Module 3: Exam Review 3.01 Interpreting History People look at what happens around them through their own reality or bias. Bias develops from our different experiences in life, such as the way our parents raised us, our natural personalities, the ways and content in which we are educated, the interests and hobbies we pursue, and the behaviors of friends and people we interact with daily. Bias helps explain why people interpret events in different ways. When we study history, we should think about how our experiences might affect our interpretations. 3.01 Interpreting History Perspectives on Nationalism The Framers did agree on many basic ideas about government and all were loyal patriots. However, they had different perspectives on how the new government should operate. For example, Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a very strong central government. Thomas Jefferson, in contrast, felt the state governments should have the most power. 3.01 Interpreting History Does history repeat itself? Because no two people are exactly alike, neither are their choices. However, we can learn much from choices made in the past to help inform the choices we make now. A student of history should use care when judging the actions of people in the past. Quiz Time! Jennifer discovered different views on a significant event while researching a topic for her history project. After checking the sources and reviewing for issues of bias, she found both views to be reliable. How should Jennifer present the information in her project? A. Summarize both views and present them as equally valid B. Look for other sources that agree with each other C. Decide which view best supports her argument and use only that one D. Summarize both views but just use the one that supports her project The Correct Answer Is… A. SUMMARIZE BOTH VIEWS AND PRESENT THEM AS EQUALLY VALID 3.02 Recipe for America Culture is shared practices and beliefs of a group of people. Stickball is a sport originally played by many groups of Native Americans. French settlers who observed the game called it lacrosse. Native Americans played this game to help affirm tribal ties and settle disputes. Colonists and Native Americans traded with each other. The Iroquois strung dyed beads and shells together to record information. Some New England colonists used Iroquois wampum for money. The Cherokee used painted clay beads in jewelry and clothing. Native American words are in many place names within the United States, including about half of the states’ names. 3.02 Recipe for America Enslaved African Americans used juba to express emotion. Juba is clapping and using hands and feet to keep time. They set words and rhymes to the rhythms. Most enslaved people lived in slave quarters. These were rough huts built for the slaves to live in away from the main house. In the slave quarters, African Americans built family ties and traditions. Slaves built the huts around a shared space with a fire for cooking. They sometimes dug a space in the floor to store vegetables, meat, and even things they wished to hide. Native Americans and African Americans were not wasteful. Slaves often kept a vegetable patch in the slave quarters and ate all edible parts. Chickens were very important to the enslaved people. They were a source of eggs and meat. The feathers and bones were important in traditional African rituals some slaves still practiced. 3.02 Recipe for America Colonial Education: The most famous early schoolbook, the New England Primer, taught children to read using verses and stories from the Bible. Women in the Colonies: Fathers and husbands expected obedience from their daughters and wives. Parents arranged marriages for their daughters that would benefit the family. Wives were responsible for household duties and raising children. They also directed the family’s religious activities. Midwives delivered babies and cared for pregnant women. Wives often oversaw their husbands’ business on top of their normal duties while they were away. Children's Work: Children were responsible for helping the family survive. Girls would help their mothers create household goods like clothing, candles, and soap. Boys helped farm and sometimes became apprentices to learn a trade. Quiz Time! The Iroquois Indians strung dyed beads and shells together for what purpose? A. Jewelry B. Record keeping C. For decoration D. To teach their children to count The Correct Answer Is… B. RECORD KEEPING Quiz Time! On plantations, slaves usually lived… A. In the planation house with their owners B. In log cabins in the next town C. In one room huts away from the planation house D. In tents on the property The Correct Answer Is… C. IN ONE ROOM HUTS AWAY FROM THE PLANATION HOUSE Quiz Time! During Colonial American times, which schoolbook taught children to read using verses from the Bible? A. The New England Primer B. Colonial Guide to Education C. Colonial Educational Principles D. Educational Religious Doctrine The Correct Answer Is… A. THE NEW ENGLAND PRIMER Quiz Time! How are historians able to use cultural traits? A. Historians can translate foreign languages into a universal code B. Historians are able to determine the time or place groups of people lived C. Historians look to understand the feelings of a group of people in a society D. Historians estimate populations The Correct Answer Is… B. HISTORIANS ARE ABLE TO DETERMINE THE TIME OR PLACE GROUPS OF PEOPLE LIVED 3.03 Who Has the Power? The Articles of Confederation was the very first constitution of the United States. It gave most of the power to the states, creating a very weak national government. The purpose of the Articles of Confederation was to unite the states. 