IMMIGRATION
Notes
Miss Springborn
Team 6
Old Immigrants
 TIME PERIOD: 1820-1880
 CAME FROM: NORTHERN &
WESTERN EUROPE
 IRISH CAME DUE TO: POTATO
FAMINE
 SETTLED ON: GREAT PLAINS
 IRISH FACED JOB DISCRIMINATION
Graph of Old Immigrants
New Immigrants
 TIME PERIOD: 1880-1920
 CAME FROM: SOUTHERN AND
EASTERN EUROPE
 CAME FOR: FREEDOM and JOBS
 SETTLED IN: CITIES
 FACED DISCRIMINATION WITH THE:
QUOTA SYSTEM
Map of New Immigrants- 1891-1900
Map of New Immigrants- 1901-1910
Document 3- Photo
What is the
message of this
cartoon?
Hint: look at the
shadows for a clue…
The rich leaders are
trying to keep out the
new immigrants but It
is not fair for people to
stop immigrants from
coming to the US since
their family members
were once immigrants
PROPAGANDA-PULL FACTORS
 Who might have used propaganda to encourage
people living in Europe to come to the U.S?
Why?
 Government – settle the West, FREE LAND!
 Factory owners – jobs, needed to fill them
 Family – lonely, wanted them to join them
 Getting rich
Some of the things told to the immigrants:
 Land is free and easy to get
 jobs for everyone
 lots of freedom and opportunity
 streets are paved with gold
 Everyone can get rich
Look at the Worksheet you picked up
today…
Document 4:
“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost, to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
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--Emma Lazarus (found in the base of the statue of liberty)
wretched-horrible, refuse-not wanted, teeming-swarming, tempest-toststormy
Emma Lazarus Poem
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4wYFs5F76E Girl
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U-l8TZKnhuA Boy
Who was Emma Lazarus?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzSYRxBdapw
Some Questions:
 1) According to this poem, who is being invited to the golden
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door?
EVERYONE, all people are welcome
2) What is the golden door?
United States
3) What is the message of this poem?
ALL IMMIGRANTS ARE WELCOME TO THE US
Is this idea still true today???
Do we still believe in Emma Lazarus’s poem????
The Story of US: Cities
 Episode #7
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
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3bAwDjwV3c&playnext=1&list=PL0A6E55E051E11852&feature=re
sults_main
First 12 minutes are about the Statue of Liberty
Next segment about the Steel Industry
The growth of the cities skyscrapers
Creation of the elevator
Gangs in the cities, rise of crime,
(29:00) Tenement Housing, struggles, Slum life, sanitation
Thomas Alva Edison and his invention
Urban Factories, Triangle Shirt Waist Factory Tragedy
Document 5:
 Stories and Photographs by LYDIA LUM, copyright
1998
 At age 16, Lester Tom Lee immigrated in 1935 by himself to
the United States. He was detained at least 2 months at Angel
Island. He joined his father in San Francisco and eventually
moved to Houston, where he worked as a grocer, a wholesale
meat vendor and in real estate. Now 79, Lee is retired.
 Let take a look at the story…
Mr. Lee’s story…
 "We ate vegetables twice a day and some very rough rice, very hard to swallow. I was a growing boy and
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hungry."
"There were birds outside the wire fence. My hands were small enough I could grab their necks and kill them.We
used rice to attract the birds to us.We cleaned the birds in a toilet. Another boy had gotten some matches,
somehow. Someone else had a knife.We gathered branches and we got newspaper and rolled it like wood to make
a fire.We barbecued birds that way, when the guards weren't around. It was the only tasty thing we could get."
"The main reason I was detained so long was that my father and I gave the inspectors different dates about
when I departed China.The Chinese lunar calendar is about a month off from the American calendar! Ay! So
my father hired a lawyer to get me out. Sometimes I cried because I missed my family and my friends."
"Two men killed themselves, hung themselves. I went to the bathroom one morning and they were there. Maybe it
was with a bedsheet. I screamed. I ran back to the barrack.They were probably about to be deported. I think one
was about 30 years old, the other one 40."
"Sometimes I wondered why we all came over here for that kind of treatment. Sometimes I just wanted to go
home because they treated us like criminals.We were only immigrants."
--- Lester Tom Lee
Based on what Mr. Lee shares, what must life have been like for him on Angel Island?
 Compare and contrast the experiences people had at Ellis Island and Angel Island.
Document 6:
Document 6 Questions:
 According to the chart, what are two reasons Americans hated immigrants?
