Module 3:
Exam Review
3.01 Interpreting History
 People look at what happens
around them through their own
reality or bias.
 Bias develops from our different
experiences in life, such as the way
our parents raised us, our natural
personalities, the ways and content
in which we are educated, the
interests and hobbies we pursue,
and the behaviors of friends and
people we interact with daily.
 Bias helps explain why people
interpret events in different ways.
When we study history, we should
think about how our experiences
might affect our interpretations.
3.01 Interpreting History
 Perspectives on Nationalism
 The Framers did agree on many
basic ideas about government
and all were loyal patriots.
 However, they had different
perspectives on how the new
government should operate.
 For example, Alexander
Hamilton wanted to create a very
strong central government.
Thomas Jefferson, in contrast,
felt the state governments should
have the most power.
3.01 Interpreting History
 Does history repeat
itself?
 Because no two people are
exactly alike, neither are
their choices.
 However, we can learn
much from choices made in
the past to help inform the
choices we make now.
 A student of history should
use care when judging the
actions of people in the
past.
Quiz Time!
 Jennifer discovered different views on a significant event
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while researching a topic for her history project. After
checking the sources and reviewing for issues of bias, she
found both views to be reliable. How should Jennifer
present the information in her project?
A. Summarize both views and present them as equally
valid
B. Look for other sources that agree with each other
C. Decide which view best supports her argument and
use only that one
D. Summarize both views but just use the one that
supports her project
The Correct Answer Is…
A. SUMMARIZE BOTH VIEWS AND PRESENT
THEM AS EQUALLY VALID
3.02 Recipe for America
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Culture is shared practices and beliefs of a
group of people.
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Stickball is a sport originally played by
many groups of Native Americans. French
settlers who observed the game called it
lacrosse. Native Americans played this
game to help affirm tribal ties and settle
disputes.
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Colonists and Native Americans traded
with each other. The Iroquois strung dyed
beads and shells together to record
information. Some New England colonists
used Iroquois wampum for money. The
Cherokee used painted clay beads in jewelry
and clothing.
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Native American words are in many place
names within the United States, including
about half of the states’ names.
3.02 Recipe for America
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Enslaved African Americans used juba to
express emotion. Juba is clapping and using
hands and feet to keep time. They set words
and rhymes to the rhythms.
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Most enslaved people lived in slave quarters.
These were rough huts built for the slaves to
live in away from the main house. In the slave
quarters, African Americans built family ties
and traditions. Slaves built the huts around a
shared space with a fire for cooking. They
sometimes dug a space in the floor to store
vegetables, meat, and even things they
wished to hide.
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Native Americans and African Americans
were not wasteful. Slaves often kept a
vegetable patch in the slave quarters and ate
all edible parts. Chickens were very
important to the enslaved people. They were
a source of eggs and meat. The feathers and
bones were important in traditional African
rituals some slaves still practiced.
3.02 Recipe for America

Colonial Education: The most famous
early schoolbook, the New England Primer,
taught children to read using verses and
stories from the Bible.
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Women in the Colonies: Fathers and
husbands expected obedience from their
daughters and wives. Parents arranged
marriages for their daughters that would
benefit the family. Wives were responsible for
household duties and raising children. They
also directed the family’s religious activities.
Midwives delivered babies and cared for
pregnant women. Wives often oversaw their
husbands’ business on top of their normal
duties while they were away.
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Children's Work: Children were
responsible for helping the family survive.
Girls would help their mothers create
household goods like clothing, candles, and
soap. Boys helped farm and sometimes
became apprentices to learn a trade.
Quiz Time!
 The Iroquois Indians strung dyed beads and shells
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together for what purpose?
A. Jewelry
B. Record keeping
C. For decoration
D. To teach their children to count
The Correct Answer Is…
B. RECORD KEEPING
Quiz Time!
 On plantations, slaves usually lived…
 A. In the planation house with their owners
 B. In log cabins in the next town
 C. In one room huts away from the planation house
 D. In tents on the property
The Correct Answer Is…
C. IN ONE ROOM HUTS AWAY FROM THE
PLANATION HOUSE
Quiz Time!
 During Colonial American times, which schoolbook
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taught children to read using verses from the Bible?
A. The New England Primer
B. Colonial Guide to Education
C. Colonial Educational Principles
D. Educational Religious Doctrine
The Correct Answer Is…
A. THE NEW ENGLAND PRIMER
Quiz Time!
 How are historians able to use cultural traits?
 A. Historians can translate foreign languages into a
universal code
 B. Historians are able to determine the time or place
groups of people lived
 C. Historians look to understand the feelings of a
group of people in a society
 D. Historians estimate populations
The Correct Answer Is…
B. HISTORIANS ARE ABLE TO DETERMINE
THE TIME OR PLACE GROUPS OF PEOPLE
LIVED
3.03 Who Has the Power?
 The Articles of
Confederation was the
very first constitution of
the United States.
