Sudan: In Search of a
Nation
Roberta Ann Dunbar
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
For Bridges and Barriers Workshop
State Department of Public Instruction
Raleigh, NC--July 12, 2006
(the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some
revisions due to accessibility)
1
Overview
Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley
 Sudan—Physical and Human Resources

– Socio-Economic Indicators
Nineteenth and 20th Centuries
 Themes of the Independence Era 1956Present
 Civil Conflicts and the Search for Peace

2
The Ancient Nile Valley
The Legacy of Human Diversity
 A New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic
groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and
Libyans

Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms
of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts
1992, 15-17
3
http://www.snaithprimary.eril.net/eg11.ht
m
 http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/tom
bofhuy.html

Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of
Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts
1991, 14-15.
4
Nubian Queens

Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms
of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts
1992, p. 16
Queen
Kemsit—
Nubian
Queen of
Mentuhotep
II, 20611010 B. C.
5
Kush and the

th
25
Dynasty
The Sphinx of
Taharqa 690-664
B. C. from the
Temple I at Kawa
http://www.livius.org/pha-phd/pharaoh/pharaoh.htm 10th image down
Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press 1001,
Cover
6
Queen Malakaye
A Kushitic queen of
the early 6th century.
 Women of the ruling
class held high status
in the Kush Kingdom.
 During the later
phase of the empire
in Meroe, some
queens were joint
rulers.

Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms
of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts
1992, p. 31.

http://www.mfa.org/c
ollections/search_art.
asp?recview=true&id
=142605
7
Sudan Political Map

http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/ma
p/profile/sudan.pdf
8
Physical and Human Resources





About ¼ size of
United States
Largest country
territorially
Savannah Grasslands
to South—Seasonal
Rains April-November
Desert to the north
Confluence of Blue
and White Nile
National Geographic 203, 2 (February
2003). Map., 39
http://magma.nationa
lgeographic.com/ngm
/0302/feature2/
Scroll down to map and
click to enlarge.
Option to download
printable map

9
Major Socio-economic Indicators
Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.)
growing at 2.55%/year
 Life Expectancy: 57.69 yrs for men; 60.21
years for women
 Infant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live
births
 Total fertility rate: 4.72 children
born/woman

http://www.cialgov/cia/publications/fact
book/geos/su.html
10
Cultural Features of Sudan

Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples.
– Arabs. 40% of population (1990). Divided
between jaali (riverine, sedentary people) and
juhayna (nomads).
– Nubians. Largely dispersed by the
construction of Aswan dam.
– Beja. Cushitic speaking people now largely
Arabized
– Fur. Agricultural people of the Jabal Marrah
11
Peoples of Northern Sudan
http://www.globalsec
urity.org/military/worl
d/para/beja.htm
Map and person

Beja of the Sudan Coastal Region
http://home.planet.nl/
~ende0098/
 Tremendous variety of
images – warning:
one on the home
page is inappropriate
for students

Nuba Mountain People
12
Cultural Features of Sudan

Muslim Peoples (con’t).
– Zaghawa. Herding and gathering populations
north of the Fur
– Masalit, Daju, and Berti. Cultivators speaking
Nilo-Saharan languages
– West Africans. Largely Bornuan or Fulani in
origin, constituted in 1990 6.5% of Sudanese
population.
13
Cultural Features of Sudan

Non-Muslim Peoples
– Nilotes. 3/5 of population of southern Sudan
(1990).
 Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups.
 Nuer
 Shilluk
– Bari, Kuku, Kadwa, Mandari. South and East
of other Nilotes, although Bari and Mandari
closely related to them.
14
Two Principal Groups of Southern
Sudan

http://www.dlib.indiana.e
du/collections/nuer/slides
/full/027.jpg
Nuer

http://www.usaid.gov/our
_work/crosscutting_programs/transiti
on_initiatives/country/sud
an/cattle.jpg
Dinka and Cattle
15
Cultural Features of Sudan

Non-Muslim Peoples (cont).
– Murle, Didinga and others.
– Azande. Western al-Istiwal and Bahr al Ghaza
and constituting 8% of population of southern
Sudan
– Bviri and Ndogo. Southwestern Sudan
speaking languages close to Azande.
– Nuba. Cultivators of Nuba Mountains of
southern Kurdofan
16
Economy
Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP):
$2,100 (2005 est.)
 GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.)
 Composition of GDP

– Agriculture 38.7% (80% of workforce)
– Industry 20.3 % (7% of workforce)
– Services 41% (13% of workforce)

Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002)
17
Economy

Exports
– Oil and petroleum products
– Cotton
– Sesame
– Livestock
– Groundnuts
– Gum Arabic and Sugar

