Supporting Language and Early Literacy: at Home and in Early Childhood and Community Settings Session 3: Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, & Concepts about Print Your … • (insert your name/title here) • Insert your co-presenter’s name/title here) for this Session … Participants will: • Become familiar with standards that apply to the development of Phonological Awareness, Alphabet Knowledge, and Concepts about Print • Define and describe these content areas and how they develop • Explore formal and informal types of assessment • Describe strategies adults can use to support development in these areas for today’s Session Check-in activity Discussion in pairs or small groups: • What do you hope to achieve by participating in this session? • What’s your expectation of the facilitator(s) in this session? Guidance from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction: • deliver content-rich curriculum with challenging but achievable goals in ways that honor and respect the unique learning needs of young children • Use a play-based curriculum to develop self regulation, language, cognition, and social competence • Core or universal curriculum should include support for all developmental domains and content areas as described in the WMELS The Wisconsin Model for Response to Intervention: Applications in Early Childhood Settings. WI Dept. of Public instruction, June 2012 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/curriculum-assessment-rtl-for-preschool.php Dual Language Learners (DLLs) “Children, birth to 5, who are learning 2 or more languages at the same time, as well as those learning a second language (English) while continuing to develop their home or first language.” Reinl, R. Language in Play: Introduction to the Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards, Webinar 2013 www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Universal practices, the foundation for meeting the needs of all children, includes differentiated instruction • Adaptations and modifications to meet the needs of individual children essential – it’s Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)! Dual Language Learners (DLLs) For guidance and support for serving DLLs, refer to the following resources: • WIDA Early Years www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners Serving Dual Language Learners Facts and Tips: http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/dual-languagelearners-facts-and-tips.php • Office of Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic Exposure to print, books, and read alouds are important, but not enough to prepare children to become readers and writers. Intentional teaching - using shared (dialogic) reading, shared writing, and multiple opportunities to interact with writing, letters, sounds, and spoken words - is necessary. Children might also need some explicit developmentally appropriate instruction to learn vocabulary, phonological awareness, the alphabet, and print concepts. WISCONSIN MODEL EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS Teaching Cycle Assessment Gathering information to determine what the child can do and what the child is ready to learn • Data Collection • Data Analysis Implementation Providing meaningful, experiential activities that support individual and group goals guided by supportive interaction and relationships Planning and Curriculum Goals Deciding what should be done to promote development and what we want children to learn • Needs Identification & Prioritization • Planning (Strategy/Indicators) Research-based Early Literacy Content Areas • Oral Language (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Vocabulary (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Phonological Awareness (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Alphabet Knowledge (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Concepts about Print (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Writing (WMELS C. Early Literacy) National guidance • Evidence suggests early abilities in Alphabetic Knowledge (AK) and Phonological Awareness (PA) - strong predictors of later reading and writing skills • Evidence suggests a strong-to-moderate relationship with Concepts about Print abilities and later literacy outcomes Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 2008 http://familieslearning.org/public/uploads/editor/files/nelp-report.pdf Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards (WMELS) Domain III. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION C. Early Literacy (2011 Update) C.EL.1 - Develops ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory parts of spoken language C.EL.2 - Understands that the alphabet represents sounds of spoken language and letters of written language C.EL.3 - Shows appreciation books and how print works Wisconsin Common Core State Standards – English Language Arts (CCSS-ELA) Connections • Reading Standards, K-5 • Speaking and Listening Standards, K-5 • Language Standards, K-5 For more info: http://standards.dpi.wi.gov/stn_ela-tchingandlrng General assessment guidance • Teacher-made checklists based on learning targets • Anecdotal notes • Photos/ Audio recordings • PALS-PreK • Child writing samples with observational notes (reflects child’s developmental levels of concepts of print, phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge) • PALS PreK: developmentally appropriate for 4‐year‐olds • Measures preschoolers’ developing knowledge of important literacy fundamentals: – – – – – name writing ability upper-case and lower-case alphabet recognition letter sound and beginning sound production print and word awareness rhyme awareness and nursery rhyme awareness • Provides guidance to teachers for tailoring instruction to children’s specific needs • Reflects skills that are predictive of future reading success Phonological Awareness • Hearing and understanding the different sounds of a spoken language • Ability to hear, identify and manipulate individual sounds in words (phonemic awareness) Source: http://www.earlyyearsliteracy.com/uploads/4/2/5/4/42 54519/phonological-awareness.gif Phonological Awareness Continuum of Development Develops along a continuum of complexity • • • • Babies enjoy listening to adult speech Begin to imitate speech sounds Repeat words Toddlers join in to sing songs, rhymes, “fingerplays” led by an adult Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php Phonological Awareness Continuum of Development • Preschoolers begin to recognize spoken words that rhyme • Recognize sounds that match and words that begin with the same sound (alliteration) • Begin to generate words that rhyme Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php Phonological Awareness Continuum of Development • Begins to identify syllables in words (i.e. – claps 2x for “Bob-by”) • Can tell the number of syllables heard in a word/name • Identifies the “rime” in a set of words (i.e. – dad, sad, mad, bad all have /ad/ ) • Begins to recognize blends (/st/, /sn/ ) and diagraphs (/th/, /ch/) Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php Phonological Awareness: Phonemic Awareness