU policy
• by the creation of the new “ethnos”, the Soviet people, SU
was interpreted as an ideal for a progressive working class, a
harmonious social structure, free of private property and
exploitation, a collective-farm peasantry, and an intelligentsia
(Bromley, 1978: 194-5)
• ethnic changes taking place in the single SU republics
(‘ethnosocial entities’) were closely linked with their socioeconomic and socio-political development and integration in
the Union (Bromley 1978: 195)
• ethnic tensions in the Soviet Union were not seen obviously,
but have been interpreted as not existing and / or necessary
to create the new “ethnos” (the Soviet people”)
• goal: ethnic consolidation  results in the diminishing of the
‘ethnic mosaic’ (Bromley, 1978:196)
2. Constructivism / Instrumentalism
• ethnicity approach which formed the basis in the study ‘Ethnic groups and
boundaries’ (Barth 1969) is associated to both the cooperative group theory of
the British Social Anthropology and to Goffman’s definition of the situation in
interaction (Barth, 2000: 11)
• Barth’s investigation of ethnic groups is orientated to four basic criteria:
(1) ethnic identity is seen as a feature of social organization and not primarily as
an expression of culture
(2) rather boundaries than cultural issues are important to show that ethnic
groups and their characteristic features are produced by specific interactionist, historic, economic and political circumstances
(3) ethnic group membership depends on definition and self-definition
(4) Barth emphasizes the entrepreneurial role in ethnic politics: mobilization of
ethnic groups in ‘collective action’ is caused by leaders who practice a political
enterprise, and is not a direct express of the cultural ideology of the group or
of a popular will  see ethnic mobilization
2. Constructivism / Instrumentalism
main changes by Barth’s approach:
• breakaway from the previous dominant view of ethnicity
(Primordialism) as to be in line with culture was replaced by the
consideration of boundary processes between groups
• ethnicity is not only investigated within, but also between
• ethnic identities are not immutable but transactional and
situationally flexible
• core of analysis is on the management and manipulation of
situational identities
• ethnicity is examined as pragmatic aspects of the organization
of everyday social interactions which can rather have a flexible
Ethnic boundary ‘maintenance’
• ethnic boundary markers define the difference
between groups (customs, behaviour, food, language,
political ideas)
• boundary markers may change through time and
according to context  social time and social place
(Maurice Halbwachs)
• Ethnic boundaries are not necessary territorial
boundaries (regions, nations), but social ones
• People may change ethnic identity, individually or
collectively (intermarriage/cultural adoption,
economic/production strategies, escape social
stigma, etc)
• use of ethnicity as a rational choice-alternative can be
considered to have strategic issues
• ethnic groups can be defined as interest groups
• ethnic identity of groups will remain stable as long as the
circumstances or the interest remain the same
• people and groups emphasize their ethnicity or present
different forms of it when it seems to be advantageous
• individuals or groups have opportunities to refer or to
deny to their ethnic origin or background in some
Ethnicity and the state
• Ethnicity is a product of state formation, not the
other way around
• Ethnicity as a response to state
• ethnicity as a strategy to achieve collectively what
one could not achieve individually
• It is in contexts of imposed assimilation and
simultaneous discrimination followed by a process
of mobilisation  ethnic mobilization
Nationalism and Ethnicity
• Nationalism is commonly based on ethnic ties,
but nationalism and ethnicity are not the
Nationalism involves three themes:
Ethnic separatism
• Results of rising ethnic nationalism
• Old stable multinational countries are feeling
the effects — Canada, the United Kingdom
• Some multinational countries have
splintered— the former Soviet Union,
Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
• ETA in Spain
Minorities, Mobilization, Violence
facts about the politicization of ethnicity
• Gellner sees cultural discrimination arising from the nature of modern
economies  So why not just learn the language and culture of those
who control the state or the factories?
• Gellner, Deutsch, and Anderson suggest that assimilation (adopting of
language and integration in society) may be possible, but only when preexisting cultural differences are not too great  Why minorities do not
assimilate? Which kind of assimilation?