 It gave most of the power
to the states, creating a
very weak national
government.
 The purpose of the
Articles of Confederation
was to unite the states.
3.03 Who Has the Power?
Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had to send
representatives to Congress and soldiers during time of war.
3.03 Who Has the Power?
 Weakness of the Articles
of Confederation
 The national government
under the Articles of
Confederation lacked the
power to handle important
issues such as taxes on trade
goods and the need for one
common currency.
 Committees handled details
related to the whole nation
because there was no
individual chief executive, or
president.
Quiz Time!
 What were some of the state’s responsibilities to the
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national government under the Articles of
Confederation?
A. States were made to pay taxes set by Congress and
provide soldiers during war time.
B. States had to provide representatives to Congress but
soldiers were sent only to state militaries.
C. States sent representatives to Congress and provided
soldiers and some officers to protect the country.
D. States provided money in the form of taxes, sent
representatives to Congress, and had to supply soldiers
during war.
The Correct Answer Is…
C. STATES SENT REPRESENTATIVES TO
CONGRESS AND PROVIDED SOLDIERS AND
SOME OFFICERS TO PROTECT THE COUNTRY.
Quiz Time!
 What type of relationship did Congress and the states
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have under the Articles of Confederation?
A. Most of the power was given to the states, but
Congress could set and collect taxes.
B. Most of the power was given to the states, but
Congress could approve their trade agreements.
C. Most of the power was given to Congress when the
Articles of Confederation allowed Congress to create a
military.
D. Most of the power was given to the states when the
Articles of Confederation did not grant Congress the
power to raise money.
The Correct Answer Is…
D. MOST OF THE POWER WAS GIVEN TO THE
STATES WHEN THE ARTICLES OF
CONFEDERATION DID NOT GRANT CONGRESS
THE POWER TO RAISE MONEY.
Quiz Time!
 How did the Articles of Confederation address the
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question of creating a court system in the U.S.?
A. They created the trial-by-jury system for the first
time in history.
B. They created state, regional, and national courts
throughout the U.S.
C. The Articles took control of the court system and
appointed judges for life-time terms.
D. The Articles did not establish a national court
system, and courts stayed under the control of the
states.
The Correct Answer Is…
D. THE ARTICLES DID NOT ESTABLISH A
NATIONAL COURT SYSTEM, AND COURTS
STAYED UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE
STATES.
3.04 We Can Make a Difference!
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In 1787, delegates chosen to represent the
people of all 13 states gathered at the
Constitutional Convention in
Philadelphia.
George Washington was chosen president of
the Constitutional Convention.
The delegates also known “Framers”
replaced the Articles of Confederation with a
new Constitution.
The Framers wanted to ensure that the
people could be involved in the decision
making process of the government through
acts like voting. This is called civic
participation.
After much debate, the Framers created a
constitution with three branches; the
executive, the legislature, and the judicial
branch. The Framers used a system of checks
and balances to ensure that no on branch
gained too much power.
During the convention, James Madison took
careful notes at each session. This is why we
know so much about the debates and the
issues the Framers faced.
3.04 We Can Make a Difference!
 The first issue of creating a new
constitution had to do with
representation.
 The big states liked the Virginia
Plan, but the smaller states saw
the Virginia Plan as unfair. They
believed that representation
should be equal, no matter a
state’s size.
 They proposed the New Jersey
Plan.
 The Great Compromise or
Connecticut Plan was
proposed by Roger Sherman
and it brought the big states
and smaller states together by
taking parts from both plan and
creating the bicameral (two
houses) legislature.
3.04 We Can Make a Difference!
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The issue of slavery also challenged the
Framers at the Constitutional Convention.
The South wanted to count slaves in the
population to determine representation.
Many Northern delegates had a problem with
the issue of slavery and did not want slaves
(remember, slaves were considered property)
to be counted in the population.
They Northern delegates also saw this as a
way for Southern states to increase their
representation or power in Congress.
The Southern states were also worried about
taxes on exports. The Southern states
exported cash crops to Europe and worried
that Congress could severally damage their
economy if exports were taxed.
The Three-Fifths Compromise stated the
three-fifths of a state’s slaves would be
counted in the population when determining
representation. This is a reflection of the
Framers decision to use population as a basis
for tax rates. The Commerce and Slave
Trade Compromise said that export taxes
would not be allowed and Congress could
consider ending the slave trade in 1808.
3.04 We Can Make a Difference!
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The Framers also had to decide how the
executive branch should be organized
and the President elected.
