APELL Bahía Blanca
Fourteen -Years Experience in Technological
Risk Management
Lessons from APELL implementation on the ground
National Dissemination Workshop
Sept 13 -14 -2010
Beidaihe- CHINA
ING. NESTOR SPOSITO
DOW ARGENTINA
Argentina NFPA Chapter Vicepresident
PROCESO APELL BAHIA BLANCA
Coordinator UNEP/Bs.As. Province.
APELL
Bahía Blanca
700 Km.SW Bs.Aires
>300M Population
APELL APELL Process Area
Bahía Blanca
900 m
LHC2
LHC1
500 m 200 m
HDPE 1200 m
1800 m
200 m
Profertil
APELL APELL Process Area
Bahía Blanca
APELLAPELL Process Area
Critical Group of people
Kindergartens
Primary Schools
High Schools
Clubs
Scouts
Child Homes
Hospital
Bahía Blanca
Aerial photography of industrial area
DOW
Barge
HD/LD/LLD Polyethylene
Profertil
NH3 - Urea
Mega
Ethane
TGS
Propane - Butane
Solvay Indupa
Chlorine
DOW
Ethylene
HD/LD/LLD Polyethylene
Closest Town
Houses: 3600
Population: 14000
Closest Neighborhood
Houses: 1200
Population: 5000
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Background
•Begun in March 1996. UNEP Assistance.
•First and pilot experience for Argentina.
•Community wants to know “What to do and How to do
it” in the case of an accident.
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Background
•Strong commitment from Local Authorities and some
Industrial leaders.
•The chlorine and ammonia leaks in August 2000
impacted in the development of the APELL PROCESS.
APELL
ORGANIZATION
Bahía Blanca
COORDINATION TEAM
State Coordinator / UNEP
Ing. N Spósito
EXECUTIVE TEAM
Risk Evaluation and Analysis
Emergency Preparedness and
Response
Awareness and
Communication
After 2000
Operative
Coordinator
Awareness and
Communications
Administrative
team
APELL APELL Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
Three working commissions
•
Risk Evaluation and Analysis (REAC)
•
Emergency Preparedness and Response
•
Community Awareness and Communications
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results
Bahía Blanca
Consequence Analysis
Objective: determine the potential for damage or
injury from specific technological accidents
Steps:
• Hazard identification
• Scenario definition
• Incident outcomes enumeration
• Exposure criteria definition
• Consequence estimation
• Hazard zones definition
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results Bahía Blanca
Incident Outcome Enumeration
Event
Physical effect
outcome
Thermal radiation
Jet fire Immediate and retarded
pool fire /Fireball
Explosion
Overpressure and
projectiles
Unconfined vapor cloud explosion
Toxic dispersion
Toxic dose
Dense and neutral gas dispersion
Fire
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results
Exposure Criteria Definition
Bahía Blanca
Control Zones:
Intervention zone:
Consequences of accidents produce a level of harm
that justifies the immediate application of protective
actions.
Alert zone:
Consequences of accidents produce effects that,
although perceptible by the population, do not justify
the intervention except for critical groups of people
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results
Bahía Blanca
Exposure Criteria Definition
Event
Alert Zone
Intervention Zone
Fire
1.6 kw/m2
4 kw/m2
Explosion
35 mbar
170 mbar
Toxic
dispersion
AEGL 1
AEGL 2
APELL
Bahía Blanca
APELL Bahía Blanca Results: REAC
Consequence Estimation
More than 200 scenarios simulated:
• Ammonia, ethane, ethylene, butane, propane,
hydrogen chloride, vinyl chloride monomer,
propylene and nitrogen tanks and spheres.
• natural gas and chlorine pipelines.
• butane and propane trucks.
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results
Consequence Analysis
Thermal
Radiation
Alert Zone
Intervention Zone
Bahía Blanca
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results
Consequence Analysis
Overpressure
Alert Zone
Intervention Zone
‘
’
Bahía Blanca
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results Bahía Blanca
Consequence Analysis
Toxic
dose
COMISION DE EVALUACION Y
PROCESO APELL
Alert Zone
Intervention Zone
APELLInformation content in
CAMEO/MARPLOT
Bahía Blanca
•65 Facilities that store chemical products (including
gasoline station).
•119 Chemical substances stored in different facilities.
•213 Places of storage.
•310 Special Locations.
•151 Resources to attend emergencies .
•535 Water Hydrants.
•6 Layers Containing the Plant’s drawings.
•Spanish Response Emergency Information CAMEO.
•The information in CAMEO is Linked in MARPLOT
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Case Study
Chlorine & Ammonia Release in
the Petrochemical Complex
August 2000
APELL
Environmental Crisis Chronology
Bahía Blanca
20/8
There is a chlorine leak in Solvay Indupa.
23/8
Neighbors demands the eradication of the company. The plant is closed.
24/8
Neighbors block the access to the COMPLETE complex.
28/8
Two ammoniac leaks in Profertil. Almost a hundred people need first
aid at the local hospital. A school and a kindergarden are evacuated .
29/8
Parents don’t send children to schools in Ing White, until their safety
will be guarantee .
29/9
Community block the access to the Petrochemical Park.
20/10
The authorities allow the plants to start their operations in order to do
the audits demanded by the neighbors.
APELL
APELL Process
Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
APELL Step 10: Educating the General Community on
the Integrated Emergency Response Plan
Lessons from APELL implementation on the ground
“Working Together for the Community”
APELL
The court of Public Opinion
•Low credibility
• “ Industry and governments don’t care about
our concerns”.
•“Companies don’t understand all the risks to
people and the environment”
•“Industry cares more about money than people’s
health”
APELL
The court of Public Opinion
•High Concern
•“This is going to make us ill, isn’t it? We might
even die.”
•“The environment can’t take any more”
•“We don’t need more study, we need more
action!”
APELL
APELL Step 10: Educating the General Community
on the Integrated Emergency Response Plan
Training about self protection measures in
emergency situations.