• Anderson also suggests that the development of biological theories of
race contributed to acceptance of ethnicity as a natural criterion for
political and economic discrimination (e.g. Germany before 1945 and
still: Who is more a German (ethnic Germans or those with migration
Ethnic violence
• also known as ethnic terrorism or ethnicallymotivated terrorism
• is predominantly framed rhetorically by causes and
issues related to ethnic hatred
• PKK , Ku Klux Klan, Zionist political violence, ETA
Explanations for Ethnic Violence
• Flanking is important for the creation of ethnic
• Flanking is defined as “the attempt of an insurgent
party representing one ethnic group to challenge the
dominant party of the same ethnic group by staking
out a more extreme (more "patriotic" or "loyal")
position” (Horowitz 1985)
• Ethnic party systems are prone to a politics of
centrifugal "outbidding" (überbieten) because party
competition tends to occur not between ethnic
groups but within them
Explanations for Ethnic Violence
• violence may emerge as a consequence of
intraethnic politics (Fearon and Laitin 2000)
interethnic (between, among, or involving members
of two or more ethnic groups, e.g. interethnic
intraethnic (within one ethnic group) e.g. Mitchell
(1995) points that intra-ethnic party competition
would radicalise the parties’ position regarding the
ethnic cleavage
Basque people
The Basques (Spanish: vascos, Basque: euskaldunak) are the native people (an
ethnic group) of the Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria)
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nortasun.png
Classification of population according to cultural identity. Do you consider yourself Basque? 1: Yes - 2: Yes,
in some ways - 3: No - 4: Don't known / Don't answer
• The identifying language of the Basques is called Basque or Euskara,
spoken today by 25%-30% of the region's population
• As a result of state language promotion, school policies, the impact
of mass media, and the effects of migration, today virtually all
Basques (except for some children below school age) speak the
official language of their state (Spanish or French)
• Basque is a modern language, firmly established as a written and
printed medium
• used in present-day forms of publication and communication, as
well as a language spoken
• used in a very wide range of social and cultural contexts, styles, and
English: Linguistic map of Basque Country
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nortasun.png
Language Conflicts
• Both Spanish and French governments have, at times, tried to
suppress Basque linguistic and cultural identity
• Spain has, at most points in its history, granted some degree
of linguistic, cultural, and even political autonomy to its
Basques, but under Franco (repression against Basque
nationalism), the Spanish government reversed the advances
of Basque nationalism
• today, the Basque Country within Spain enjoys an extensive
cultural and political autonomy
• majority of schools under the jurisdiction of the Basque
education system use Basque as the primary medium of
Political status and violence
• the more radical currents of Basque nationalism have
demanded the right of self-determination and even
• the desire for greater autonomy and/or independence is
particularly common among leftist Basque nationalists
• The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque
Parliament in 2002 and 2006, but is not recognized in the
Spanish Constitution of 1978
• self-determination in 2006 is supported by 60% of Basques in
the Spanish Basque country
• Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA (English: Basque Homeland and
• an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization
• group was founded in 1959 and they evolved from a group
promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group
• the goal is gaining independence for the Greater Basque Country
from a Marxist-Leninist perspective
• since 1968, ETA has killed over 800 individuals, injured thousands
and undertaken dozens of kidnappings
• is seen as a terrorist organization by Spanish and French
authorities, as well as the European Union
• more than 700 members of the organization are incarcerated in
prisons in Spain
ETA members fire salvos during the Day of the
Basque Soldier of 2006.
