The Cold War and American
Society
Test Review
Era of confrontation and competition
between the United States and the Soviet
Union which lasted from about 1946 to
1990.
The Cold War
Meeting where leaders agreed to recognize
the Polish government that the Soviets
set up.
Yalta Conference
This declaration asserted “the right of all
people to choose the form of government
under which they will live”
Declaration of Liberated Europe.
What powers controlled Germany after
WWII? (four zones)
Britain, France, U.S. and Soviet Union
What city was also divided in Germany?
Berlin
The Communist countries of Eastern
Europe came to be called
___________nations.
satellite
This is what Winston Churchill called the
division between the Communist nations
of Eastern Europe and the West.
The Iron Curtain.
This meeting took place in July 1945 to
work out a deal on Germany. The Soviets
were convinced that they needed
reparations from Germany.
Potsdam Conference.
Cable message sent by George Kennan
about his views of the Soviet’s goals.
The Long Telegram
Keeping communism within its present
territory through the use of diplomatic,
economic, and military actions.
containment
Economic aid given to Turkey and Greece
to prevent the spread of communism
there.
The Truman Doctrine
$12 billion was given in U.S. aid to rebuild
European countries after WWII.
The Marshall Plan
For 11 months the U.S. sent food, medicine,
and coal to West Berlin.
The Berlin Airlift
A time when rumors and
accusations of Communists in the
United States and of Communist
infiltration of the government.
What is the Red Scare?
Efforts to secretly weaken a society
and overthrow its government.
What is Subversion?
Established by President Truman in
1947, this program was intended to
screen all federal employees.
What is the Loyalty Review
Program?
This was formed in 1938 to
investigate both Communist and
Fascist activities in the United
States.
What is HUAC?
House Un-American Activities
Committee.?
The FBI director who encouraged
HUAC to hold public hearings on
Communist subversion.
Who is J. Edgar Hoover?
Time editor and former Communist
Party member who testified that
several government officials were
also former Communists or spies.
Who is Whittaker Chambers?
Government official who was
accused of taking secret documents
from the State Department.
Who is Alger Hiss?
What crime was Alger Hiss found
guilty of?
What is perjury?
Married couple accused and
convicted of heading a Communist
spy ring.
Who are the Rosenbergs?
The project where American
cryptographers were able to crack
the Soviet spy code of the time,
enabling them to read
approximately 3,000 messages
between Moscow and the United
States collected during the Cold
War.
What was “Project Venona”?
What organizations at the state and
local level began their own efforts
to find Communists?
What are local governments,
churches, universities, and unions?
Screenwriters who were called to
testify before HUAC who used their
5th Amendment right to protect
themselves from self-incrimination,
and refused to testify.
What were the “Hollywood Ten”?
Senator from Wisconsin who
claimed to have a list of 205 names
of men in the State Department
who were members of the
Communist Party.
Who is Joseph McCarthy?
Booklet produced by Joseph
McCarthy which accused
Democratic Party leaders of
corruption and of protecting
Communists.
What is “The Party of Betrayal”?
This required Communist Party
members to register with the
Attorney General. It also allowed
the arrest and detention of
Communists and Communist
sympathizers.
What is the McCarran Act?
The tactic of damaging reputations
with vague and unfounded charges
became known as this.
What is McCarthyism?
In these televised hearings in the
spring of 1954, millions of
Americans watched Joseph
McCarthy bully suspected spies in
the army.
What are the Army-McCarthy
hearings?
Formal disapproval of an elected
official.
What is censure?
The Soviets created this weapon in
1953 which was just a year after the
U.S. had tested its own.
What is the H-bomb?
Radiation left over after a blast.
What is fallout?
These “safe houses” were built to
protect families from the radiation
left over after a nuclear blast.
What are fallout shelters?
Who did the Democrats nominate
for President in the 1952 Election?
Who is Adlai Stevenson?
Who replaced Truman as U.S.
President in 1952?
Who is Dwight D. Eisenhower?
Identify two reasons for Truman
deciding not to run for a second
term.
Soviets had the atomic bomb;
Soviets had a hold on Eastern
Europe; China had fallen to
Communism; the Korean War.
Eisenhower believed in using atomic
weapons rather than a large and
expensive army. Nuclear weapons,
he said, gave “More _______for the
_______.”
“More bang for the buck”
The policy of threatening to use
nuclear weapons if a Communist
state tried to seize territory by
force.
What is massive retaliation?
Name two technologies developed
to deliver nuclear weapons when
needed.
B-52 bomber; ICBMs
(Intercontinental, Ballistic Missiles);
submarines capable of launching
nuclear missles.
First artificial satellite to orbit the
earth.
What is Sputnik?
Created to coordinate research in
rocket science and space
exploration?
What is the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA)?
Provided funds for education and
training in science, math, and foreign
languages.
National Defense Education Act
(NDEA)
Eisenhower’s Secretary of State.
Who is John Foster Dulles?
Also this conflict ended in 1953,
American troops are still helping to
defend the border.
What is the Korean War?
This military guarded line separates
North Korea and South Korea.
Demilitarized Zone or DMZ
The willingness to go to the brink of
war to force the other side to back
down.
What is Brinkmanship?
What are two examples convert
operations that achieved American
objectives during the early years of
the cold war?
What are Guatemala and Iran?
What island did the Chinese
threaten to seize in 1954.?
Eisenhower saw the island as an
“anti-Communist barrier”.
What is Taiwan?
Who emerged as the leader of the
Soviet Union three years after Stalin
died?
Who is Nikita Khrushchev?
Nations with primarily agricultural
economies.
What are developing nations?
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The Cold War and American Society