 WORKED FOR LOWER WAGES AND LONGER HOURS,
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WORKED AS STRIKEBREAKERS, SEGREGATED THEMSELVES IN
GHETTOS
What did Americans hate about immigrants in the jobs category?
WORKED AS STRIKEBREAKERS, THEY WORKED FOR CHEAP
LABOR
3) What were the results of this hatred?
LAWS RESTRICTING IMMIGRATION
4) What does Nativism have to do with this?
NATIVISTS DIDN’T WANT ANY NEW IMMIGRANTS SO THEY
CONVINCED THE GOVERNMENT TO PASS ANTIIMMIGRATION LAWS
How did immigration help industrialization?
MORE WORKERS FOR THE FACTORIES
Document 7:
 To many late nineteenth century Americans, he [Boss Tweed] personified [represented]
public corruption. In the late 1860s, William M. Tweed was the New York City's
political boss. His headquarters, located on East 14th Street, was known as Tammany
Hall. He wore a diamond, orchestrated [organized] elections, controlled the city's
mayor, and rewarded political supporters. His primary source of funds came from the
bribes and kickbacks that he demanded in exchange of city contracts. The most
notorious example of urban corruption was the construction of the New York County
Courthouse, begun in 1861 on the site of a former almshouse.
 Officially, the city wound up spending nearly $13 million - roughly $178 million in
today's dollars - on a building that should have cost several times less. Its construction
cost nearly twice as much as the purchase of Alaska in 1867.
 The corruption was breathtaking in its breadth and baldness. A carpenter was paid
$360,751 ($4.9 million) for one month's labor in a building with very little woodwork.
A furniture contractor received $179,729 ($2.5 million) for three tables and 40 chairs.
And the plasterer, A tammy functionary, Andrew J. Garvey, got $133,187 ($1.82
million) for two days' work; his business acumen earned him the sobriquet "The Prince
of Plasterers." Tweed personally profited from a financial interest in a Massachusetts
quarry that provided the courthouse's marble. When a committee investigated why it
took so long to build the courthouse, it spent $7,718 (roughly $105,000 today) to
print its report. The printing company was owned by Tweed.
Document 7 questions:
 1) Who is Boss Tweed?
 NYC’s POLITICAL MACHINE BOSS
 2) What are some examples of corruption?
 PEOPLE WERE PAID WAY TOO MUCH MONEY FOR THE
WORK BEING DONE. EX: 2.5 MILLION DOLLARS FOR
MAKING 3 TABLES AND 40 CHAIRS!!
 Read p. 609 and explain the Civil Service Reform Act and why
was it necessary?
 PEOPLE TOOK EXAMS FOR THESE JOBS TO MAKE
SURE THEY WERE QUALIFIED AND NOT GIVEN TO
LOYAL SUPPORTERS OR FRIENDS
Document 8:
 While most remember Tammany Hall as a bastion [supporter] of corruption, it is essential to
understand that "Boss" Tweed and the Tammany machine were fundamental in giving
immigrants a voice in New York politics. The members of Tammany Hall recognized the critical
importance of constituent support and expanded their political base by helping immigrants find
work, heat, and food, in addition to gaining quick citizenship. As a pro-building machine,
Tammany Hall would speed up the process of immigrant naturalization in order to gain voter
support for public structures like the Brooklyn Bridge. Later, jobs would be distributed to the
very immigrants who had supported the Tammany politicians.
 Now put yourself in their shoes. Imagine you are a poor immigrant in the U.S. You arrive in
New York.You have little money and are repeatedly denied employment because of your
ethnicity. Then one day you meet a group of people who promise you citizenship and steady
employment. All they ask in return is a vote on their behalf. What would you do? For many
new Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants, Tammany Hall was a source of hope and a means to
survival.
 Next to Tammany Hall, no other political group at the time was more willing to serve
immigrants, help them find jobs, or provide them with a form of welfare. Tammany Hall's
progressive politics also helped the city to build sewers, Central Park, pubs, and the Museum of
Natural History. Most of the political victories attributed to Tammany Hall were achieved
through consistent attention to voter needs. New residents to the US, then, became devoted to
Tammany Hall and were willing to turn a blind eye to the fraudulent practices that
characterized the party.
Document 8 questions:
 1) How did Tammany Hall help immigrants?
 HELPED THEM FIND WORK, HEAT, FOOD, AND
HELPED THEM TO BECOME US CITIZENS
 2) What else did the city do to help people?