3.03 Who Has the Power? Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had to send representatives to Congress and soldiers during time of war. 3.03 Who Has the Power? Weakness of the Articles of Confederation The national government under the Articles of Confederation lacked the power to handle important issues such as taxes on trade goods and the need for one common currency. Committees handled details related to the whole nation because there was no individual chief executive, or president. Quiz Time! What were some of the state’s responsibilities to the national government under the Articles of Confederation? A. States were made to pay taxes set by Congress and provide soldiers during war time. B. States had to provide representatives to Congress but soldiers were sent only to state militaries. C. States sent representatives to Congress and provided soldiers and some officers to protect the country. D. States provided money in the form of taxes, sent representatives to Congress, and had to supply soldiers during war. The Correct Answer Is… C. STATES SENT REPRESENTATIVES TO CONGRESS AND PROVIDED SOLDIERS AND SOME OFFICERS TO PROTECT THE COUNTRY. Quiz Time! What type of relationship did Congress and the states have under the Articles of Confederation? A. Most of the power was given to the states, but Congress could set and collect taxes. B. Most of the power was given to the states, but Congress could approve their trade agreements. C. Most of the power was given to Congress when the Articles of Confederation allowed Congress to create a military. D. Most of the power was given to the states when the Articles of Confederation did not grant Congress the power to raise money. The Correct Answer Is… D. MOST OF THE POWER WAS GIVEN TO THE STATES WHEN THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION DID NOT GRANT CONGRESS THE POWER TO RAISE MONEY. Quiz Time! How did the Articles of Confederation address the question of creating a court system in the U.S.? A. They created the trial-by-jury system for the first time in history. B. They created state, regional, and national courts throughout the U.S. C. The Articles took control of the court system and appointed judges for life-time terms. D. The Articles did not establish a national court system, and courts stayed under the control of the states. The Correct Answer Is… D. THE ARTICLES DID NOT ESTABLISH A NATIONAL COURT SYSTEM, AND COURTS STAYED UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE STATES. 3.04 We Can Make a Difference! In 1787, delegates chosen to represent the people of all 13 states gathered at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. George Washington was chosen president of the Constitutional Convention. The delegates also known “Framers” replaced the Articles of Confederation with a new Constitution. The Framers wanted to ensure that the people could be involved in the decision making process of the government through acts like voting. This is called civic participation. After much debate, the Framers created a constitution with three branches; the executive, the legislature, and the judicial branch. The Framers used a system of checks and balances to ensure that no on branch gained too much power. During the convention, James Madison took careful notes at each session. This is why we know so much about the debates and the issues the Framers faced. 3.04 We Can Make a Difference! The first issue of creating a new constitution had to do with representation. The big states liked the Virginia Plan, but the smaller states saw the Virginia Plan as unfair. They believed that representation should be equal, no matter a state’s size. They proposed the New Jersey Plan. The Great Compromise or Connecticut Plan was proposed by Roger Sherman and it brought the big states and smaller states together by taking parts from both plan and creating the bicameral (two houses) legislature. 3.04 We Can Make a Difference! The issue of slavery also challenged the Framers at the Constitutional Convention. The South wanted to count slaves in the population to determine representation. Many Northern delegates had a problem with the issue of slavery and did not want slaves (remember, slaves were considered property) to be counted in the population. They Northern delegates also saw this as a way for Southern states to increase their representation or power in Congress. The Southern states were also worried about taxes on exports. The Southern states exported cash crops to Europe and worried that Congress could severally damage their economy if exports were taxed. The Three-Fifths Compromise stated the three-fifths of a state’s slaves would be counted in the population when determining representation. This is a reflection of the Framers decision to use population as a basis for tax rates. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise said that export taxes would not be allowed and Congress could consider ending the slave trade in 1808. 