ETA's motto is Bietan jarrai ("Keep up on both")  refers to the two figures in its symbol, a
snake (representing politics) wrapped around an axe (representing armed struggle)
• group used to have a very hierarchical organization with a
leading figure at the top
• charcterized by eleven substructures: logistics, politics,
international relations with fraternal organisations, military
operations, reserves, prisoner support, expropriation,
information, recruitment, negotiation and treasury
• leading committee is formed by 7 to 11 individuals, and ETA's
internal documentation refers to it as Zuba (directorial
• There is another committee named Zuba-hitu that functions as
an advisory committee
• ETA's armed operations are organized in different taldes
("groups") or commandos, generally composed of three to five
members, whose objective is to conduct attacks in a specific
geographic zone
among its members, ETA distinguishes between three types:
1. legales/legalak ("legal ones“) those members who do not
have police records and live apparently normal lives
2. liberados ("liberated") members known to the police that
are on ETA's payroll and working full time for ETA
3. apoyos ("support") who just give occasional help and
logistics support to the organisation when required
Political support
• The political party Batasuna presently banned by the Spanish Supreme Court
as an anti-democratic organisation following the Political Parties Law
 pursues the same political goals as ETA and does not condemn ETA's use of
 generally received 8 to 15% of the vote in the Basque Autonomous
• other political parties linked to terrorist organizations like the Partido
Comunista de España (reconstituido) have also been declared illegal, and
Acción Nacionalista Vasca and Communist Party of the Basque Lands
(EHAK/PCTV, Euskal Herrialdeetako Alderdi Komunista / Partido Comunista
de las Tierras Vascas) have been illegalized in September 2008
• a new party called Communist Party of the Basque Lands (EHAK/PCTV) was
founded in 2005
• PCTV obtained 9 seats of 75 (12.44% of votes) at the Basque Parliament
film about the ETA
"Minorities in Europe”
Session 4:
Cultural Identities and Ethnic
Minorities in Europe
Denis Gruber
Faculty of Sociology, St. Petersburg State University
DAAD-Lecturer for Sociology
• to have an„identity“ is a positive marker for
individual or group identification, while „not to
have identity“ is mostly seen in a negative view
• G.H. Mead (1998) understands „identity“ as a
„reflexive phenomena“
identity is developed in societal processes of
interaction by individuals with other individuals
and through interaction in the social system
developes the notion of „identity“ in his
„symbolic interactionism“
„identity building“
• According to Erikson IB refers to the whole life experiences
• is constructed by those elements which are responsible for
basic groups identity
• e.g.: names, languages, history, origin, nationality, religion,
Symbolic Interaction Theories
- focus on the interpretation (social meaning)
that is given to behaviour, and on the way
such interpretation helps to construct the
social world, the identities of people, and,
ultimately how they behave.
Basic Principles
1. Humans have capacity for thought.
2. Thought is shaped by social interaction.
3. Through interaction, people learn symbols and
meanings that allow them to think.
4. Meanings and symbols allow for human action.
5. People can interpret a situation and modify their
action or interaction.
6. People can create own meanings.
7. Groups and societies are made up of patterns of
action and interaction.
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)
Main ideas:
The social self is composed of an active “I” that is
independent of particular situations and a
receptive “Me” that is situated and responsive.
The shape of “Me” is composed of the messages
we receive by using others as mirrors of the self.
Development of the Social Self
• Society made up of selves who act and
• Self = subject + object (I + me)
Erving Goffman (1922-1982)
Best Known Works:
Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959)
Asylums (1961)
Stigma (1963)
Interaction Ritual (1967)
Gender Advertisements (1976)
Erving Goffman (1922-1982)
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959)
• “All the world's a stage, And all the men and
women merely players.” William Shakespeare
• Dramaturgical approach to understanding human
behavior and interactions.
• Impression management in everyday settings.
• How does the self form, act, and change in
response to interactions with others?
Erving Goffman (1922-1982)
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959)
• How do members of one play interact with
members of another play?
1. Technical: goal achievement.
2. Political: power.
3. Structural: horizontal and vertical hierarchies
of statuses.