 BUILT SEWERS, CENTRAL PARK, PUBS, AND THE
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.
Last page of Homework packet…
Using what you see on this graph and know from this unit,
explain why immigration spiked in 1901 and then rapidly
declined over the next 20 years?
Need a textbook…
 Using the graph…
 Go to page 603 and take a look at the graph titled shifting
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patterns of immigration. Answer the 3 questions that are in the
BOOK for the graph below…
#1answer is B
#2: (answer in complete sentences)
The region that has the GREATEST increase is Eastern and Southern
Europe
#3: (answer in complete sentences)
Homework Assignment
Immigration Poster
Follow directions and create a poster advertising
immigration in America
DUE: Thursday, October 10th
Also: Review sheet is due Thursday: completed!
Immigration: Sketch to Stretch story
 Between 1866 and 1915, more than 25 million immigrants came to the
United States. Most were from Southern and Eastern Europe and Asia
(China). Both Push and Pull factors led people to immigrate to the
Americas.
 Push factors are things that “push” or force you to leave your country to
go to another. Push factors include a lack of land at home, political or
religious persecution, poverty & hardship, or revolutions in the home
country.
 Pull factors are things that “pull” you or make you want to leave to go to
another country (not forced). Pull factors include the promise of
freedom or a better life somewhere else, the availability of jobs, the
chance to gain wealth or land, or the chance to join family members
who have already settled in America.
More…
 Immigrants often found that adjusting to life in the US was hard. The
new immigrants had to find jobs and places to live. Most immigrants
stayed in the cities where they had landed. They often lived in poor,
crowded neighborhoods with other people of their own ethnic group.
In these neighborhoods they could speak their own language and
celebrate their special holidays together.
 Fitting into American culture was difficult for immigrants. They spoke a
variety of languages that were new to America. The “Old” immigrants
were from Western Europe and their culture was familiar to Americans.
They were not seen as a threat. The “New” immigrants though were
from Eastern Europe and Asia (China). They had a very different culture
and language and the Americans did not understand them. They were
often heavily discriminated against.
More…
 Some Americans felt overwhelmed by the huge number of new
immigrants. Some believed these new immigrants would never fit
in, or assimilate. To assimilate means to adapt to a new culture (fit
in). Many others were concerned that the Immigrants would take
their jobs. In response, Congress passed laws to limit immigration.
One law, the Chinese Exclusion Act, nearly stopped all immigration
from China.
 Immigrants entered the US through one of two processing centers.
On the east coast, most immigrants passed through Ellis Island in
NYC. They passed the Statue of Liberty on their way through NY
harbor on the way to the processing center. On the west coast, most
immigrants went through Angel Island in San Francisco. At these
centers, immigrants were checked for disease, lice, background, and
sometimes literacy levels. If something was found undesirable, an
immigrant could be sent back to their home country immediately.
More…
 During the late 1800’s and early 1900’s the US population exploded due to
immigration. Jobs in the cities drew the immigrants there. As industries grew,
the factories needed more workers and the immigrants were there to fill the
need. In addition, many African Americans moved to the north for work too
after escaping slavery.
 The face of most cities changed during this time. Many of the people who lived
in the centers of cities were poor. They faced unhealthy and even dangerous
living conditions. Most lived in buildings called tenements. Tenements were
large housing units that were unclean and often multiple families had to share
one apartment. There was a shared bathroom on each floor and disease was
rampant. The wealthy usually lived in mansions on the outskirts of the city.
 As the cities and their problems grew, reformers worked to improve conditions
for the poor. They convinced city governments to make sure buildings were
constructed safely. Cities hired workers to clean the streets. New laws began
to keep factories out of neighborhoods where people lived. Some reformers
such as Jane Addams worked directly with the poor. Addams worked to set up
clean and fair housing for immigrant families and help them get an education.
Homework Packet:
 Get a red pen and let’s review some of the questions:
 http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist420/Hist420Immigr
ation.html
 Website all about Immigration…
Angel Island Resources:
 The Story behind the poems: Angel Island
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_EQY-0ThOM
 View of Angel Island today:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UMdc6Q6nE9s
 Re-opening of Angel Island:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cW6f96SgknY&feature=related
 Chinese discrimination and Nativism:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pw3i1X8_qUY&feature=related
 A photo view of both Ellis and Angle Island
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qL1iiEQ_Jfw
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IMMIGRATION Notes - Hamburg Middle School