3.04 We Can Make a Difference! The Framers also had to decide how the executive branch should be organized and the President elected. The Framers did not want Congress choosing the President. They were afraid that would give Congress too much power and could lead to the formation of special interests in Congress. James Wilson of Pennsylvania proposed a system for electing the president known as the Electoral College. The Electoral College is the group of people who officially elect the president of the United States. One main problem with the Electoral College system of electing the President is the Electoral College votes sometimes do not reflect the popular vote. Quiz Time! Why did the Framers seek to create three branches of government? A. They allow for more balanced representation B. They addressed the court system without legislation C. They limit the power of any one part of government D. They recreate the British system of government The Correct Answer Is… C. THEY LIMIT THE POWER OF ANY ONE PART OF GOVERNMENT Quiz Time! What are the key elements of the Great Compromise? A. one house: representation based only on the state population B. one house: equal representation from each state regardless of the population C. two houses: equal representation from each state, and representation based on state population D. two houses: representation based on state population, and representation based on state land mass The Correct Answer Is… C. TWO HOUSES: EQUAL REPRESENTATION FROM EACH STATE, AND REPRESENTATION BASED ON STATE POPULATION Quiz Time! James Madison is most known for… A. Creating the Great Compromise. B. He wrote the Articles of Confederation. C. He took detailed notes during the debate at the Constitutional Convention. D. He developed an outline before the Convention started. The Correct Answer Is… C. HE TOOK DETAILED NOTES DURING THE DEBATE AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION. Quiz Time! One significant problem with the Electoral College system of electing the President is… A. The delegates sometimes do not have a clear majority. B. The Electoral College is sometimes too isolated from the people. C. The candidates sometimes have close ties with the Electoral College. D. The Electoral College votes sometimes do not reflect the popular vote. The Correct Answer Is… D. THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTES SOMETIMES DO NOT REFLECT THE POPULAR VOTE. 3.05 For the Common Good After the Framers had written the Constitution a huge debate took place over its ratification or approval. The Federalists, including George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, supported the Constitution and wanted to see it ratified. The Federalists felt that if the Constitution wasn’t approved by the states that the nation would fall into chaos. They believed that a strong central government was needed to protect individual freedom (liberty) and to support economic growth (Remember, under the Articles of Confederation there was no common currency. This made trade difficult). The Federalists also believed that a strong central government was needed if the country was to be respected. 3.05 For the Common Good The Anti-Federalist where against the ratification of the Constitution. The Anti-Federalists felt that the Constitution gave too much power to the federal government and this would lead to corruption or tyranny (the abuse of power). Anti-Federalists also feared that the Constitution did not do enough to protect individual liberties and they wanted more powers given to the states. They argued that there were individual freedoms missing from the Constitution and that a Bill of Rights had to be added before they could support the Constitution. 3.05 For the Common Good After the Constitution was signed, the Framers returned to their homes and soon became deeply involved in the next step—ratification. For the new Constitution to go into effect, it had to be approved, or ratified, by at least nine states. The Great Debate of 1788 was a face of between the Anti-Federalist and the Federalists. Both sides believed that they represented the common good (something that is beneficial to an entire group, not just one person). Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay were Federalists that wrote essays that were published in New York newspapers. Their essays defended the Constitution and argued for ratification. These essays are known as the “Federalists Papers”. 3.05 For the Common Good The Federalists agreed to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution. The Anti-Federalists were now able to support the Constitution as it protected against the tyranny that the Anti-Federalists feared. In June 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, making it the law of the land. Quiz Time! Why did the Federalists argue that trade between the states was almost impossible under the Articles of Confederation? A. Each state was responsible for making its own money. B. Federal taxes on trade between the states were too high. C. The federal government had more money than the states. D. The state governments couldn’t agree on the federal money. The Correct Answer Is… A. EACH STATE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAKING ITS OWN MONEY. Quiz Time! How did political parties during the Revolutionary period feel about power in the government? A. Federalists felt that the states needed to hold most of the power to be more united. B. Anti-Federalists felt that the states needed to hold most of the power to be more united. C. Anti-Federalists felt that too much power in the federal government would lead to corruption. D. Federalists felt that too much power in the federal government would lead to corruption. The Correct Answer Is… C. ANTI-FEDERALISTS FELT THAT TOO MUCH POWER IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WOULD LEAD TO CORRUPTION. 