The Cold War and American Society Test Review Era of confrontation and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union which lasted from about 1946 to 1990. The Cold War Meeting where leaders agreed to recognize the Polish government that the Soviets set up. Yalta Conference This declaration asserted “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live” Declaration of Liberated Europe. What powers controlled Germany after WWII? (four zones) Britain, France, U.S. and Soviet Union What city was also divided in Germany? Berlin The Communist countries of Eastern Europe came to be called ___________nations. satellite This is what Winston Churchill called the division between the Communist nations of Eastern Europe and the West. The Iron Curtain. This meeting took place in July 1945 to work out a deal on Germany. The Soviets were convinced that they needed reparations from Germany. Potsdam Conference. Cable message sent by George Kennan about his views of the Soviet’s goals. The Long Telegram Keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions. containment Economic aid given to Turkey and Greece to prevent the spread of communism there. The Truman Doctrine $12 billion was given in U.S. aid to rebuild European countries after WWII. The Marshall Plan For 11 months the U.S. sent food, medicine, and coal to West Berlin. The Berlin Airlift A time when rumors and accusations of Communists in the United States and of Communist infiltration of the government. What is the Red Scare? Efforts to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government. What is Subversion? Established by President Truman in 1947, this program was intended to screen all federal employees. What is the Loyalty Review Program? This was formed in 1938 to investigate both Communist and Fascist activities in the United States. What is HUAC? House Un-American Activities Committee.? The FBI director who encouraged HUAC to hold public hearings on Communist subversion. Who is J. Edgar Hoover? Time editor and former Communist Party member who testified that several government officials were also former Communists or spies. Who is Whittaker Chambers? Government official who was accused of taking secret documents from the State Department. Who is Alger Hiss? What crime was Alger Hiss found guilty of? What is perjury? Married couple accused and convicted of heading a Communist spy ring. Who are the Rosenbergs? The project where American cryptographers were able to crack the Soviet spy code of the time, enabling them to read approximately 3,000 messages between Moscow and the United States collected during the Cold War. What was “Project Venona”? What organizations at the state and local level began their own efforts to find Communists? What are local governments, churches, universities, and unions? Screenwriters who were called to testify before HUAC who used their 5th Amendment right to protect themselves from self-incrimination, and refused to testify. What were the “Hollywood Ten”? Senator from Wisconsin who claimed to have a list of 205 names of men in the State Department who were members of the Communist Party. Who is Joseph McCarthy? Booklet produced by Joseph McCarthy which accused Democratic Party leaders of corruption and of protecting Communists. What is “The Party of Betrayal”? This required Communist Party members to register with the Attorney General. It also allowed the arrest and detention of Communists and Communist sympathizers. What is the McCarran Act? The tactic of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges became known as this. What is McCarthyism? In these televised hearings in the spring of 1954, millions of Americans watched Joseph McCarthy bully suspected spies in the army. What are the Army-McCarthy hearings? Formal disapproval of an elected official. What is censure? The Soviets created this weapon in 1953 which was just a year after the U.S. had tested its own. What is the H-bomb? Radiation left over after a blast. What is fallout? These “safe houses” were built to protect families from the radiation left over after a nuclear blast. What are fallout shelters? Who did the Democrats nominate for President in the 1952 Election? Who is Adlai Stevenson? Who replaced Truman as U.S. President in 1952? Who is Dwight D. Eisenhower? Identify two reasons for Truman deciding not to run for a second term. Soviets had the atomic bomb; Soviets had a hold on Eastern Europe; China had fallen to Communism; the Korean War. Eisenhower believed in using atomic weapons rather than a large and expensive army. Nuclear weapons, he said, gave “More _______for the _______.” “More bang for the buck” The policy of threatening to use nuclear weapons if a Communist state tried to seize territory by force. What is massive retaliation? Name two technologies developed to deliver nuclear weapons when needed. B-52 bomber; ICBMs (Intercontinental, Ballistic Missiles); submarines capable of launching nuclear missles. First artificial satellite to orbit the earth. What is Sputnik? Created to coordinate research in rocket science and space exploration? What is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)? Provided funds for education and training in science, math, and foreign languages. National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Eisenhower’s Secretary of State. Who is John Foster Dulles? Also this conflict ended in 1953, American troops are still helping to defend the border. What is the Korean War? This military guarded line separates North Korea and South Korea. Demilitarized Zone or DMZ The willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down. What is Brinkmanship? What are two examples convert operations that achieved American objectives during the early years of the cold war? What are Guatemala and Iran? What island did the Chinese threaten to seize in 1954.? Eisenhower saw the island as an “anti-Communist barrier”. What is Taiwan? Who emerged as the leader of the Soviet Union three years after Stalin died? Who is Nikita Khrushchev? Nations with primarily agricultural economies. What are developing nations?