4. Culturally: moral values of the larger group.
Impression management theory
• states that any individual or organization must establish and
maintain impressions that are congruent with the perceptions
they want to convey to their publics
• encompasses the vital ways in which one establishes and
communicates this congruence between personal or
organizational goals and their intended actions which create
public perception
• The idea that perception is reality is the basis for this theory
• and: the other’s perceptions of you or your organization
become the reality from which they form ideas and the basis
for intended behaviors
Basic factors influencing impression
• IM can be relevant whenever there exists a kind of social
situation, whether real or imaginary
• furthermore, the characteristics of a given social situation are
• specifically, the surrounding cultural norms determine the
appropriateness of particular nonverbal behaviours
• person's goals are another factor governing the ways and
strategies of impression management
• individuals differ in responses from the interactional
• persons may be irresponsive to audience's reactions while
others actively respond to audience reactions in order to elicit
positive results
Erving Goffman on impression management
• presented impression management dramaturgically
• explained the motivations behind complex human
performances within a social setting based on a play
• work incorporates aspects of a symbolic interactionist
perspective, emphasizing a qualitative analysis of the
interactive nature of the communication process
• the actor, shaped by the environment and target audience,
sees interaction as a performance
• objective of the performance is to provide the audience with
an impression consistent with the desired goals of the actor
• impression management is highly dependent on the situation
Impression management
• the process through which people try to control the
impressions other people form of them
• goal-directed conscious or unconscious attempt to influence
the perceptions of other people about a person, object or
• … by regulating and controlling information in social
interaction (Piwinger & Ebert 2001)
• usually used synonymously with self-presentation, if a person
tries to influence the perception of their image
• the notion of IM also refers to professional communication
and public relations, where the term is used to describe the
process of formation of a company's or organization's public
Impression Management:Motives
two main motives that govern self-presentation
Schlenker 1980, pp. 92
1.) instrumental: we want to influence others and gain rewards
 goals: Ingratiation (we try to be happy and display our
good qualities so that others will like us; intimidation
(aggressively showing anger to get others to hear and obey
us); supplication (we try to be vulnerable and sad so people
will help us and feel bad for us)  are these motives for
“minority violence” and ”identity making”
2.) expressive: we construct an image of ourselves to claim
personal identity, and present ourselves in a manner that is
consistent with that image.
Impression Management: Strategies
• concerning the strategies followed to establish a
certain impression, the main distinction is between
defensive and assertive strategies
• defensive strategies: include behaviours like
avoidance of threatening situations or means of selfhandicapping
• assertive strategies: refer to more active behaviour
like the verbal idealisation of the self, the use of
status symbols, etc.
Basic Principles
1. Humans have capacity for thought.
2. Thought is shaped by social interaction.
3. Through interaction, people learn symbols and
meanings that allow them to think.
4. People can interpret a situation and modify their
action or interaction.
6. People can create own meanings.
7. Groups and societies are made up of patterns of
action and interaction.
several identities are existing simultaneously
identities are fluid and not fix
• The concept of „social identities“ points out
how an individual can be classified with regard
to its age, ethnic origin, ethnic orientation ,
Social Space and Social Time
• „social space“ and „social time“ are the most
important categories in which the process of
„identity building“ takes place
• space refers to the place of origin and/or living
• time refers to the contemporary time as well
as to the previous time contextes which are
emphasised in books, life stories, etc.
Identity and Memory
• Halbwachs: „collective memory“ is the sum of
symbolic and verbal conventions which is
created in the social system („cadres sociaux“)
and in the process of individual socialisation
art studies
social memory / pathos formula (Warburg)
invention of tradition (Hobsbawm)
lieux de mémoire (Nora)
memoria (Oexle)
mémoire collective
social memory studies (Olick)
literary studies
Cultural Memory Studies
“the cultural brain” (Welzer/Markowitsch)
ars memoriae (Yates)
intertextuality as the
‘memory of literature’
“ mimesis of memory ”
social psychology
media theory
communicative memory (Welzer)
(+ anthropology + cultural history)
episodic, semantic, procedural collective memory
(Hirst et al.)
Cultural Memory vs.
Communicative Memory
(Aleida und Jan Assmann)
collective memory
collected memory
collective memory
[T]wo radically different concepts of culture are involved here,
one that sees culture as a subjective category of meanings
contained in people’s minds versus one that sees culture as
patterns of publicly available symbols objectified in society.
(Olick 1999: 336)
collective memory
“collective” memory
collected memory
collective “memory”
collective memory
= individual remembering in
a socio-cultural context
= symbolic order, media and
institutions of a community which
establish versions of its past
(its ‘memory’)
cognitive systems
social systems
- oral history
- social psychology
- neurosciences
- sociology
- history
- cultural studies
collective memory
collective memory
collected memory
1. role of individual memory processes
2. role of media
cadres sociaux (Halbwachs) > cadres médiaux
Assmann provides a list of aspects defining the
Cultural Memory
• The concretion of identity/ relation to the
Cultural Memory preserves the knowledge
from which a group derives its identity
• Capacity of reconstructCultural Memory exists
in two modes
• a) mode of potentiality of the archive of
figures of memory as a total horizon
• b) mode of actuality : a contemporary
Assmann provides a list of aspects defining the
Cultural Memory
• Cultural Memory works by reconstructing – it always relates
ist knowledge to a contemporary situation by criticism,
appropriation, preservation and transformation
The objectivation is formed by linguistic, pictorial and ritual
• a) Cultural memory is institutionaly organized and
• b) the bearers of cultural memory become specialized
• 5.Obligation
the in-group identity creates a clear sysem of values and
Assmann provides a list of aspects defining the
Cultural Memory
• 6.Reflexity
• a) practice-reflexive , common practice is interpreted in
relation to maximes, rituals and ethics
• b) self-reflexive : it refers to itself as a benchmark to critizize,
control, explain, distiguish
• c) selfimage-reflexive: the selfimage is reviewed in regard to
ist adequacy of representing the social system of a group in
dealing with the own social system a group can adjust its
Cultural identity
• the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as
one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture
• cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not
synonymous with, identity politics
• cultural identifiers examine the condition of the subject from
a variety of aspects including: place, gender, race, history,
nationality, language, sexual orientation, religious beliefs,
ethnicity and aesthetics.
• Culture is a social process in which individuals participate, in
the context of changing historical conditions
• as a "historical reservoir", culture is an important factor in
shaping identity
Map of
Greek name
Turkish name
Total population
1 015 455
Regions with
United Kingdom
United States
Cypriot and
standard Greek
Greek Orthodox
The Cyprus Case
• In 1878, as the result of the Cyprus Convention, the United
Kingdom took over the government of Cyprus as a
protectorate from the Ottoman Empire
• In 1914, at the beginning of World War I, Cyprus was annexed
by the United Kingdom
• In 1925 Cyprus was made a Crown Colony
• known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey
• was an Islamic empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922
• was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey, which was officially
proclaimed on October 29, 1923
Ottoman Empire
Interwar Period
• During the course of the First World War Britain offered to cede
Cyprus to Greece if they would fulfill treaty obligations to attack
Bulgaria, but Greece declined
• As a result of this, Britain proclaimed Cyprus a Crown Colony in 1925
under an undemocratic constitution
• In the years that followed Greek Cypriots demands for enosis (union
with Greece), which Turkish Cypriots and the British opposed
• until 1941, The Governor at the time, Sir Richmond Palmer, took a
number of suppressive measures including limitations on the
administration and functioning of Greek schools, and prohibition of
trade unions and associations of any kind and form
• regime became known as "Palmerokratia", named after the
• there were strong protests against the regime but the suppressive
measures were not lifted until the beginning of the Second World
After WW II
• In 1948, King Paul of Greece declared that Cyprus desired union
with Greece
• in 1951 the Orthodox Church of Cyprus presented a referendum
according to which around 97% of the Greek Cypriot population
wanted the union
• The United Nations accepted the Greek petition and enosis became
an international issue
• In 1952 both Greece and Turkey became members of NATO
• between 1955-59 EOKA was created by Greek Cypriots and led by
George Grivas to perform enosis (union of the island with Greece)
• The first bombs were set off on April 1, followed by leaflets
• For the next four years EOKA attacked primarily British or Britishconnected targets
• EOKA (Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston; National
Organisation of Cypriot Fighters)
• was a Greek Cypriot nationalist military resistance
• fought for the end of British rule of the island
• goals: self-determination and for union with Greece
• EOKA engaged to free the Greek Cypriots from British rule
• leadership of AKEL at the time (a political party with
communist roots), opposed EOKA's military action
• advocating the Gandhiesque approach of civil disobedience
such as workers' strikes and demonstrations
• in 1950, the vast majority of all Greek-Cypriots voted for the
union with Greece (98%)
• military campaign began on April 1, 1955
• EOKA launched simultaneous attacks on the British controlled
Cyprus Broadcasting Station in Nicosia
• EOKA confined its acts to sabotaging military installations,
ambushing military convoys and patrols, and assassinating
British soldiers and local informers
Ideology - Oath of The Youth Organisation of EOKA
“I swear in the name of the Holy Trinity that:
• I shall work with all my power for the liberation of Cyprus from the
British yoke, sacrificing for this even my life.