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The Framers did not want Congress
choosing the President. They were
afraid that would give Congress too
much power and could lead to the
formation of special interests in
Congress.
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James Wilson of Pennsylvania
proposed a system for electing the
president known as the Electoral
College.
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The Electoral College is the group of
people who officially elect the president
of the United States. One main
problem with the Electoral College
system of electing the President is the
Electoral College votes sometimes do
not reflect the popular vote.
Quiz Time!
 Why did the Framers seek to create three branches of
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government?
A. They allow for more balanced representation
B. They addressed the court system without
legislation
C. They limit the power of any one part of
government
D. They recreate the British system of government
The Correct Answer Is…
C. THEY LIMIT THE POWER OF ANY ONE
PART OF GOVERNMENT
Quiz Time!
 What are the key elements of the Great
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Compromise?
A. one house: representation based only on the state
population
B. one house: equal representation from each state
regardless of the population
C. two houses: equal representation from each state,
and representation based on state population
D. two houses: representation based on state
population, and representation based on state land
mass
The Correct Answer Is…
C. TWO HOUSES: EQUAL REPRESENTATION
FROM EACH STATE, AND REPRESENTATION
BASED ON STATE POPULATION
Quiz Time!
 James Madison is most known for…
 A. Creating the Great Compromise.
 B. He wrote the Articles of Confederation.
 C. He took detailed notes during the debate at the
Constitutional Convention.
 D. He developed an outline before the Convention
started.
The Correct Answer Is…
C. HE TOOK DETAILED NOTES DURING THE
DEBATE AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL
CONVENTION.
Quiz Time!
 One significant problem with the Electoral College
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system of electing the President is…
A. The delegates sometimes do not have a clear
majority.
B. The Electoral College is sometimes too isolated
from the people.
C. The candidates sometimes have close ties with the
Electoral College.
D. The Electoral College votes sometimes do not
reflect the popular vote.
The Correct Answer Is…
D. THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTES
SOMETIMES DO NOT REFLECT THE POPULAR
VOTE.
3.05 For the Common Good
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After the Framers had written the
Constitution a huge debate took place
over its ratification or approval.
The Federalists, including George
Washington and Benjamin Franklin,
supported the Constitution and wanted
to see it ratified.
The Federalists felt that if the
Constitution wasn’t approved by the
states that the nation would fall into
chaos.
They believed that a strong central
government was needed to protect
individual freedom (liberty) and to
support economic growth (Remember,
under the Articles of Confederation
there was no common currency. This
made trade difficult).
The Federalists also believed that a
strong central government was needed
if the country was to be respected.
3.05 For the Common Good
 The Anti-Federalist where
against the ratification of the
Constitution.
 The Anti-Federalists felt that the
Constitution gave too much
power to the federal government
and this would lead to corruption
or tyranny (the abuse of power).
 Anti-Federalists also feared that
the Constitution did not do
enough to protect individual
liberties and they wanted more
powers given to the states.
 They argued that there were
individual freedoms missing
from the Constitution and that a
Bill of Rights had to be added
before they could support the
Constitution.
3.05 For the Common Good
After the Constitution was signed, the
Framers returned to their homes and
soon became deeply involved in the
next step—ratification.
 For the new Constitution to go into
effect, it had to be approved, or ratified,
by at least nine states.
 The Great Debate of 1788 was a face of
between the Anti-Federalist and the
Federalists. Both sides believed that
they represented the common good
(something that is beneficial to an
entire group, not just one person).
 Alexander Hamilton, James
Madison, and John Jay were
Federalists that wrote essays that were
published in New York newspapers.
Their essays defended the Constitution
and argued for ratification. These
essays are known as the “Federalists
Papers”.
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3.05 For the Common Good
 The Federalists agreed to
add the Bill of Rights to
the Constitution.
 The Anti-Federalists were
now able to support the
Constitution as it protected
against the tyranny that the
Anti-Federalists feared.
 In June 1788, New
Hampshire became the
ninth state to ratify the
Constitution, making it the
law of the land.
Quiz Time!
 Why did the Federalists argue that trade between the
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states was almost impossible under the Articles of
Confederation?
A. Each state was responsible for making its own
money.
B. Federal taxes on trade between the states were too
high.
C. The federal government had more money than the
states.
D. The state governments couldn’t agree on the
federal money.
The Correct Answer Is…
A. EACH STATE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR
MAKING ITS OWN MONEY.
Quiz Time!
 How did political parties during the Revolutionary
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period feel about power in the government?
A. Federalists felt that the states needed to hold most
of the power to be more united.
B. Anti-Federalists felt that the states needed to hold
most of the power to be more united.
C. Anti-Federalists felt that too much power in the
federal government would lead to corruption.