Export Partners: China (66.9%), Japan
(10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004)
18
Economy

Imports
– Foodstuffs
– Manufactured goods
– Refinery and Transport equipment

Import Partners: China (13%); Saudi
Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt
(5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%);
Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004)
19
Petroleum
Insert map of oil
fields and pipeline to
the Red Sea
http://www.lib.utexas.e
du/maps/africa/sudan
_oil_usaid_2001.pdf


http://www.sudan.net
/graphic/news/people
/bashier_oil_garang_s
oldier.jpg
20
Petroleum
Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan
in 1978.
 First exported in 1999
 Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bbl
 Oil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005)
 Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004)
 Natural Gas Proved Reserves: 84.95 billion
cu m (2005) but none is being produced.

21
Petroleum
In 2005, Sudan had become the 7th
largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria,
Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and
Equatorial Guinea
 In June 2006, Nigeria, the only African
country in OPEC and holder of group’s
presidency invited Angola and Sudan to
join OPEC.
 OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global
oil production.

22
Political History 19th & 20th
Centuries

Era of the Turkiyya under
Muhammad Ali
– Modernization of the
Egyptian state
– Institutionalization of slave
raiding that penetrated
areas of Middle and Upper
Nile

http://www.dignubia.
org/maps/timeline/im
g/c1820-slavers.jpg
 At first a state monopoly,
then licenses to
commercial merchants
who wreaked havoc on
areas to the south
Egyptian Slavers ca
1820 (link is slavers of
the 19th century)
23
History of Sudan

1884-1898—The Mahdiya
Islamist State
– The Mahdi succeeded by Khalifa
Abdullahi Ibn Muhammad.
– With help of Baggara, attempted
expansion into Ethiopia
24
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Lord Herbert
Kitchener conquers
Khartoum and defeats
the Mahdist State in
1898

Image of Lord
Herbert
http://www.countrydata.com/frd/cs/suda
n/sd01_05a.jpg
Courtesy of Robert O. Collins
25
Britain’s Southern Policy
Close off the South to northern
merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim
clerics
 Rely on Christian missions for education
and civil services
 Focus on development of cotton as cash
crop through the al-Gezira scheme

26
Key Political Figures of Northern
Sudan 1956-2005
General Ibrahim Abboud
 Hassan al Turabi
 Jaffar Nimeiri
 Sadiq al-Mahdi
 Muhammad al-Mirghani
 Ali Osman Taha
 Omar al-Bashir


< see Sudan Readings and Bibliography for images of each of
these>
27
The South After Independence

Agreements made at time
of independence led
many southerners to fear
northern domination both
politically and culturally
– Arabic official language
– Bureaucratic positions open
to northerners
– Consolidation of military
under northern command—
led to first signs of
rebellion

Image of Sudan’s flag
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://
unimaps.com/flags-africa/sudanflag.gif&imgrefurl=http://unimaps.com/flags
-africa/sudanprint2.html&h=599&w=900&sz=10&hl=en&
start=9&tbnid=4NhCIjaH0t9FoM:&tbnh=96
&tbnw=145&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSudan
%2BFlag%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%
26lr%3D
28
Era of First Civil War

1955-1972 of northern hegemony following the
opening up of the south
– 1963. Emergence of Anya Nya as force to be
contended with because of military support from
outside.
– Despite considerable military assistance to
Government of Sudan, no victory over south seemed
possible
– Continued instability in north because of failure to
resolve this crisis
– Nimeiri’s government reached peace accord with Anya
Nya in 1972
29
Second War in the South

1983-1994
– Declaration of SPLM/A as movement to
achieve autonomy for southern Sudan
– 1994 Cukudum Conference. First attempts to
establish formal judicial system to work with
local elders
– Established National Congress, National
Leadership Council, and National Executive
Council
30
Second War in the South
SPLM/A persisted as weak governance structure
in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalries—
especially between the Dinka who dominate
SPLM/A
 John Garang remained dominant in both military
and civil affairs
 1997 attempt to draft constitution for Southern
Sudan unable to bridge gap between
accountability and Garang’s power.

31
Issues in Southern Politics




Lack of a sound ideology of
governance within the SPLM/A
reinforced militaristic nature of
Garang’s rule
Ethiopian support ended in
1991
Split between Nuer under Riek

Machar of Sudan Peoples
Defence Forces (SPDF) and
SPLM/A
January 2002—reintegration
of SPDF with SPLM/A
Image of John Garang
http://www.un.org/av/rad
io/unandafrica/images/jo
hn%20garang%20sm.jpg
John Garang
Image of Riek Machar
http://www.sudantribune.
com/IMG/jpg/Riek_Macha
r_3-2.jpg
Riek Machar
32
Comprehensive Peace Agreement
(CPA)—January 9, 2005
Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental
Authority on Development (IGAD)
sponsored peace negotiations.
 Formal peace process began in 2002 with
additional support of the United States,
the United Kingdom and Norway.

33
Comprehensive Peace Agreement—
January 9, 2005
Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for
interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a
referendum in the South will decide whether or not to
secede.
 During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan
(GoSS) will be autonomous.
 President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU.
 Integrated military of 39,000
 Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and south
 Jobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration
and in the transitional areas.
 Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan.

34
SPLM Challenges



Untimely Death of John
Garang in July 2005.
Succeeded by Salva Kiir,
former military
commander without
diplomatic skills and
contacts of Garang
SPLM must develop a
program to implement
peace, and to expand
political alliances

Image of John Garang
35
The Tragedy of Darfur



Ancient History of close
and amicable relations
between Arab nomads
and African cultivators
Famous Sultanate of Fur
a preeminent power in
central Sudan in 19th
Century
Hakura system of feudal
land grants given to
followers who then had
access to collection of
dues from population.
Map of Dafur within
Sudan destroyed
villages
http://www.lib.utexas.e
du/maps/africa/darfur
_villages_0802_2004.j
pg

36
Darfur


Image of Jebel ….
http://www.sudansite.co
m/images/West_pics/Jeb
el_Mara_volcano_large.jp
g
The region
incorporated
into the
Mahdist state
and then into
the AngloEgyptian Sudan
where it
remained a
backwater
Photo of Jebel Marra, a
volcanic massif in Darfur
37
Darfur
Today region has
population of ca 6
million
 Population before the
war was relatively
poor
 Historically, both
nomads and
cultivators would
migrate

http://www.sudansite.com/images/West_pi
cs/jebel_marra3_large.jpg
The Jebel Marra—at 8,000
ft, an important area of
rich land of fields, orchards
and pastures
38
Darfur
Map of Darfur
http://rightsmaps.com/h
tml/sudmap1.html




Darfurians are
predominantly Muslim
Many, like Ali al Haj
Mohamed—a Bornuan,
ran as an Islamist for
governship of Darfur but
was defeated.
In 1994, when he was
Minister of Federal
Affairs, he divided up
Darfur into the three
states of today in hope
that Islamists candidates
might succeed.
39
Darfur

Ecological pressures first in 1960s, then in
1980s—population pressures and drought
meant that cultivators closed off some of
the nomads migration routes in order to
protect their fields.

Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of
the country for work—many to Libya
40
Darfur
By late 1980s, a group that came to be
called the Arab Gathering formed close
ties with Muammar Gaddafi of Libya and
began a critique of the central government
for its neglect.
 Their ideology exhibited a racist
preference for “pure Arabs”, the Juhayna,
in opposition to the riverine groups that
controlled the government

41
Darfur-1990s
Following coup of Gen Omar Bashir in
1989, the government sought to
strengthen ties to the Arab World and in
Darfur—to expand the position of Arabs by
a proliferation of administrative titles that
were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs.
 Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were
disarmed and youth sent to fight against
the south.

42
Darfur Arabs in 1990s
Musa Hilal emerges
as important leader of
the Abbala Arabs in
the north from his
base in Misteriha
 By 2000, both
helicopters and
weapons were
amassed there.


Image of Musa Hilal
http://hrw.org/images
/050205musa.jpg
43
Darfur—Origins of Sudan Liberation
Army

1996. Setting up of a secret organization
in Khartoum by men who were to be
important to SLA:
– Abdel Wahid Mohamed al Nur, the first
chairman of SLA
– Ahmad Abdel Shafi, SLA’s first coordinator
– Abdu Abdalla Ismail, SLA’s first representative
to the Ceasefire Commission set up under the
African Union
44
Origins of SLA
Began to raise money and arms—explicitly in
response to the threats made in Arab Gathering
statements about killing all Blacks;
 1997. Had their first meeting with self-defense
groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the
mobilization of the area around Jebel Marra
http://www.iansa.org/images/front-page/slatroops-darfur.jpg possible image of troops

45
Early Days of SLA
1997-2002: Worked to expand ties with
Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming
under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs.
 August 2002. Leadership conference to elect
officers military commanders
 January-March 2003. First meetings between
SLA and SPLA
 By 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur,
Zaghawa and Masalit

http://www.sudan.net/graphic/news/conflict
/darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpg troops image
46
Darfur and Justice and Equality
Movement (JEM)
1993-1997. Formation
of secret cells to
discuss reform of the
National Islamic Front
 Decision taken to
educate ordinary
Sudanese—organized
to conduct research