• I shall perform without question all the instructions of the
organisation which may be entrusted to me and I shall not bring any
objection, however difficult and dangerous these may be.
• I shall not abandon the struggle unless I receive instructions from
the leader of the organisation and after our aim has been
• I shall never reveal to anyone any secret of our organisation neither
the names of my chiefs nor those of the other members of the
organization even if I am caught and tortured.
• I shall not reveal any of the instructions which may be given me even
to my fellow combatants.
• If I disobey my oath I shall be worthy of every punishment as a
traitor and may eternal contempt cover me.
 Film
The 1950s
• In April 1957, in the new conditions made obvious by the Suez debacle,
the British government accepted that bases in Cyprus were an acceptable
alternative to Cyprus as a base  Greece and Turkey should find a solution
• In the few years that existed before the Zürich and London agreements
(1959 /1960) Greece tried again to win international recognition and
support for the cause of enosis at the UN
• Greece had to recognise that Turkey was now a vitally interested party in
the dispute
• On February 19, 1959 the Zürich agreement attempted to end the conflict
• Without the presence of either the Greek or the Turkish sides, the UK
outlined a Cypriot constitution, which was eventually accepted by both
sides. Both Greece and Turkey along with Britain were appointed as
guarantors of the island's integrity
Zurich agreement
• Cyprus is to become an independent state
• Greek and Turkish military forces, at a ratio of approximately 3:2,
are to be present at all time in Cyprus
• Both forces are to answer to all three Foreign Ministers: of Greece,
Turkey and Cyprus
• The President is to be a Greek Cypriot, elected by the Greek Cypriot
population, and the Vice President a Turkish Cypriot, elected by the
Turkish Cypriot population
• The Cabinet is to include seven Greek Cypriots, chosen by the
President, and three Turkish Cypriots, chosen by the Vice President
• Decisions will need an absolute majority but both the President and
the Vice President have the right of veto
• Britain is to remain a guarantor and keep both of its military bases.
The 1960s
• the EOKA campaign did not result union with Greece but rather
an independent republic, The Republic of Cyprus, in 1960
• In 1960, Turkish Cypriots were only the 18% of the Cypriot
• the 1960 constitution carried important safeguards for the
participation of Turkish Cypriots to the state affairs, such as the
vice-president being Turkish Cypriot, 30% of parliament being
Turkish Cypriot, etc
• one of the articles in the constitution was the creation of separate
local municipalities so that Greek and Turkish Cypriots could
manage their own municipalities in the big towns
• This article of the constitution was never implemented by the
Republic and President Archbishop Makarios
• Archbishop Makarios III, a charismatic religious and political
leader, was elected the first president of independent Cyprus
• In 1961 it became the 99th member of the United Nations.
• The Zurich agreement, however, did not succeed in
establishing cooperation between the Greek and the Turkish
Cypriot populations
• both sides continued the violence; Turkey threatened to
intervene on the island.
• In November 1963, President Makarios advanced a series of
constitutional amendments designed to eliminate some of
these special provisions
• Turkish Cypriots opposed such changes; confrontation
prompted widespread intercommunal fighting in December
• On December 23 1963, all Cypriot Turks from the lowest civil
servants to ministers, including the Turkish Vice-President Dr
Fazıl Küçük were out of the government.
• UN peacekeepers were deployed on the island in 1964,
effectively recognising the Greek Cypriots as the government
• The force, UNFICYP, included Canadian, Irish and Finnish
• The same year the Turkish parliament voted in favour of the
intervention of Cyprus but the lack of support that Turkey
faced from both the UN and NATO prevented it
• Following another outbreak of intercommunal violence in
Ethnic distribution svg map of Cyprus in 1973,
language neutral (check the source for town
names and legend).