D. Federalists felt that too much power in the federal
government would lead to corruption.
The Correct Answer Is…
C. ANTI-FEDERALISTS FELT THAT TOO MUCH
POWER IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
WOULD LEAD TO CORRUPTION.
3.06 Know Your Rights!
 The Bill of Rights was
a compromise between
the Federalists and AntiFederalists.
 The Bill of Rights is the
first 10 Amendments of
the Constitution.
 It defined and protected
the rights of the people
from government abuse.
3.06 Know Your Rights!
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The Bill of Rights:
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The First Amendment: The First Amendment guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of
religion, and freedom of the press. The press includes newspapers, television and web-based
communication such as blogs and websites.
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The Second Amendment: The Second Amendment protects the right of the people to “keep
and bear arms.” In this case, arms means weapons, or "firearms."
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The Third Amendment: The Third Amendment says that the government cannot force
people to keep soldiers in their homes. It was written because people remembered what it was
like when the British used to force colonists to house British soldiers.
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The Fourth Amendment: The Fourth Amendment says that people’s homes are private.
Government officials cannot enter them without a search warrant.
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The Fifth Amendment: The Fifth Amendment contains important rights of a person accused
of a crime. These guarantees were added to the Constitution because dishonest governments in
the past had accused people falsely so they could put them in jail.
3.06 Know Your Rights!
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The Bill of Rights (continued):
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The Sixth Amendment: The most important part of this amendment is its promise of a jury
trial. A jury is a group of ordinary citizens who decide together whether a person accused of a
crime is guilty or not guilty.
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The Seventh Amendment: The Seventh Amendment applies the right to a jury trial to civil
cases. Civil cases do not deal with crimes. They are disagreements between individuals. If a case
involves more than $20, the parties have a right to a jury trial.
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The Eighth Amendment: Bail is money that the court requires before a person accused of a
crime can be released from jail. The Eighth Amendment states that the amount of bail can’t be
too high. It also says that punishment for crime cannot be “cruel” or “unusual.”
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The Ninth Amendment: Some men in Congress worried about including a list of rights in
the Constitution. Could the government later use this list to say that people had only those
rights listed? To solve this problem, James Madison wrote the Ninth Amendment.
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The Tenth Amendment: The Tenth Amendment says that the federal government can only
use those powers given to it in the Constitution. All other powers belong to the states. This
amendment satisfied the Anti-Federalists, who thought the federal government could get so
powerful that it would destroy the states.
3.06 Know Your Rights!
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The Naturalization Process
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A person born in the United States is a native
citizen.
The 14th Amendment was passed after the
American Civil War and created a pathway to
citizenship for people who wanted to live in
the United States permanently. This process
is called the naturalization process.
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A person must be at least 18 years old
Be able to speak enough English to answer
some basic written and verbal questions
The naturalization process begins with an
application and $680 processing fee
During the naturalization process an
applicant must be fingerprinted, be
interviewed, and take a test with questions on
U.S. history, civics, and the English language
The final step in the naturalization process is
the oath of allegiance. Naturalized citizens
have the right to vote, serve on a jury, and
collect Social Security benefits. However,
they cannot become President.
Quiz Time!
 What are correct steps of the naturalization process
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in becoming a US citizen?
A. Application, fingerprinting, tests, oath
B. Fingerprinting , application, tests, oath
C. Oath, application, fingerprinting, tests
D. Oath, fingerprinting, application, tests
The Correct Answer Is…
A. APPLICATION, FINGERPRINTING, TESTS,
OATH
Quiz Time!
 Two French immigrants have lived in the U.S. for
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five years. They got married here and have their first
child. What is their status as citizens?
A. None of them is a citizen yet.
B. The baby is a citizen; they are not.
C. All of them became citizens when the baby was
born.
D. The baby will become a citizen if they remain in
the U.S. for more than five years.
The Correct Answer Is…
B. THE BABY IS A CITIZEN; THEY ARE NOT.
Quiz Time!
 How much English is needed to become a
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naturalized U.S. citizen?
A. Enough to be able to speak fluently during the
interview
B. Enough to answer yes or no questions on the
written test
C. Enough to answer some basic written and verbal
questions
D. Enough to read and write on the level of a high
school graduate
The Correct Answer Is…
C. ENOUGH TO ANSWER SOME BASIC
WRITTEN AND VERBAL QUESTIONS
Quiz Time!
 Which provides protection for the rights of
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naturalized citizens?
A. Naturalization is monitored by state licensing
offices.
B. Several civic organizations help protect
naturalization.
C. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees
naturalization.
D. The process of naturalization is protected by local
law enforcement
The Correct Answer Is…
C. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT
GUARANTEES NATURALIZATION.
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Module 3: