Supporting
Language and
Early Literacy:
at Home
and in
Early Childhood
and Community Settings
Session 3:
Phonological Awareness,
Alphabet Knowledge, &
Concepts about Print
Your
…
• (insert your name/title here)
• Insert your co-presenter’s name/title here)
for this Session …
Participants will:
• Become familiar with standards that apply to the
development of Phonological Awareness,
Alphabet Knowledge, and Concepts about Print
• Define and describe these content areas and how
they develop
• Explore formal and informal types of assessment
• Describe strategies adults can use to support
development in these areas
for today’s Session
Check-in activity
Discussion in pairs or small groups:
• What do you hope to achieve by participating
in this session?
• What’s your expectation of the facilitator(s) in
this session?
Guidance from the Wisconsin
Department of Public Instruction:
• deliver content-rich curriculum with
challenging but achievable goals in ways that
honor and respect the unique learning needs
of young children
• Use a play-based curriculum to develop self
regulation, language, cognition, and social
competence
• Core or universal curriculum should include
support for all developmental domains and
content areas as described in the WMELS
The Wisconsin Model for Response to Intervention: Applications in Early Childhood Settings. WI Dept. of Public
instruction, June 2012 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/curriculum-assessment-rtl-for-preschool.php
Dual Language Learners (DLLs)
“Children, birth to 5, who are learning 2 or more
languages at the same time, as well as those
learning a second language (English) while
continuing to develop their home or first language.”
Reinl, R. Language in Play: Introduction to the Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards,
Webinar 2013 www.wida.us/EarlyYears
• Universal practices, the foundation for meeting
the needs of all children, includes differentiated
instruction
• Adaptations and modifications to
meet the needs of individual children
essential – it’s Developmentally
Appropriate Practice (DAP)!
Dual Language Learners (DLLs)
For guidance and support for serving DLLs, refer to
the following resources:
• WIDA Early Years
www.wida.us/EarlyYears
• Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners
Serving Dual Language Learners Facts and Tips:
http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/dual-languagelearners-facts-and-tips.php
• Office of Head Start
Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center
https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic
Exposure to print, books, and
read alouds are important, but
not enough to prepare children
to become readers and writers.
 Intentional teaching - using shared (dialogic)
reading, shared writing, and multiple opportunities
to interact with writing, letters, sounds, and
spoken words - is necessary.
 Children might also need some explicit
developmentally appropriate instruction to learn
vocabulary, phonological awareness, the alphabet,
and print concepts.
WISCONSIN MODEL EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS
Teaching Cycle
Assessment
Gathering information to determine what the child
can do and what the child is ready to learn
• Data Collection
• Data Analysis
Implementation
Providing meaningful,
experiential activities that
support individual and group
goals guided by supportive
interaction and relationships
Planning and Curriculum Goals
Deciding what should be done to
promote development and what we
want children to learn
• Needs Identification & Prioritization
• Planning (Strategy/Indicators)
Research-based Early Literacy Content Areas
• Oral Language
(WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking &
Communicating)
•
Vocabulary
(WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking &
Communicating)
• Phonological Awareness
(WMELS C. Early Literacy)
• Alphabet Knowledge
(WMELS C. Early Literacy)
• Concepts about Print
(WMELS C. Early Literacy)
•
Writing
(WMELS C. Early Literacy)
National guidance
• Evidence suggests early abilities in Alphabetic
Knowledge (AK) and Phonological Awareness
(PA) - strong predictors of later reading and
writing skills
• Evidence suggests a strong-to-moderate
relationship with Concepts about Print
abilities and later literacy outcomes
Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 2008
http://familieslearning.org/public/uploads/editor/files/nelp-report.pdf
Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards
(WMELS)
Domain III. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
AND COMMUNICATION
C. Early Literacy (2011 Update)
C.EL.1 - Develops ability to detect, manipulate,
or analyze the auditory parts of spoken language
C.EL.2 - Understands that the alphabet
represents sounds of spoken language and
letters of written language
C.EL.3 - Shows appreciation books and how print
works
Wisconsin Common Core State Standards –
English Language Arts (CCSS-ELA)
Connections
• Reading Standards, K-5
• Speaking and Listening Standards, K-5
• Language Standards, K-5
For more info:
http://standards.dpi.wi.gov/stn_ela-tchingandlrng
General assessment guidance
• Teacher-made checklists based on learning
targets
• Anecdotal notes
• Photos/ Audio recordings
• PALS-PreK
• Child writing samples with observational
notes (reflects child’s developmental levels of
concepts of print, phonological awareness and
alphabetic knowledge)
• PALS PreK: developmentally appropriate for 4‐year‐olds
• Measures preschoolers’ developing knowledge of
important literacy fundamentals:
–
–
–
–
–
name writing ability
upper-case and lower-case alphabet recognition
letter sound and beginning sound production
print and word awareness
rhyme awareness and nursery rhyme awareness
• Provides guidance to teachers for tailoring instruction to
children’s specific needs
• Reflects skills that are predictive of future reading success
Phonological Awareness
• Hearing and understanding the different
sounds of a spoken language
• Ability to hear, identify and manipulate
individual sounds in words (phonemic
awareness)
Source:
http://www.earlyyearsliteracy.com/uploads/4/2/5/4/42
54519/phonological-awareness.gif
Phonological Awareness
Continuum of Development
Develops along a continuum of complexity
•
•
•
•
Babies enjoy listening to adult speech
Begin to imitate speech sounds
Repeat words
Toddlers join in to sing songs, rhymes, “fingerplays”
led by an adult
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI,
2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
Phonological Awareness
Continuum of Development
• Preschoolers begin to recognize spoken words
that rhyme
• Recognize sounds that match and words that
begin with the same sound (alliteration)
• Begin to generate words that rhyme
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013
http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
Phonological Awareness
Continuum of Development
• Begins to identify syllables in words (i.e. – claps
2x for “Bob-by”)
• Can tell the number of syllables heard in a
word/name
• Identifies the “rime” in a set of words (i.e. – dad,
sad, mad, bad all have /ad/ )
• Begins to recognize blends (/st/, /sn/ ) and
diagraphs (/th/, /ch/)
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI,
2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
Phonological Awareness:
Phonemic Awareness
PA Task
Example
Compare or match sounds in words
Which word does not begin with /h/?
hat, hair, wind, house
Isolate and pronounce separate
speech sounds
Say the last sound in rich.
Put words together from their
separate sounds (blending)
/sh/ /ou/ /t/ - Say it fast. (shout)
Break words apart into their
component phonemes
(segmentation)
Say the sounds in crash.
(/k/, /r/, /a/, /sh/)
Add, change, or delete phonemes
from words (phoneme manipulation)
Say heart. Change /t/ to /d/. What’s
the new word? (hard)
Glaser, D. , & Moats, L.C. (2008). An introduction to language and literacy. Boston:
Sopris West.
Phonological Awareness Supports
• Oral language activities are foundational
-> songs & fingerplays
-> nursery rhymes
-> storytelling
-> listening activities/games
-> listening centers
-> rhythm activities, clapping
• Rhyming words picture matching games
National guidance
Assessment and instructional activities
should occur within a child’s
developmental level along the
developmental continuum of
Phonological Awareness
Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 2008
http://familieslearning.org/public/uploads/editor/files/nelp-report.pdf
Informal assessment example
Rhyming Words Scenario
• Day 1 - teach rhyming words through
read aloud activity using dialogic
reading strategies
• Day 2 – during choice time - small group
activity lead by teacher: rhyming match
bingo game (can use for targeted group
and for all children in mixed groups)
• Assessment: observational data and
rating scale with rubric
Informal assessment example
Rhyming Words
Target: With a verbal prompt, “find the picture that
rhymes with ____”, the child will identify the rhyming
word on a game card with 100% accuracy.
Rating Scale: 0-does not; 1- with assistance; 2- more
than 50%; 3-100%
Name
Date: 11/15
Date:
11/21
Date:
12/4
Ann
1
2
3
Kyle
1
1
1
Jose
2
2
3
Date:
Alphabet Knowledge
• Names of letters and their sounds
• Includes “alphabetic principle” –
=> letters have specific sounds
=> a letter is a symbol
=> symbols grouped together form
words
=> strings of words form sentences
with
with communicative intent
Alphabet Knowledge
•
•
•
•
MORE than reciting or singing the ABCs
Predictive of later success in learning to read
Requires visual discrimination and memory
Letters in own name most relevant
Joe
Alphabet Knowledge Continuum
• Explores, repeats, imitates alphabet related
songs and games
• Recognizes the difference between letters and
other symbols
• Recognizes letters and their sounds
in familiar words, especially in own name
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction,
Madison, WI, 2013 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
Alphabet Knowledge Continuum
• Makes some letter/sound connections and
identifies some beginning sounds
• Uses a combination of letter sounds, familiar
environmental print, and picture cues to
recognize a printed word
• Recognizes that most speech sounds are
represented by single letter symbols
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013
http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
Alphabet Knowledge Continuum
• Begins to sound out words (decoding)
• Recognizes and names all letters of the
alphabet
• Reads familiar “decodable” words and some
irregular words
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013
http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
“Own Name Advantage”
Evidence suggests
connecting names and
sounds of alphabet letters to
children’s names is an
effective way to introduce
the alphabet.
Displaying children’s photos, their
names in print, and photos of their
families, adds to literacy as well as
creating a warm, welcoming
environment.
Alphabet Knowledge Supports
Exposure to Print Rich Environments
• Labels
• Name labels
• Labels with pictures
• Environmental print
• Word walls
• ABC books, puzzles, magnetic letters
Research suggests …
• No research support for “letter of the
day/week” approach
• No best order to introduce letters
• Evidence supports “own name advantage”
Schickedanz, J.A. & Collins, M.F. So Much More than the ABCs, NAEYC, Washington, DC., 2013
Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. Literacy Beginnings: A Prekindergarten Handbook, Heinemann,
Portsmouth, NH, 2011
Teaching Letters
• Learn to see unique features of each letter
(lines, curves, circles)
• Short but intentional mini-lessons throughout
the day
• Shared writing, daily message – functional
opportunities to teach letters
Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. Literacy Beginnings: A Prekindergarten Handbook, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH,
2011
Concepts about Print
• Understanding of how print works; its
functions
• Spoken words can be written on paper
• Carries a message to the reader
• Pictures and words are different things, but
both convey messages
• Letters form words, words form sentences
Concepts about Print
•
•
•
•
•
•
Books hold meaning
Cover/front and back
Left-right / Top-down
Begin in the front on the left page
Punctuation adds meaning
Spaces between words are important
New Awareness Emerges!
I can …
Think it
Say it
Write it
Read it
Concepts about Print
Developmental Continuum
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enjoys books, begins to point to & name pictures
Understands that print has a message
Views book front to back
Knows a book has a title, author, and illustrator
Recognizes some environmental print
Understands top-bottom/left-to-right format
Understands letters, words, sentences are different
Knows books have characters, plots, sequences of
events
Source: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards, 4th Ed., WI Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 2013
http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/wmels-about.php
“Print referencing”
To increase a child’s attention to print
•
•
•
ask questions about the print seen on a page
make a comment about the print seen on the page
track under the print with your finger or a pointer as
you read the words aloud
Evidence suggests using these strategies can
have a big impact on early literacy development
Justice, L.M., & Sofka, A.E. Engaging Children with Print: Building Early Literacy Skills through Quality Read-Alouds,
Guildford Press, New York, NY, 2010
Informal assessment example
Concepts of Print
1.Develop questions/prompts (“Show me the
(front/back) of the book”; “Where do I start to
read on this page?”; “Point to a (upper/lower)
case letter”; “What does this mark tell us?”
(while pointing to ?., etc.)*
2. Create checklist – add date. Score +/name
Front/
back
upper
case
lower
case
where to start
knows “?”
Ann
+
+
-
+
-
Kyle
+
-
-
+
-
Jose
+
+
+
+
+
* Based on Concepts of Print test by Marie Clay, 1975
Activity Resources
PALS Pre-K for Activities:
https://pals.virginia.edu/tools-activities.html
Read On Wisconsin!
http://readon.education.wisc.edu/index.php/cat
egory/age-group/preschool (infants & toddlers, too!)
Double Focus!
Highly effective teachers and caregivers…
provide daily, intentional language and early
literacy learning opportunities for the children they serve,
and …
engage families in providing daily, intentional
language and early literacy learning opportunities for their
own children!
Winton, P.J., McCollum, J.A., & Catlett, C. Practical Approaches to Early Childhood Professional Development: Evidence,
Strategies, & Resources. Zero to Three, Washington, DC., 2008
Wrap-up
• Share a new concept or specific strategy you
learned that you will use.
• What questions do you still have about
teaching early literacy?
Descargar

Your - Collaborating Partners