3.06 Know Your Rights! The Bill of Rights was a compromise between the Federalists and AntiFederalists. The Bill of Rights is the first 10 Amendments of the Constitution. It defined and protected the rights of the people from government abuse. 3.06 Know Your Rights! The Bill of Rights: The First Amendment: The First Amendment guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press. The press includes newspapers, television and web-based communication such as blogs and websites. The Second Amendment: The Second Amendment protects the right of the people to “keep and bear arms.” In this case, arms means weapons, or "firearms." The Third Amendment: The Third Amendment says that the government cannot force people to keep soldiers in their homes. It was written because people remembered what it was like when the British used to force colonists to house British soldiers. The Fourth Amendment: The Fourth Amendment says that people’s homes are private. Government officials cannot enter them without a search warrant. The Fifth Amendment: The Fifth Amendment contains important rights of a person accused of a crime. These guarantees were added to the Constitution because dishonest governments in the past had accused people falsely so they could put them in jail. 3.06 Know Your Rights! The Bill of Rights (continued): The Sixth Amendment: The most important part of this amendment is its promise of a jury trial. A jury is a group of ordinary citizens who decide together whether a person accused of a crime is guilty or not guilty. The Seventh Amendment: The Seventh Amendment applies the right to a jury trial to civil cases. Civil cases do not deal with crimes. They are disagreements between individuals. If a case involves more than $20, the parties have a right to a jury trial. The Eighth Amendment: Bail is money that the court requires before a person accused of a crime can be released from jail. The Eighth Amendment states that the amount of bail can’t be too high. It also says that punishment for crime cannot be “cruel” or “unusual.” The Ninth Amendment: Some men in Congress worried about including a list of rights in the Constitution. Could the government later use this list to say that people had only those rights listed? To solve this problem, James Madison wrote the Ninth Amendment. The Tenth Amendment: The Tenth Amendment says that the federal government can only use those powers given to it in the Constitution. All other powers belong to the states. This amendment satisfied the Anti-Federalists, who thought the federal government could get so powerful that it would destroy the states. 3.06 Know Your Rights! The Naturalization Process A person born in the United States is a native citizen. The 14th Amendment was passed after the American Civil War and created a pathway to citizenship for people who wanted to live in the United States permanently. This process is called the naturalization process. A person must be at least 18 years old Be able to speak enough English to answer some basic written and verbal questions The naturalization process begins with an application and $680 processing fee During the naturalization process an applicant must be fingerprinted, be interviewed, and take a test with questions on U.S. history, civics, and the English language The final step in the naturalization process is the oath of allegiance. Naturalized citizens have the right to vote, serve on a jury, and collect Social Security benefits. However, they cannot become President. Quiz Time! What are correct steps of the naturalization process in becoming a US citizen? A. Application, fingerprinting, tests, oath B. Fingerprinting , application, tests, oath C. Oath, application, fingerprinting, tests D. Oath, fingerprinting, application, tests The Correct Answer Is… A. APPLICATION, FINGERPRINTING, TESTS, OATH Quiz Time! Two French immigrants have lived in the U.S. for five years. They got married here and have their first child. What is their status as citizens? A. None of them is a citizen yet. B. The baby is a citizen; they are not. C. All of them became citizens when the baby was born. D. The baby will become a citizen if they remain in the U.S. for more than five years. The Correct Answer Is… B. THE BABY IS A CITIZEN; THEY ARE NOT. Quiz Time! How much English is needed to become a naturalized U.S. citizen? A. Enough to be able to speak fluently during the interview B. Enough to answer yes or no questions on the written test C. Enough to answer some basic written and verbal questions D. Enough to read and write on the level of a high school graduate The Correct Answer Is… C. ENOUGH TO ANSWER SOME BASIC WRITTEN AND VERBAL QUESTIONS Quiz Time! Which provides protection for the rights of naturalized citizens? A. Naturalization is monitored by state licensing offices. B. Several civic organizations help protect naturalization. C. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees naturalization. D. The process of naturalization is protected by local law enforcement The Correct Answer Is… C. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT GUARANTEES NATURALIZATION.