Shelter in place plan.

Emergency roles.

Use of the confinement kit during the scheduled
drills.
APELL
Bahía Blanca
APELL Step 10: Educating the General Community
on the Integrated Emergency Response Plan
NFPA “Learn Not to Burn” Program

Over 700 children between 3 and 5 years of age are
trained every year. More than 15000 including B.
Blanca area.

Eight fire protection key behaviors were taught.
APELL
Bahía Blanca
APELL Step 10: Educating the General Community
on the Integrated Emergency Response Plan
New Strategies:
• Awareness raising campaigns made in public
transportation vehicles (actors).
•Theater plays used as teaching aid to present APELL
and self-protection concepts.
•Puppets/Marionettes shows as teaching aid to present
APELL and self-protection concepts for kindergarten
Children.
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
Bahía Blanca
A critical element in effective community
emergency response is educating the public what
to do during an emergency , where to turn for
additional information, and how and when
evacuate or shelter in place, if necessary
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
Bahía Blanca
Goals
• Raise Awareness and Prepare the Community.
•Systematic and rigorous methodology.
• Improve Response Team Preparedness.
•Use Training Plan as communication tool.
Reinforce information about APELL Process
showing one of the most important deliverables.
 Give briefly knowledge about Risk /
Consequence Assessment.
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
Methodology
Bahía Blanca
• We have prepared special training kit
 Power
Point presentations
 Handout with TERP content
 Standard Emergency Response brochure for
distribution to all residents within potential affected area
 Special Video made at the end of 2009 for Educating
and Raise Awareness the General Community
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
Bahía Blanca
Nro. Trainings
People
Involved
16
1000
3
3000
9
Companies
12
600
3
1800
5
Responders
Educational
Organizations
50
1500
5
7500
21
72
7600
3
22800
65
150
10700
35100
100
SCOPE
Community
Organizations
TOTAL
Man
Training Hours Hours
%
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
People Involve
12000
Bahía Blanca
10700
10000
7600
8000
6000
People Involve
4000
2000
1000
600
1500
0
Community
Organizations
Companies
Responders
Educational
Organizations
TOTAL
APELL
Technological Emergency Response Plan
Training Plan 2010-2011
Community
Organizations
9%
Educational
Organizations
65%
Distribution
Companies
5%
Responders
21%
Bahía Blanca
APELL
Development of Bahia Blanca’sBahía Blanca
Technological Emergency Response
Plan (TERP)
Continuous Improvement through Testing and
Exercises
ING. NESTOR SPOSITO
DOW ARGENTINA
Argentina NFPA Chapter President
BAHIA BLANCA APELL PROCESS
Coordinator UNEP/Bs.As. Province.
APELL
APELL Bahía Blanca Results: EPRC
• The Technological Emergency Response Plan
(TERP) Rev. #9.
• Emergency drills.
• TERP Operating Procedures.
• Two community sirens at Ing. White area.
• A HAZMAT Group with specific training for firemen
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Agreement between Bahía Blanca APELL
Process / NFPA Argentina Chapter / IRAM
/NFPA.
Alignment with Standard IRAM- NFPA 1600
Technological Emergency Response Plan
“TERP” - Revision Nº 9 – 2009
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Agreement between Bahía Blanca APELL Process
/ NFPA Argentina Chapter / IRAM /NFPA.
VISION
To update TERP, one of the most important
deliverable from APELL Process, according to
International Standard and obtain external
audit/support to guarantee the quality of the TERP
and increase confidence in community,
stakeholders, local authorities about the job
done by BAHIA BLANCA APELL Process.
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
•November 2008 Workshop with APELL Process
Emergency Response Committee.
•How to implement standard NFPA 1600 by Dr. Dean
Larson member NFPA 1600 Technical Committee.
•How to prepare exercises according to NFPA 1600. Dr
Larson.
• Dr Larson recommendation in order to achieve the
goal that TERP accomplish NFPA 1600.
•People Involved:
• 22 Members of the Emergency Response
Commission
• 66 Man-Hours
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
DOW Training Center
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Oct. 2009-Full Scale Exercise
TGS S.A. site. Aerial view
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Oct. 2009-Full Scale Exercise- General Meeting
Desired Outcome
• Final report about status /conclusions TERP updated
•Dr. Dean Larson visit to B. Blanca.
• Status
•Job done with Dr Larson in the last year.
•Activities before, during and after full scale
exercises.
•
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Oct. 2009-Full Scale Exercise- General Meeting
Desired Outcome
•Full Scale Exercise organization and development.
Roles for APELL’S Process B.Bca members.
•Step by step full scale exercise.
•Raising awareness in the community trough this exercise.
• Plan Information and public reporting before, during and
after exercise.
• Closure Report after exercise
APELL
Bahía Blanca
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Summary Table
QUANTITY
PEOPLE
INVOLVED
MAN HOURS
MEETINGS
12
128
256
TRAININGS
4
200
800
1000
EXERCISES
2
420
1680
7000
TOTAL
18
748
2736
8000
ACTIVITY
INVESTMENT
U$S
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Oct. 2009-Full Scale Exercise
Summary
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Conclusion-Learning Lessons
•Increase level of participation in the APELL Process of :
•Preparedness and Emergency Committee.
•Other Committees members.
•Coordination Group.
• Let
the Process have a external view /opinion about PRET
quality.
•Have a standardized and more efficient proof procedure to
update PRET and prepare drills/exercises in the future.
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Bahía Blanca
Conclusions-Learning Lessons
•Improve self-confidence and Community /Local
Authorities/Industries confidence about PRET quality.
•Improve self-confidence and Community /Local
Authorities/Industries confidence about job done in the
APELL PROCESS.
• Raising community and stakeholders Awareness and
Communication during updating process.
APELL
Alignment with Standard NFPA 1600
Conclusions-Model of Cooperative Initiative
Relationship APELL Process Bahia Blanca, IRAM,
NFPA, the Argentina NFPA Chapter and NFPA
Technical Committee on Emergency Management and
Business Continuity is a model for other relationships
that cross political and cultural boundaries because all
involved are committed to preparedness for the
unknown, professional preparedness that meets world
class standards.
 This model and Bahia Blanca APELL Process learning
lesson was presented by Dr. Larson and Ing. Spósito in
the 2010 Las Vegas NFPA Congress