Image of dr. Khalil
Ibrahim
http://www.sudantrib
une.com/IMG/jpg/Kha
lil_Ibrahim_dr1.jpg
Dr. Khalil Ibrahim—member
of founding group
47
Recollections of conditions that
motivated their actions
From an interview with Abubaker Hamid Nur
There was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary
school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate
school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and
1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to
speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave
us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the
day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum
province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor
and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less
than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no
way of communicating with the international community to ask for help.
Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and
De Waal, Darfur. 2005, 92-93.
48
JEM Philosophy
Believed that the problems of Darfur require
national solutions
 2003 a 5-Point Manifesto

– Unified Sudan
– Justice and equality
– Constitutional reform guaranteeing rights to the
regions
– Basic services for Sudanese
– Equitable development of economy and human
services throughout the country.
49
The War in Darfur 2003-2005
SLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with
great success in 2003
 By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur
and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid
 2004. Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who
had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led
assaults on villages throughout the region at
same time that negotiations were on-going with
the United Nations and the African Union

50
The War in Darfur--2005
By 2005—nearly 2 million driven into
camps inside Darfur
 200,000 had fled to Chad
 Janjawiid operated with full support of
Sudan Defence Forces, the Air Force, and
the State Security.
 The Arab Gathering could operate
independently of Khartoum

http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/alert/darfur/steidle/ Series of images and account by
an American observer
51
International Agents
The African Union
 April 2004. First discussion of situation in
Darfur at meeting of AU’s Peace and
Security Council meeting
 Humanitarian ceasefire agreement signed
in N’Djamena calling on Sudan
government to neutralise the armed
militias

http://eur.news1.yimg.com/eur.yimg.com/xp/reuters_molt/2278372575.jpg image of
African Union Soldiers/observers
52
International Agents
The United States
 June 2004. U. S. Congress passed
resolution describing Darfur as genocide
 September 2004. U. S. Secretary of State
Colin Powell testified before the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee that
genocide had occurred in Sudan.

http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=11585 image Of US Sec’y of State
Colin Powell testifying about genocide in Darfur
53
International Agents

United Nations.
– June 2004. UN Security Council Resolution 1556:
 Disarm Janjawiid
 Arrest leaders
 Allow access to humanitarian assistance
– September 2004. UN Security Council Resolution 1564
 Mandate of International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur
(ICID) to investigate human rights and to determine if
genocide had occurred.
– January 2005-Report of ICID
54
Agreements for Peace in Darfur


2005, July. Government
of Sudan, SLA/M and JEM
sign Declaration of
Principles in Abuja
2006, May 5. Signing of
Darfur Peace Agreement
in Abuja by Government
of Sudan (largely
represented by the
National Congress Party);
and a faction of the
Sudan Liberation Army
under Minni Arkou Minawi
(SLA/MM

Image of Minnie
Arkou Minawi
http://www.sudantrib
une.com/IMG/jpg/Min
ni_Arcua_Minnawi_sp
eaks_.jpg
Minni Arkou Minawi
55
The Darfur Peace Agreement

Political cartoon of
man labeled Sudan
watering a desert
flower
http://www.aljazeerah
.info/Cartoons/2003%
20cartoons/cartoon%
20negatives/2003/De
cember/ar10.jpg by
Al-Jazeerah

Three Protocols
– Security
Arrangements
– Power Sharing
– Wealth Sharing
– Darfur-Darfur
Dialogue and
Consultation
56
Sources










Africa, Justice. “Sudan: Prospects for Peace” In Review of African Political
Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 489-497.
Compare InfoBase Pvt Ltd. Sudan Political Map.
http://mapsofworld.com/sudan/sudan-political-map.html
Flint, Julie and Alex De Waal. Darfur. 2005.
International Crisis Group. “Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long
Road Ahead” Africa Report No 106, 31 March 2006. Seen at
http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4179&l=1 (June 29, 2006).
International Crisis Group. “Darfur’s Fragile Peace Agreement”. Africa Policy
Briefing No. 39. Nairobi/Brussels June 20, 2006 acceessed via
http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4179&l=1 (June 29, 2006)
Library of Congress Country Study on Sudan. http://countrystudies.us
Mohammed, Adan Azain. “Women and Conflict in Darfur” In Review of African
Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 479-481.
Rone, Jemera. Sudan: Oil and War” In Review of African Political Economy 97,
30 (September 2003), 504-510.
Salopek, Paul. “Shattered Sudan. Drilling for Oil Hoping for Peace.” National
Geographic February 2003,30-67.
Young, John. “Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militias
and Peace” In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),
423-434.
57
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