PA Task Example Compare or match sounds in words Which word does not begin with /h/? hat, hair, wind, house Isolate and pronounce separate speech sounds Say the last sound in rich. Put words together from their separate sounds (blending) /sh/ /ou/ /t/ - Say it fast. (shout) Break words apart into their component phonemes (segmentation) Say the sounds in crash. (/k/, /r/, /a/, /sh/) Add, change, or delete phonemes from words (phoneme manipulation) Say heart. Change /t/ to /d/. What’s the new word? (hard) Glaser, D. , & Moats, L.C. (2008). An introduction to language and literacy. Boston: Sopris West. Phonological Awareness Supports • Oral language activities are foundational -> songs & fingerplays -> nursery rhymes -> storytelling -> listening activities/games -> listening centers -> rhythm activities, clapping • Rhyming words picture matching games National guidance Assessment and instructional activities should occur within a child’s developmental level along the developmental continuum of Phonological Awareness Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 2008 http://familieslearning.org/public/uploads/editor/files/nelp-report.pdf Informal assessment example Rhyming Words Scenario • Day 1 - teach rhyming words through read aloud activity using dialogic reading strategies • Day 2 – during choice time - small group activity lead by teacher: rhyming match bingo game (can use for targeted group and for all children in mixed groups) • Assessment: observational data and rating scale with rubric Informal assessment example Rhyming Words Target: With a verbal prompt, “find the picture that rhymes with ____”, the child will identify the rhyming word on a game card with 100% accuracy. Rating Scale: 0-does not; 1- with assistance; 2- more than 50%; 3-100% Name Date: 11/15 Date: 11/21 Date: 12/4 Ann 1 2 3 Kyle 1 1 1 Jose 2 2 3 Date: Alphabet Knowledge • Names of letters and their sounds • Includes “alphabetic principle” – => letters have specific sounds => a letter is a symbol => symbols grouped together form words => strings of words form sentences with with communicative intent Alphabet Knowledge • • • • MORE than reciting or singing the ABCs Predictive of later success in learning to read Requires visual discrimination and memory Letters in own name most relevant Joe Alphabet Knowledge Continuum • Explores, repeats, imitates alphabet related songs and games • Recognizes the difference between letters and other symbols • Recognizes letters and their sounds in familiar words, especially in own name Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php Alphabet Knowledge Continuum • Makes some letter/sound connections and identifies some beginning sounds • Uses a combination of letter sounds, familiar environmental print, and picture cues to recognize a printed word • Recognizes that most speech sounds are represented by single letter symbols Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php Alphabet Knowledge Continuum • Begins to sound out words (decoding) • Recognizes and names all letters of the alphabet • Reads familiar “decodable” words and some irregular words Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php “Own Name Advantage” Evidence suggests connecting names and sounds of alphabet letters to children’s names is an effective way to introduce the alphabet. Displaying children’s photos, their names in print, and photos of their families, adds to literacy as well as creating a warm, welcoming environment. Alphabet Knowledge Supports Exposure to Print Rich Environments • Labels • Name labels • Labels with pictures • Environmental print • Word walls • ABC books, puzzles, magnetic letters Research suggests … • No research support for “letter of the day/week” approach • No best order to introduce letters • Evidence supports “own name advantage” Schickedanz, J.A. & Collins, M.F. So Much More than the ABCs, NAEYC, Washington, DC., 2013 Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. Literacy Beginnings: A Prekindergarten Handbook, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH, 2011 Teaching Letters • Learn to see unique features of each letter (lines, curves, circles) • Short but intentional mini-lessons throughout the day • Shared writing, daily message – functional opportunities to teach letters Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. Literacy Beginnings: A Prekindergarten Handbook, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH, 2011 Concepts about Print • Understanding of how print works; its functions • Spoken words can be written on paper • Carries a message to the reader • Pictures and words are different things, but both convey messages • Letters form words, words form sentences Concepts about Print • • • • • • Books hold meaning Cover/front and back Left-right / Top-down Begin in the front on the left page Punctuation adds meaning Spaces between words are important New Awareness Emerges! I can … Think it Say it Write it Read it Concepts about Print Developmental Continuum • • • • • • • • Enjoys books, begins to point to & name pictures Understands that print has a message Views book front to back Knows a book has a title, author, and illustrator Recognizes some environmental print Understands top-bottom/left-to-right format Understands letters, words, sentences are different Knows books have characters, plots, sequences of events Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php “Print referencing” To increase a child’s attention to print • • • ask questions about the print seen on a page make a comment about the print seen on the page track under the print with your finger or a pointer as you read the words aloud Evidence suggests using these strategies can have a big impact on early literacy development Justice, L.M., & Sofka, A.E. Engaging Children with Print: Building Early Literacy Skills through Quality Read-Alouds, Guildford Press, New York, NY, 2010 Informal assessment example Concepts of Print 1.Develop questions/prompts (“Show me the (front/back) of the book”; “Where do I start to read on this page?”; “Point to a (upper/lower) case letter”; “What does this mark tell us?” (while pointing to ?., etc.)* 2. Create checklist – add date. Score +/name Front/ back upper case lower case where to start knows “?” Ann + + - + - Kyle + - - + - Jose + + + + + * Based on Concepts of Print test by Marie Clay, 1975 Activity Resources PALS Pre-K for Activities: https://pals.virginia.edu/tools-activities.html Read On Wisconsin! http://readon.education.wisc.edu/index.php/cat egory/age-group/preschool (infants & toddlers, too!) Double Focus! Highly effective teachers and caregivers… provide daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for the children they serve, and … engage families in providing daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for their own children! Winton, P.J., McCollum, J.A., & Catlett, C. Practical Approaches to Early Childhood Professional Development: Evidence, Strategies, & Resources. Zero to Three, Washington, DC., 2008 Wrap-up • Share a new concept or specific strategy you learned that you will use. • What questions do you still have about teaching early literacy?