APELL
Exercises-Drills-Full Scale Exercises

Be prepared to find mistakes/ improvement
areas

Better to have errors in a exercise instead of in
a real emergency..

Exercises are very important as learning
process.
APELL
Before Thinks in Drills/Full Scale

Complete Risk Assessment.

Complete Emergency Response Planning.

Training-Training- Training
Remember
Nobody does what one do not knows or
what one is not taught
VIDEO
APELL
KEY LEARNING EXPERIENCES Bahía Blanca
BENEFITS OF THE APELL PROCESS
Mainly for Local Authorities/Community
•Complete Risk Study for the Industrial Area (unique in the
country).
•The Community Emergency Response Plan (TERP).
•TERP is being updated once a year.
• The last updating according to NFPA 1600.
•Drills/full scale exercises every year different scenarios.
APELL
KEY LEARNING EXPERIENCES Bahía Blanca
BENEFITS OF THE APELL PROCESS
•Mainly for Local Authorities/Community
•HAZMAT Equipment and training for the First Responders
paid by Industries..
•2 last tech. community siren were installed in the near town
paid by Industries.
•Selection and preparation for shelter-in-place at schools,
community centers, sport clubs.
• Educating the public what to do during an emergency.
•Budget for support all this activities 70% paid by industries.
APELL
KEY LEARNING EXPERIENCES Bahía Blanca
BENEFITS OF THE APELL PROCESS
•Develop a powerful and friendly tool for PPR (CAMEOMARPLOT).
•Cooperation agreements with academic and NGOs of
international reputation ( NFPA, University) .
•Allowed the industries to improve the relationship with
local authorities and community organizations.
•Training in APELL Process and Self-Protection
APELL
Bahía Blanca
The next Ten Years ……

Extending this experience, with the support of
Bahia Blanca, to other cities in the country
according to an ambitious program that included
other industrial sites
 Implementation of additional UNEP tools in Bahía
Blanca to deal with risks like APELL PORT and
Trans APELL and APELL MULTIHAZARD
VIDEO APELL BAHIA BLANCA
TGS Drill Video.
APELL
Challengers ……
Bahía Blanca
Finally, it is important to highlight that in
Argentina like in others countries in Latin
America, there is no national legislation
covering awareness and preparedness for
technological accidents. For this reason it
would be useful to take advantage of this
experience in which a voluntary local plan is
organized with the participation of government
authorities, industries and community
nspó[email protected]
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APELL Bahía Blanca