Ethnic distribution in 1973. The yellow colour
shows land with predominantly Greek-Cypriot
population, while purple shows predominantly
Turkish-Cypriot population
The Cyprus Case
• Turkey invaded the island in 1974 and seized the northern third of the
• In a two-stage offensive, Turkish troops took control of 38% of the island
• 200,000 Greek Cypriots fled the Turkish forces while up to 60,000 Turkish
Cypriots were transferred to the northern areas by the United Nations and
British authorities
• Since then, the southern part of the country has been under the control of
the internationally recognised Cyprus government and the northern part
under a Turkish Cypriot administration protected by the presence of
Turkish troops
• The de facto state of Northern Cyprus was proclaimed in 1975 under the
name "Turkish Federated State of Northern Cyprus“, was changed to its
present form on 15 November 1983: "Turkish Republic of Northern
• recognised only by Turkey despite United Nations Security Council
Resolutions that have called the declaration "legally invalid" and as such it
faces an international embargo
Greek coup and Turkish invasion
United Nations Peacekeeping Forces maintain a buffer zone between the two
there had been no violent conflict since 1974 until August 1996, when violent
clashes led to the death of two demonstrators and escalated tension
UN-led talks on the status of Cyprus resumed in December 1999 to prepare the
ground for meaningful negotiations leading to a comprehensive settlement
A referendum on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, a United Nations proposal for
reunification was placed
plan was rejected by the Greek Cypriots while approved by the Turkish Cypriots
but required the approval of both sides to succeed
Efforts to reunite the island under a federal structure continue, however, under
the auspices of the United Nations, but due to Greek Cypriot politics, this
seems unlikely
As Cyprus planned to join the European Community in May 2004, there were
renewed negotiations about the status of the Island
in December 2003, the buffer zone between the two parts of Cyprus was partly
Since then, members of both communities (and citizens of EU) have been able
to cross the buffer zone at the opened check points
Annan Plan for Cyprus
• had undergone five revisions in order to reach its final version
• covering the island of Cyprus in its entirety except for the
British Sovereign Base Areas
• This new country was to be a federation of two constituent
states — the Greek Cypriot State and the Turkish Cypriot State
— joined together by a federal government apparatus
This federal level, purported to be loosely based on the Swiss
federal model, would have incorporated the following elements:
• A collective Presidential Council, made up of six voting members, allocated
according to population (per present levels, four Greek Cypriots and two
Turkish Cypriots)
• A President and Vice President, chosen by the Presidential Council from
among its members, one from each community, to alternate in their
functions every 20 months during the council's five-year term of office.
• A bicameral legislature: A Senate (upper house), with 48 members,
divided 24:24 between the two communities
• A Chamber of Deputies (lower house), with 48 members, divided in
proportion to the two communities' populations (with no fewer than 12
for the smaller community)
• The plan included a federal constitution, constitutions for each constituent
• The main reason for the 75% "No" vote among Greek Cypriots in the
referendum was their perception that the Annan Plan was unbalanced and
excessively pro-Turkish
Referendum results:
[edit] The Cyprus Dispute after the referendum
Referendum results:
Ballot Total
Turkish Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
Total legitimate
ballots in all areas
Total legitimate
ballots in all areas
Greek Cypriot
The Cyprus Dispute after the referendum
• On 1 May 2004, a week after the referendum, Cyprus joined the
European Union.
• Under the terms of accession the whole island is considered to be a
member of the European Union
• the EU's body of laws, have been suspended in the north.
• Following the defeat of the UN plan in the referendum there has
been no attempt to restart negotiations between the two sides
• While both sides have reaffirmed their commitment to continuing
efforts to reach an agreement, the UN Secretary-General has not
been willing to restart the process until he can be sure that any new
negotiations will lead to a comprehensive settlement based on the
plan he put forward in 2004
New negotiations
• A first meeting of the technical committees was set to take place on
18 April 2008
• Talat and Christofias met socially at a cocktail party on 7 May 2008,
and agreed to meet regularly to review the progress of the talks so
• At a meeting on 1 July 2008, the two leaders agreed in principle on
the concepts of a single citizenship and a single sovereignty
• A reunification plan would then be put to referendums in both
• On 26 June 2009, leaders of the Greek and Turkish parts of the
island agreed to open a new border crossing in north-west Cyprus
• On 31 January 2010, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
arrived in Cyprus to accelarate talks aimed a reuniting the country

'Minorities in Europe” Session 1: Introduction and